Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Computation and Simulation on Metals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 12723

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences, Federal University of ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, Brazil
Interests: first-principles calculations; atomistic simulations; dislocations in metals; strengthening mechanisms in metals and alloys; bulk metallic glasses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences, Federal University of ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, Brazil
Interests: metallic glasses; nanostructured materials; deformation behavior and plasticity of materials; transmission electron microcopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metallic materials have many distinctive properties, the ability to undergo varying degrees of permanent deformation being one of special interest for processing. The cornerstone of studies on the plasticity of metals and their alloys was laid decades ago by eminent scientists such as Nabarro, Orowan, Peierls, and Cottrell, among others. Particularly groundbreaking was their discovery of the fundamental role of dislocations in metal plasticity and the subsequent development of a theory of dislocations. Currently, research on deformation remains extremely important to improve the mechanical properties of existing structural and functional materials and for the design of novel alloys.

This Special Issue is open to theoretical, computational and experimental studies. To be considered for publication, papers should report fundamental and/or applied research or provide a relevant review on the deformation of metals and alloys. A nonexhaustive list of subjects of potential interest follows:

  • Crystal plasticity at the microscale;
  • Dislocation dynamics and interaction with lattice defects;
  • Twinning;
  • Creep;
  • Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes;
  • Deformation of solid metallic particles upon high-velocity impact, as in cold spray;
  • Deformation of amorphous alloys (i.e., bulk metallic glasses);
  • Deformation of nanocrystalline metals and alloys;
  • Plasticity at the nanoscale (e.g., plastic deformation of nanoparticles).

Prof. Dr. Roberto G. A. Veiga
Prof. Dr. Alejandro Zúñiga
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • crystal plasticity
  • metals and alloys
  • dislocation dynamics
  • computer simulations
  • metal processing
  • severe plastic deformation
  • strengthening mechanisms

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 5697 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of Spiral Dislocation Sources Using Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) Simulations
by Luo Li and Tariq Khraishi
Metals 2023, 13(8), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13081408 - 6 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) simulations are a powerful simulation methodology that can predict a crystalline material’s constitutive behavior based on its loading conditions and micro-constituent population/distribution. In this paper, a 3D DDD model with spiral dislocation sources is developed to study size-dependent plasticity [...] Read more.
Discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DDD) simulations are a powerful simulation methodology that can predict a crystalline material’s constitutive behavior based on its loading conditions and micro-constituent population/distribution. In this paper, a 3D DDD model with spiral dislocation sources is developed to study size-dependent plasticity in a pure metal material (taken here as Aluminum). It also shows, for the first time, multipole simulations of spirals and how they interact with one another. In addition, this paper also discusses how the free surface of a crystalline material affects the plasticity generation of the spiral dislocation. The surface effect is implemented using the Distributed Dislocation Method. One of the main results from this work, shown here for the first time, is that spiral dislocations can result in traditional Frank–Read sources (edge or screw character) in a crystal. Another important result from this paper is that with more dislocation sources, the plastic flow inside the material is more continuous, which results in a lowering of the flow stress. Lastly, the multipole interaction of the spiral dislocations resulted in a steady-state fan-shaped action for these dislocation sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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15 pages, 7013 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics of As-Cast Fe-Cr-Al-La Stainless Steel during Hot Deformation
by Zhenqiang Deng, Jianhua Liu, Jian Shao and Alexander McLean
Metals 2023, 13(4), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13040692 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
To investigate the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of as-cast Fe-20Cr-5.5Al-0.64La stainless steel, a series of compression tests were carried out on a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulator in the temperature range of 1000~1150 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001~1 s−1. The [...] Read more.
To investigate the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of as-cast Fe-20Cr-5.5Al-0.64La stainless steel, a series of compression tests were carried out on a Gleeble-3500 thermal simulator in the temperature range of 1000~1150 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001~1 s−1. The true stress-true strain curves were obtained and their characteristics were analyzed. Using regression analysis, the apparent activation energy for the Fe-20Cr-5.5Al-0.64La stainless steel was estimated to be 300.19 kJ/mol, and the constitutive equation was developed successfully with a hyperbolic sine equation as: ε˙=e21.91sinh0.035σ3.18exp300190RT. The critical strain, the peak strain and the strain for the maximum softening rate were identified based on the work hardening rate curves and expressed as a function of the Zener−Hollomon parameter. The kinetic model of DRX was established using the stress−strain data. According to the analysis of the kinetics model and microstructure evolution, the evolution of DRX volume could be described as follows: the volume fraction of DRX grains increased with an increase in strain; at a fixed deformation temperature, the DRX volume fraction was larger at a lower strain rate for the same strain; and the size of DRX grains increased with an increase in temperature or a decrease in strain rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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13 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Identification of Hosford’s Yield Criterion Using Compression Tests
by Sergei Alexandrov, Marko Vilotic, Nemanja Dacevic and Yong Li
Metals 2023, 13(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030471 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The paper presents a simple and efficient method for identifying two-parametric isotropic pressure-independent yield criteria. The experimental procedure includes the upsetting of three types of specimens. The upsetting of cylinders and rings is used to evaluate the effect of friction. Together with the [...] Read more.
The paper presents a simple and efficient method for identifying two-parametric isotropic pressure-independent yield criteria. The experimental procedure includes the upsetting of three types of specimens. The upsetting of cylinders and rings is used to evaluate the effect of friction. Together with the plane strain compression in a die, these tests provide two points of the yield locus on the π-plane. The experimental procedure is used in conjunction with the plasticity theory based on Hosford’s yield criterion. The plastic work is used to describe the hardening of the material. This hardening law can be reformulated in terms of the equivalent strain after the yield criterion is determined. The experimental/theoretical procedure above applies to steel C15E. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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17 pages, 8024 KiB  
Article
High-Throughput Investigation of Multiscale Deformation Mechanism in Additively Manufactured Ni Superalloy
by Abhijeet Dhal, Priyanka Agrawal, Ravi Sankar Haridas, Supreeth Gaddam, Aishani Sharma, Digvijay Parganiha, Rajiv S. Mishra, Hirotsugu Kawanaka, Shinji Matsushita, Yusuke Yasuda, Seung Hwan C. Park and Wei Yuan
Metals 2023, 13(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020420 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
In this paper, Inconel 718 (IN718) superalloy was processed by laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing (L-PBFAM), followed by heat treatment. High-resolution nanoindentation was used to investigate the complex deformation mechanisms that occurred at various length scales in both conditions. The nanoindentation elastoplastic maps [...] Read more.
In this paper, Inconel 718 (IN718) superalloy was processed by laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing (L-PBFAM), followed by heat treatment. High-resolution nanoindentation was used to investigate the complex deformation mechanisms that occurred at various length scales in both conditions. The nanoindentation elastoplastic maps show a strong crystal orientation dependency of modulus and hardness, which is attributed to the high mechanical anisotropy of IN718. The hardness map effectively resolves complex microscale strength variation imparted due to the hierarchical heat distribution associated with the thermal cycles of L-PBFAM. The disproportionately high hardening effect of Nb, Mo-rich chemical segregations and Laves phases in dendritic structures is also observed. The heat treatment resulted in a 67% increase in yield strength (from 731 MPa in the L-PBFAM condition to 1217 MPa in the heat-treated condition) due to the activation of multiple precipitation-strengthening mechanisms. The nanoindentation mapping of a heat-treated sample delineates the orientation-dependent hardness distribution, which apart from high mechanical anisotropy of the alloy, is also contributed to by a high degree of coherency strengthening of the D022 γ″-precipitates oriented parallel to the <001> crystal plane of the γ-matrix. The mean hardness of the sample increased from 13.3 GPa to 14.8 GPa after heat treatment. Evidence of extensive deformation of twin networks and dislocation cells was revealed by transmission electron microscopy of the deformed region under the nanoindentation tip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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18 pages, 3522 KiB  
Article
Stress-Invariants-Based Anisotropic Yield Functions and Its Application to Sheet Metal Plasticity
by Jinjae Kim, Phu Van Nguyen, Jung Goo Hong and Young Suk Kim
Metals 2023, 13(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010142 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1726
Abstract
The yield criterion, or so-called yield function, plays an important role in the study of the plastic working of a sheet because it governs the plastic deformation properties of the sheet during the plastic-forming process. In this paper, we propose a novel anisotropic [...] Read more.
The yield criterion, or so-called yield function, plays an important role in the study of the plastic working of a sheet because it governs the plastic deformation properties of the sheet during the plastic-forming process. In this paper, we propose a novel anisotropic yield function useful for describing the plastic behavior of various anisotropic sheets. The proposed yield function includes the anisotropic version of the second stress invariant J2 and the third stress invariant J3. The proposed yield function can explain the anisotropic plastic behavior of various sheets by introducing the parameters α and β and also exhibits both symmetrical and asymmetrical yield surfaces. The parameters included in the proposed model were determined with an optimization algorithm from uniaxial and biaxial experimental data under a proportional loading path. In this study, the validity of the proposed anisotropic yield function was verified by comparing the yield surface shape, normalized uniaxial yield stress value, and Lankford anisotropic coefficient R-value derived from the experimental results. Applications of the proposed anisotropic yield functions to an aluminum sheet showed symmetrical yielding behavior and, to pure titanium sheets, showed asymmetric yielding behavior; thus, it was shown that the yield curve and yield behavior of various types of sheet materials can be predicted reasonably by using the proposed new yield anisotropic function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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12 pages, 3400 KiB  
Article
Effect of Microstructure on the Mechanical Response of Hydrogen-Charged Pure Iron
by Boris Yanachkov, Lyudmil Lyutov, Ivaylo Katzarov, Ludmil Drenchev and Krasimir Kolev
Metals 2022, 12(12), 2160; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12122160 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate how two different microstructures in pure iron affect the dislocation mobility in hydrogen-charged and non-charged samples by conducting stress-relaxation tests. The effective activation volume of the pure iron for both types of microstructures (cold-rolled and annealed samples) has [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate how two different microstructures in pure iron affect the dislocation mobility in hydrogen-charged and non-charged samples by conducting stress-relaxation tests. The effective activation volume of the pure iron for both types of microstructures (cold-rolled and annealed samples) has been determined for both H-charged and uncharged material. Information about the dislocation structures formed during stress relaxation is provided by conducting TEM analysis. We employ a self-consistent kinetic Monte-Carlo (SCkMC) model of the ½ [111] screw dislocation in Fe to investigate how hydrogen affects the mobility and behavior of the dominant mobile dislocation in Fe at different stresses and H concentrations. The results from our simulations show the following: (i) at low stresses the deviation from the primary slip plane in the presence of H is lower than the deviation in the uncharged Fe. The deviation angle decreases with increasing H concentration; (ii) at higher shear stresses, the higher probability for kink-pair formation in the secondary (110) planes in the presence of H, leads to an enhanced deviation from the primary slip plane, which increases with increasing H concentration. We use the results of stress-relaxation tests and SCkMC simulations to propose an explanation for the formation of dislocation cell structures in pure and hydrogen charged Fe in the cold-rolled and annealed samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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11 pages, 3834 KiB  
Article
Structural Phase Transformation of Rail Steel in Compression
by Krestina Aksenova, Victor Gromov, Yurii Ivanov, Rongshan Qin and Ekaterina Vashchuk
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111985 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
The analysis of structure and defective substructure of rail steel in uniaxial compression to a degree of 50% is carried out. It is revealed that cold hardening has a multi-stage character and is accompanied by fragmentations of pearlite grains which is in field [...] Read more.
The analysis of structure and defective substructure of rail steel in uniaxial compression to a degree of 50% is carried out. It is revealed that cold hardening has a multi-stage character and is accompanied by fragmentations of pearlite grains which is in field as the degree of deformation increases and reaches ≈ 0.4 volume of the foil studied at ε = 50%. The fragments being formed in ferrite plates are separated by low-angle boundaries. The average size of the fragmented ferrite decreases from 240 nm at ε = 15% to 200 nm at ε = 50%. Concurrently with the ferrite fragmentation, fragments of cementite are also observed. It is found that the sizes of the cementite fragments are in a range of 15 to 20 nm and depend weakly on the degree of sample deformation. The cementite fragmentation is caused by deformation-induced carbon dissolution and dislocation-induced fracture. The carbon atoms diffuse from cementite crystal to dislocations, which move through an interplanar space to form particles of tertiary cementite at nanoscale (2–4 nm). It is found that the increase in the degree of deformation is accompanied by a decrease in the scalar and an excess dislocation density. A physical interpretation of the observations has been given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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14 pages, 6300 KiB  
Article
On the Prediction of Material Fracture for Thin-Walled Cast Alloys Using GISSMO
by Yulong Ge, Liping Dong, Huibin Song, Lechen Gao and Rui Xiao
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111850 - 29 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Thin-walled cast alloys are one of the most significant enhancements for automotive applications. This paper aims to evaluate the applicability of the “Generalized Incremental Stress-State dependent damage MOdel” (GISSMO) in modern thin-walled cast alloys. Comprehensive experimental tests are carried out to assess the [...] Read more.
Thin-walled cast alloys are one of the most significant enhancements for automotive applications. This paper aims to evaluate the applicability of the “Generalized Incremental Stress-State dependent damage MOdel” (GISSMO) in modern thin-walled cast alloys. Comprehensive experimental tests are carried out to assess the instability and fracture strains on three thin-walled structure alloys that are commonly used. Numerical studies are conducted on the two most common modeling methods, shell-based and tetrahedral models. The parameters in GISSMO are calibrated using theoretical fitting and the inverse analysis approach. Comparisons of the shell-based and tetrahedral-based models with the test results and shell elements are carried out. The characteristics of the two modeling methods are discussed, including element formulas, extrapolating the hardening curves, and mesh-size dependency. It is evaluated that both modeling methods could be applied to thin-walled cast alloys in satisfying agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deformation of Metals and Alloys: Theory, Simulations and Experiments)
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