Advances in Surface Treatment and Coating Technology of Metallic Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 6247

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ehrenbergstraße 29, 98693 Ilmenau, Germany
Interests: fundamental and applied aspects of electrochemistry, electroplating from aqueous and organic media, as well as from ionic liquids; refractory metals; reactive metals; conducting polymers; magnetic materials; dispersion coatings; electrochemical surface technology and corrosion

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Guest Editor
Centre for Surface Science and Nanotechnology, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: electrochemical processes and technologies; electrodeposition of metals and alloys in aqueous and ionic- liquids basedliquid-based electrolytes; chemical surface treatments; corrosion and corrosion protection; anodization; valve metals; nanoparticles and nanowires synthesis involving electrochemical procedures; composite coatings with carbon nanomaterials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue on “Advances in Surface Treatment and Coating Technology of Metallic Materials”.

The development and promotion of novel and improved surface treatments and coatings significantly contribute to new functionalities of metallic materials, in close correlation with their use in various industrial sectors.

Usually, a large range of processes are successfully involved to produce the surface finishing of metals and alloys, including chemical and electrochemical polishing, dip and conversion coatings, electroless and electrochemical plating, surface modification using high-energy and particle beams (laser surface processing and ion implantation), vacuum and controlled atmosphere coatings, etc.

Innovative technological procedures and optimization of the traditional ones are continuously reported, also considering the almost endless types of metallic materials involved in different applications.

New concepts, the need for use of more eco-friendly and benign processing, able to comply with current legislation, novel applications, and developments in the field of nanostructured materials for the next generation of miniaturized devices make scientific research on this topic very attractive.

A plethora of functional characteristics can be developed through metal and alloy surface engineering, including physical, chemical, electrical, electronic, magnetic, mechanical, wear-resistant, and corrosion-resistant properties at the required substrate surfaces. Moreover, as the use of certain metallic materials for biomedical applications increases continuously, progress in the field of specific treatments to provide biocompatible characteristics is to be considered as well.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to publish original research articles and critical reviews on all aspects related to recent advances in the field of surface treatments and coatings applied to various metals and alloys to provide different functionalities. In addition, contributions related to the use of ionic liquids as more environmentally friendly replacements for more traditional surface treatments are welcome.

Dr. Adriana Ispas
Dr. Liana Anicai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • surface modification
  • chemical and electrochemical conversion treatments
  • electropolishing
  • anodization
  • electroless and electrochemical plating
  • laser cladding
  • plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)
  • vacuum plating
  • laser treatment
  • novel surface treatments involving ionic liquids

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 6561 KiB  
Article
The Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Aluminum Using Microsecond-Range DC Pulsing
by Kristina Mojsilović, Stevan Stojadinović and Rastko Vasilić
Metals 2023, 13(12), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13121931 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
This manuscript presents the results of our recent work focused on the plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum in a sodium tungstate solution using a microsecond-range pulsed DC signal. DC pulses of 50, 300 and 900 μs were followed by 5- and 25-times longer [...] Read more.
This manuscript presents the results of our recent work focused on the plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum in a sodium tungstate solution using a microsecond-range pulsed DC signal. DC pulses of 50, 300 and 900 μs were followed by 5- and 25-times longer pauses between the pulses, showing the effect of the pulse duration and duty cycle on the morphological, phase and chemical properties of formed oxide coatings. It is shown that all coatings are partially crystalline with gamma-alumina, WO3 and metallic W phases present in formed PEO coatings. A higher duty cycle value results in the higher crystallization of the obtained PEO coatings. Although the chemical composition of the obtained coatings is not very sensitive to processing parameters, their roughness and porosity change significantly, as well as their thickness. The photocatalytic activity and photoluminescence properties of the obtained coatings are dependent on their morphology and chemical composition, i.e., on the processing time. The highest photoactivity and photoluminescence intensity is observed for the coating formed with ton = 300 μs and toff = 25 ton. A comparable application potential is found for the sample processed with ton = 50 μs and toff = 25 ton, which requires considerably less energy for PEO processing. Full article
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14 pages, 4975 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Sm Content on the Surface Morphology and Corrosion Behavior of Zn-Co-Sm Composite Coatings
by Mihael Bučko, Stevan Stupar and Jelena B. Bajat
Metals 2023, 13(3), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030481 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
The influence of samarium, as an additional alloying element, on the morphology and corrosion performance of the Zn-Co-Sm alloy electrodeposited coatings, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The Zn-Co-Sm coatings [...] Read more.
The influence of samarium, as an additional alloying element, on the morphology and corrosion performance of the Zn-Co-Sm alloy electrodeposited coatings, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The Zn-Co-Sm coatings were electrodeposited from the aqueous solution containing Sm(NO3)3, ZnCl2, and CoCl2 as the metal ion source. The percentage of Sm in the coating may be very finely tuned by setting electrodeposition parameters, including cathodic current density, glycine concentration in the electroplating solution, and the solution temperature. The coatings with Sm content from 0.5 to 18.5 wt.% were produced. Since low deposition current densities (10–50 mA cm−2) were applied, the samples obtained were of good adhesion and compact. The presence of Sm2O3 inclusion was verified by XRD as the Sm2O3 crystalline phase. Samarium is incorporated in the coatings through the mechanism of oxide/hydroxide formation during the electroreduction of Zn and Co. Corrosion tests in NaCl solution show that the presence of Sm significantly increases the polarization resistance for the corrosion process of Zn-Co-Sm coatings (one order of magnitude, i.e., from ~500 Ω cm2 measured without Sm to 2000–3000 Ω cm2 with 12 wt.% Sm), giving evidence of the self-healing action that is provided by Sm particles in the coatings. This effect is more pronounced in the case when the coatings contain a higher Sm percentage. Full article
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15 pages, 7898 KiB  
Article
Binary Aluminum Alloys from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based Ionic Liquids for Cathodic Corrosion Protection
by Rene Böttcher, Adriana Ispas and Andreas Bund
Metals 2023, 13(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020377 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Aluminum cannot provide continuous cathodic corrosion protection under ambient conditions due to the formation of an insulating oxide layer and therefore it should be alloyed. Binary aluminum alloys with Cr, Zn and Sn from AlCl3/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) containing CrCl2, [...] Read more.
Aluminum cannot provide continuous cathodic corrosion protection under ambient conditions due to the formation of an insulating oxide layer and therefore it should be alloyed. Binary aluminum alloys with Cr, Zn and Sn from AlCl3/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) containing CrCl2, ZnCl2 or SnCl2 have been deposited and their morphology and composition were investigated using SEM/EDS. The corrosion behavior of alloys with 2–4 wt% Cr, Zn or Sn was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution, neutral salt spray test (NSS) and environmental exposure (EE). Pure aluminum provides excellent corrosion protection of steel in a chloride-containing environment, but not under ambient conditions. AlCr alloys show poor corrosion protection while AlZn alloys provide excellent corrosion protection in the NSS test and superior cathodic protection in the EE test compared to aluminum. AlSn alloys are highly active at even low tin contents and dissolve rapidly in chloride-containing electrolytes. However, a slightly improved cathodic protection in the EE test compared to pure aluminum has been observed. The results prove the necessity of alloying aluminum to achieve effective cathodic corrosion protection under mild atmospheric conditions. Full article
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23 pages, 6149 KiB  
Article
Electrodeposition of Tin-Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite from Deep Eutectic Solvents Based on Choline Chloride and Ethylene Glycol
by Stefania Costovici, Aida Pantazi, Danut Balan, Anca Cojocaru, Teodor Visan, Marius Enachescu and Liana Anicai
Metals 2023, 13(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020203 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Some experimental results regarding the direct electrodeposition of tin-reduced graphene oxide composite (Sn-rGO) compared to the electrodeposition of tin metal (Sn) from a deep eutectic solvent (DES), namely using choline chloride-ethylene glycol eutectic mixtures, are presented. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that GO is also [...] Read more.
Some experimental results regarding the direct electrodeposition of tin-reduced graphene oxide composite (Sn-rGO) compared to the electrodeposition of tin metal (Sn) from a deep eutectic solvent (DES), namely using choline chloride-ethylene glycol eutectic mixtures, are presented. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that GO is also reduced during the tin electrodeposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the presence of incorporated graphene related material in the composite film. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the presence of rGO in the deposit diminished preferred orientation of Sn growth along the planes (101), (211), (301), and (112). The analysis of current-time transients involving Scharifker & Hills model has shown that Sn-rGO composite deposition process corresponds to a nucleation and tridimensional growth controlled by diffusion, with nucleation evolving from progressive to instantaneous upon increasing the overpotential. Diffusion coefficients at 25 °C of 9.4 × 10−7 cm2 s−1 for Sn(II) species in the absence and of 14.1 × 10−7 cm2 s−1 in the presence of GO, were determined. The corrosion performance has been assessed through the analysis of the recorded potentiodynamic polarization curves and of the electrochemical impedance spectra during continuous immersion in aerated 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solution at 25 °C for 144 h. A slight improvement of the corrosion performance in the case of the Sn-rGO composite coatings was noticed, as compared to pure Sn ones. Furthermore, the solderability performance has been evaluated. The solder joints showed a proper adhesion to the substrate with no fractures, and wetting angles around 44° have been determined, suggesting adequate solderability characteristics. Full article
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