Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 10034

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, 75-453 Koszalin, Poland
Interests: plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO); micro arc oxidation (MAO); electropolishing (EP); magnetoelectropolishing (MEP); biomaterials (titanium, tantalum, niobium, and their alloys); surface characterization; XPS, GDOES, SEM, EDS; corrosion studies; 2D and 3D roughness measurements
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland
Interests: plastic treatment; burnishing rolling; surface characteristic; surface layer; modeling of technological processes; modeling of mechanical structures; Finite Element Method

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the surface treatments of metals and alloys allow obtaining on them the films or coatings with different physical and chemical properties from the substrate. The most often used surface modification methods are as follows electropolishing (EP, MEP) and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), also known as Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO), electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and ion implantation (IM), chemical or physical vapor deposition (CVD, PVD), anodic oxidation, carburization nitrocarburization and passivation, laser treatments, hydrothermal treatments, abrasive treatments and shot peening as well as thermo-reactive deposition and sol-gel coatings.

It must be pointed out that the present Special Issue of Metals is a continuation of closed already subjects Surface Treatment Technology of Metals and Alloys and Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys, in which some aspects of surface modification by selected methods were presented. I would like to invite all researchers interested in widely understood surface engineering of metals and alloys to present their results in papers related to both experimental and theoretical studies.

Prof. Dr. Krzysztof Rokosz
Dr. Agnieszka Kułakowska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • surface functionalization and modification
  • electropolishing (EP, MEP) and plasma electrolytic oxidation (micro arc oxidation)
  • electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and ion implantation (IM)
  • chemical or physical vapor deposition (CVD, PVD)
  • anodic oxidation and passivation
  • laser treatments, hydrothermal treatments
  • sol-gel coatings and thermoreactive deposition
  • biomaterials and self-assembling structures
  • abrasive treatments and shot peening

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 4977 KiB  
Article
Surface Characterization of Carbon Steel after Rolling Burnishing Treatment
by Agnieszka Kułakowska and Łukasz Bohdal
Metals 2024, 14(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14010031 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The paper presents the results of experimental research and surface characteristics after the process of roller burnishing of macro-asperities of the surface. As part of the work, the possibility of plastic shaping of the surface macrostructure with indentations (plateau structure), which will show [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of experimental research and surface characteristics after the process of roller burnishing of macro-asperities of the surface. As part of the work, the possibility of plastic shaping of the surface macrostructure with indentations (plateau structure), which will show anti-wear properties through appropriate surface shaping and the compressive stress state in the product’s top layer, was investigated. The essence of the paper is to present the analysis of the surface roughness parameters and carry out analysis of SEM, AFM and metallographic results for the burnished surface. The main objective of the work is to develop an adequate outline of the surface to receive the required parameters and characteristics of the surface after burnishing. The results of dependencies of roughness parameter after turning and after burnishing from the vertical angle of asperities are presented, as well as SEM, AFM and metallographic analysis for the surface with a vertical angle of 60 ÷ 150 degrees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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24 pages, 5590 KiB  
Article
Micro-Scale Surface Recognition via Microscope System Based on Hu Moments Pattern and Micro Laser Line Projection
by J. Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez
Metals 2023, 13(5), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050889 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
The surface engineering of metals develops high technology to detect microscale convex, concave and flat surface patterns. It is because the manufacturing industry requires technologies to recognize microscale surface features. Thus, it is necessary to develop microscopic vision technology to recognize microscale concave, [...] Read more.
The surface engineering of metals develops high technology to detect microscale convex, concave and flat surface patterns. It is because the manufacturing industry requires technologies to recognize microscale surface features. Thus, it is necessary to develop microscopic vision technology to recognize microscale concave, convex and flat surfaces. This study addresses microscale concave, convex and flat surface recognition via Hu moments’ patterns based on micro-laser line contouring. In this recognition, a Hu moments’ pattern is generated from a Bezier model to characterize the surface recovered through microscopic scanning. The Bezier model is accomplished by employing a genetic algorithm and surface coordinates. Thus, the flat, convex and concave surfaces are recognized based on the Hu moments’ pattern of each one. The microscope system projects a 40 μm laser line on the object and a camera acquires the object’s contour reflection to retrieve topographic coordinates. The proposed technique enhances the microscale convex, concave, flat, and surface recognition, which is performed via optical microscope systems. The contribution of microscopic shape recognition based on the Hu moments’ pattern and microscopic laser line is elucidated by a discussion based on the microscopic shape recognition performed through the optical microscopic image processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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14 pages, 3209 KiB  
Article
Role of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Wet Friction and Wear Properties of PEO Coatings Developed on Pure Titanium
by Maryam Molaei, Arash Fattah-Alhosseini, Meisam Nouri and Mosab Kaseem
Metals 2023, 13(4), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040821 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
The present study aims to explain how the incorporation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles at three different concentrations, i.e., 1, 3, and 5 g/L, into the ceramic-like oxide plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on pure titanium substrate can affect the friction and wear [...] Read more.
The present study aims to explain how the incorporation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles at three different concentrations, i.e., 1, 3, and 5 g/L, into the ceramic-like oxide plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on pure titanium substrate can affect the friction and wear behavior of the coatings in simulated body fluid (SBF) aqueous solution. For this purpose, a ball-on-disk friction and wear tester was utilized to characterize the wear performance of the PEO coatings. The morphology and dimensions (width and depth) of wear tracks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 2D depth profilometry, respectively. The results indicated that abrasive wear was identified in all PEO coatings; however, the coefficient of friction (COF), wear volume loss, and wear rate were strongly affected by the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. The coatings containing TiO2 nanoparticles presented a lower COF, less wear volume loss, reduced wear rate, and improved wear resistance due to having smoother surfaces and the presence of hard TiO2 nanoparticles on their surfaces and inside the pores. The coating with 3 g/L of TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the lowest wear rate value of 1.33 × 10−6 mm3/Nm (about a 32% reduction compared with that of coating without TiO2 nanoparticles) and the best wear protection properties among all coatings under investigation. The findings suggest TiO2 nanoparticles incorporated PEO coatings as a promising choice of surface treatment wherein the load-bearing capacity of titanium implants is critical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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10 pages, 1824 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Behavior of Fe2O3/Alumina Layer Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of 6061 Al Alloy
by Mosab Kaseem and Arash Fattah-alhosseini
Metals 2023, 13(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030495 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
This study looked into the influence of iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3 on the corrosion behavior of a 6061 Al alloy treated by a plasma electrolytic oxidation coating (PEO). PEO coatings were fabricated on Al alloy samples under AC conditions utilizing an [...] Read more.
This study looked into the influence of iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3 on the corrosion behavior of a 6061 Al alloy treated by a plasma electrolytic oxidation coating (PEO). PEO coatings were fabricated on Al alloy samples under AC conditions utilizing an alkaline-aluminate electrolyte containing 0 and 5 gr of Fe(NO3)3. Surface examination demonstrated that some Fe2O3 particles were effectively integrated into the coating layer produced in a solution containing Fe(NO3)3. In addition, the porosity and the size of micropores made due to plasma activity were significantly reduced after the PEOO treatment of the 6061 Al substrate in an electrolyte containing Fe(NO3)3. Accordingly, the coating formed in the electrolyte with Fe(NO3)3 exhibited superior corrosion resistance to that treated in the electrolyte without Fe(NO3)3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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12 pages, 8738 KiB  
Article
Ultrashort Laser Texturing of Superelastic NiTi: Effect of Laser Power and Scanning Speed on Surface Morphology, Composition and Wettability
by Carlo Alberto Biffi, Jacopo Fiocchi, Marzio Rancan, Sofia Gambaro, Francesca Cirisano, Lidia Armelao and Ausonio Tuissi
Metals 2023, 13(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020381 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Among metallic biomaterials, near-equiatomic NiTi is one of the most promising intermetallic system applicable for biomedical applications, thanks to its high biocompatibility and unique superelasticity (or pseudoelasticity), offering a complete recoverable strain up to 8%. In the prospective uses for bio-devices, the surface [...] Read more.
Among metallic biomaterials, near-equiatomic NiTi is one of the most promising intermetallic system applicable for biomedical applications, thanks to its high biocompatibility and unique superelasticity (or pseudoelasticity), offering a complete recoverable strain up to 8%. In the prospective uses for bio-devices, the surface processing of NiTi medical components plays a fundamental role for guaranteeing both a Ti oxide passivizing layer for avoiding Ni ion release into the human body and surface morphology for controlling the cell proliferation. Mechanical polishing, thermal, chemical or electro-chemical treatments are typically performed for surface modifications. Recently, laser texturing has been successfully applied for different materials, included NiTi shape memory alloys, and also for tuning the surface properties, such as wettability. In the present work, ultrashort laser surface modification was carried out, through the use of a femtosecond laser, for the surface texturing of commercial superelastic NiTi plates. The main goal is to investigate the correlation among morphology, chemical composition and wettability with the principal process parameters, such as average power and scanning velocity in high power ultrashort laser texturing. Laser patterned surfaces were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, 3D-profilometry, XPS analysis and wetting measurements. After the laser treatments, both surface morphology and Ni/Ti ratio were largely modified from the initial surface, depending on the adopted process parameters. The wettability of the laser textured surfaces can be also varied with respect to the initial surface, due to the roughness values and grooves induced by the laser beam scans. The laser texturing process induced a combination between micro and nano structures, depending on the input energy. In details, the surfaces were tuned to lower roughness values (from 0.4 μm to 0.3 μm) with a laser power of 1 W, while it was increased up to 0.65 μm with a laser power of 13 W. The laser surface modification promoted a change of the contact angle from 70° of the untreated condition up to 135° to the surface laser treated with a power of 13 W. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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12 pages, 20820 KiB  
Article
Effect of Copper on Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Hot Rolled 301 Stainless Steel
by Na Li, Hangxin Yan, Xuyuan Wang, Lei Xia, Yuchuan Zhu, Yan Li and Zhengyi Jiang
Metals 2023, 13(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010170 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
The effect of copper (Cu) on hot-rolled 301 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) was studied by observing the microstructures and testing the electrochemical corrosion resistance properties. The results showed that, with the increase in Cu content, the size of shear zones in 301 ASS [...] Read more.
The effect of copper (Cu) on hot-rolled 301 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) was studied by observing the microstructures and testing the electrochemical corrosion resistance properties. The results showed that, with the increase in Cu content, the size of shear zones in 301 ASS decreased, and the number increased, which increased the uniformity of the microstructure macroscopically. The presence of Cu decreased the stacking fault energy of 301 ASS at elevated temperatures. Meanwhile, the amount of chromium (Cr) carbides decreased gradually with the increase in Cu content, which implies that the solid solution of Cu in hot-rolled 301 stainless steel promotes the solid solution of Cr and C in the steel, which is conducive to the formation of Cr-rich passivation films. As a result, the corrosion resistance of hot rolled Cu-bearing 301 stainless steel is improved, with both lower corrosion current density (Icorr) and passivation current (Ipass), and more positive corrosion potentials (Ecorr) and passivation potential (Ep), even though it does not show a higher pitting resistance. As Cu content in the steel was increased from 0.4% to 1.1%, the corrosion resistance was not further improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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Review

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22 pages, 6866 KiB  
Review
Laser Surface Transformation Hardening for Automotive Metals: Recent Progress
by Mojtaba Karamimoghadam, Mohammad Rezayat, Mahmoud Moradi, Antonio Mateo and Giuseppe Casalino
Metals 2024, 14(3), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14030339 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
This article discusses recent advancements in the Laser Surface Transformation Hardening (LSTH) process applied to industrial metals. It focuses on examining the microstructure of the metal surface layer and explores different methods of performing LSTH to evaluate mechanical and surface properties. The study [...] Read more.
This article discusses recent advancements in the Laser Surface Transformation Hardening (LSTH) process applied to industrial metals. It focuses on examining the microstructure of the metal surface layer and explores different methods of performing LSTH to evaluate mechanical and surface properties. The study also investigates the utilization of various industrial lasers and simulation software for the LSTH process. The careful analysis of heat transfer and temperature control during LSTH aims to prevent the generation of surface defects like micro-cracks and surface melting. Finite element method (FEM) software effectively simulates the LSTH process. The research provides a comprehensive overview of recent developments in LSTH, categorized based on different metals and subsequent testing, highlighting its applications in the automotive industry. Electrochemical, wear, and microhardness tests are investigated to assess the potential applications of automotive metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Technology of Surface Engineering of Metals and Alloys)
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