Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 September 2024 | Viewed by 9111

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
Interests: advanced high-strength steels; lightweight alloys (aluminum; titanium); lamellar metallic materials; grain refinement; phase transformation and its reverse transformation; asymmetric rolling; superplastic forming; hot/warm forming; deformation behavior; strengthening and toughening mechanisms; microstructural characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870, China
Interests: Ni-based high-temperature alloy; lightweight alloys (aluminum; titanium); high-entropy alloy; thermo-mechanical processing; superplastic forming; multi-scale powder for 3D printing; new alloy design; microstructure–properties control; Additive manufacturing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The addition of small amounts of Nb, Ti, or V alone or in combination is crucial to significantly improve the strength and ductility of metals and alloys at a low cost. Ferrous and non-ferrous alloys are now commonplace in a wide variety of practical applications. The subject of microalloying in ferrous and non-ferrous alloys is associated with many aspects of physical metallurgy, such as strengthening mechanisms, toughness, ductility, hot working, cold working and recrystallization, non-metallic inclusions, precipitation and phase transformation, grain refinement, weldability, etc. With a view to new microalloying technologies in ferrous and non-ferrous alloys, we offer this Special Issue entitled "Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys". The purpose of this Special Issue is to organize information about the interactions between processing and microstructural development and the effect of microalloying additions to provide a basis for the control of the microstructure, and hence the final mechnical and service properties, of microalloyed ferrous and non-ferrous alloys subjected to industrial heat treatments and hot working practices. 

Prof. Dr. Minghui Cai
Dr. Ge Zhou
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • ferrous alloy
  • non-ferrous alloy
  • heat treatment
  • thermo-mechanical processing
  • precipitation behavior
  • phase transformation
  • recrystallization behavior
  • microstructure–properties relationship
  • microalloying mechanism

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 24089 KiB  
Article
Effect of Precipitated Particles on Austenite Grain Growth of Al- and Nb-Microalloyed 20MnCr Gear Steel
by Yingqi Zhu, Shitao Fan, Xiuzhen Lian and Na Min
Metals 2024, 14(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14040469 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 530
Abstract
The paper deals with the effect of the morphology characteristics, grain size, and the volume fraction of AlN- and NbC-precipitated particles on the prior austenite grain growth behavior in the Al- and Nb-microalloying 20MnCr gear steel during pseudo-carburizing heat treatments. The results indicate [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the effect of the morphology characteristics, grain size, and the volume fraction of AlN- and NbC-precipitated particles on the prior austenite grain growth behavior in the Al- and Nb-microalloying 20MnCr gear steel during pseudo-carburizing heat treatments. The results indicate that the Nb addition in 20MnCr gear steel have a better effect on preventing austenite grain growth. The coarsening time after pseudo-carburizing in the Nb-microalloyed 20MnCr steel are improved by about 4 h compared with the Al-microalloyed steel. The precipitated particles coarsen and the number decreases with the pseudo-carburization temperature increasing, resulting in a reduction in the pinning pressure of the precipitated particles on the austenite grain boundaries. When the pseudo-carburization temperature reaches 1150 °C, the precipitated particles no longer have the ability to pin the austenite grain boundaries. In addition, the kinetics model for austenite grain growth under the process of the pinning and coarsening of the precipitated particles was established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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13 pages, 15174 KiB  
Article
Effects of Lubricating Conditions on Wear Performance of U77MnCrH Rail
by Xu Liang, Xikai Wei, Yingqi Li, Meng Wang and Fengshou Liu
Metals 2024, 14(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14040414 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
With the rapid development of railway towards being high speed and having heavy load capacity, the wheel–rail wear and rolling contact fatigue in the curve section with a small radius of freight have become the key problems in urban railways, which need to [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of railway towards being high speed and having heavy load capacity, the wheel–rail wear and rolling contact fatigue in the curve section with a small radius of freight have become the key problems in urban railways, which need to be solved urgently. The aims of this study were to compare the wear resistance with three different lubricating conditions on wheel–rail wear based on the wheel–rail rolling contact simulation tests. The wear loss, microhardness, and microstructure of the contacted surface of the rail were detected systematically. The results showed that the wear rates of rail were reduced by 71% for grease lubrication and 55% for solid lubrication, compared to those without lubrication. At the same time, the thickness of plastic deformation layer of rail samples were about 167 μm for the dry state, 138 μm for the solid lubrication state, and 128 μm for the oil lubrication state, respectively. It indicates that the thickness of the plastic deformation layer was significantly reduced under both grease and/or solid lubricating conditions. In addition, the microstructure of the deformation layer with two kinds of lubricated states was coarser and denser than that without lubricants. The average grain size of the deformation layer was approximately 0.22 μm under dry conditions and 0.32 μm under lubricated conditions. It also indicated that the changes in lubricants did not have a significant effect on the average grain size of the deformation layer. The results of the present study could provide theoretical reference for the development and design of lubricants used as rail materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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13 pages, 5887 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nb Content on the Microstructure and Impact Toughness of High-Strength Pipeline Steel
by Jinxing Jiang, Zhongde Zhang, Kai Guo, Yingping Guan, Liangzeng Yuan and Qingfeng Wang
Metals 2024, 14(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14010042 - 29 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
In this study, X80 pipeline steel is prepared with different Nb contents through the thermo-mechanically controlled rolling process. The effects of using two different Nb contents on the impact toughness and microstructure of the pipeline steel are examined using various experimental techniques. The [...] Read more.
In this study, X80 pipeline steel is prepared with different Nb contents through the thermo-mechanically controlled rolling process. The effects of using two different Nb contents on the impact toughness and microstructure of the pipeline steel are examined using various experimental techniques. The results show that with the increase in Nb content, the transformation temperature Ar3 decreases, and the nucleation and growth of bainitic ferrite with lath features (LB) are promoted, while those of granular bainite (GB) are inhibited. In addition, the stability of the austenite phase increases with the increase in Nb content. Therefore, the volume fractions of LB and martensite–austenite (M/A) constituents increase, while the proportion of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) decreases. The impact energy of pipeline steel at −45 °C is closely related to the Nb content. Specifically, the impact energy decreases from 217 J at 0.05 wt.% Nb to 88 J at 0.08 wt.% Nb. The cracks are preferentially formed near the M/A constituents, and the HAGBs significantly inhibit the crack propagation. The steel with 0.05 wt.% Nb has a lower content of M/A constituents and a higher proportion of HAGBs than the one with 0.08 wt.% Nb. In addition, as the Nb content increases, the crack initiation energy and the crack propagation energy decrease. Thus, the 0.05 wt.% Nb steel has a higher low-temperature impact energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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13 pages, 6348 KiB  
Article
Cyclic Oxidation Kinetics and Thermal Stress Evolution of TiAl Alloys at High Temperature
by Shiwei Tian, Tengkun Zhang, Shangwu Zeng, Yefei Zhang, Dejun Song, Yulai Chen, Qiang Kang and Haitao Jiang
Metals 2024, 14(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14010028 - 26 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
The oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys is crucial for their commercial application. In this paper, a cyclic oxidation test with stable air circulation was designed to investigate the cyclic oxidation behavior of the TNM alloy and 4822 alloy at 800 °C and to [...] Read more.
The oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys is crucial for their commercial application. In this paper, a cyclic oxidation test with stable air circulation was designed to investigate the cyclic oxidation behavior of the TNM alloy and 4822 alloy at 800 °C and to analyze the phase, morphology, and thermal stress evolution of the oxide layer. The oxidation weight gain curves of both alloys are found to be in parabolic form, and the oxidation reaction orders of the TNM alloy and 4822 alloy are 2.374 and 1.838, respectively. The Nb and Mo elements enhance the antioxidant performance of the TNM alloy by inhibiting the dissolution and diffusion of oxygen, Ti, and Al atoms in the TiAl alloy. The thermal stress evolution of the two alloys during the heating and cooling phases of the cyclic oxidation process are calculated separately, and it is found that the thermal stresses in the TNM alloy are smaller than those in the 4822 alloy, while the maximum thermal stresses appear at the oxide/substrate interface rather than inside the oxide scale, which quantitatively explains the oxidation peeling resistance of the two alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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15 pages, 15961 KiB  
Article
Effect of N Content on the Microstructure and Impact Properties of Normalized Vanadium Micro-Alloyed P460NL1 Steel
by Xinliang Li, Huibing Fan, Qiuming Wang and Qingfeng Wang
Metals 2023, 13(11), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13111896 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
In this work, the effect of nitrogen doping on vanadium micro-alloyed P460NL1 steel is studied in terms of microstructures and impact toughness. As the nitrogen content increased from 0.0036% to 0.0165%, the number of V (C,N) particles increased. The fine precipitates of V [...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of nitrogen doping on vanadium micro-alloyed P460NL1 steel is studied in terms of microstructures and impact toughness. As the nitrogen content increased from 0.0036% to 0.0165%, the number of V (C,N) particles increased. The fine precipitates of V (C,N) effectively pin the prior austenite grain boundary, resulting in the refinement of the austenite grain. The intragranular and intergranular V-containing coarse particles enhanced the nucleation of intragranular ferrite and the grain boundaries of polygonal ferrite during air cooling. Accordingly, the proportion of heterogeneously nucleated ferrite increased, and the grain size of ferrite decreased. Notably, the size of the pearlite microstructure decreased, and the bainite microstructure appeared with a high doping of N. With the increase in N content, the impact toughness of vanadium micro-alloyed P460NL1 steel was enhanced. This can be attributed to the refinement of ferrite and the reduction in pearlite, which, in turn, was ascribed to the increase in nitrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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11 pages, 6452 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Recrystallization Texture in A286 Iron-Based Superalloy Thin Plates Rolled via Various Routes
by Renjie Zhang, Chi Zhang, Zeyu Wang and Jinlong Liu
Metals 2023, 13(9), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091527 - 28 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The A286 iron-based superalloy has wide-ranging applications in replacing expensive nickel-based and cobalt-based superalloy to manufacture the turbine disk as well as the pipelines and valves of the fourth-generation supercritical water reactor (SCWR) working below 650 °C. The recrystallization texture importantly affects the [...] Read more.
The A286 iron-based superalloy has wide-ranging applications in replacing expensive nickel-based and cobalt-based superalloy to manufacture the turbine disk as well as the pipelines and valves of the fourth-generation supercritical water reactor (SCWR) working below 650 °C. The recrystallization texture importantly affects the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of superalloys. However, very few investigations are available on the recrystallisation texture of A286 alloy. The current work reports the texture of A286 alloy fabrication using various rolling routes, including one-stage cold rolling with the rolling rates of 83% (Route I) and 91% (Route II), and two-stage cold rolling with the rolling rate of 83% + 50% (Route III). Route III is preferentially recommended to manufacture A286 alloy thin plates due to the obviously reduced work hardening as well as the weakened recrystallization texture and anisotropy; moreover, compared with other routes, the recrystallized grain size of Route III did not significantly coarsen. We also revealed the mechanism for the effect of cold rolling textures on the final recrystallization texture and the role of the deformation twin in {110} <115> grain. In this study, recrystallization texture develops through two independent mechanisms related to different deformation microstructures, including the recrystallization texture inherited from deformation texture and the recrystallization texture depended on deformation twins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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12 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Effects of Long-Term Aging on Structure Evolution and Stress Rupture Property of DD6 Single-Crystal Superalloy
by Weiwei Liu, Shizhong Liu, Ying Li and Jiarong Li
Metals 2023, 13(6), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13061063 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
For China’s second-generation aero-engine blade DD6 single-crystal high-temperature alloy, the standard solution-treated test rods were subjected to long-term aging experiments (1290 °C, 1 h + 1300 °C, 2 h + 1315 °C, 4 h air cooling + 1120 °C, 4 h air cooling [...] Read more.
For China’s second-generation aero-engine blade DD6 single-crystal high-temperature alloy, the standard solution-treated test rods were subjected to long-term aging experiments (1290 °C, 1 h + 1300 °C, 2 h + 1315 °C, 4 h air cooling + 1120 °C, 4 h air cooling + 870 °C, 32 h air cooling) at 980 °C for 1000 h, 5000 h, and 7500 h, and the effects of different long-term aging times on the organization evolution, phase precipitation morphology, high-temperature mechanical properties, and endurance performance of the alloy were studied. The results show that with the increase of aging time, the γ′ phase coarsens, joins along the <100> and <010> directions, and merges to form irregularly shaped directional growth and rafting. The endurance life shows a decreasing trend; at 980 °C/243 MPa, 980 °C/270 MPa, 980 °C/309 MPa for the alloys after 5000 h aging, the enduring life decreased by 47.97%, 70.98%, and 76.75%, and 81.25%, 73.18%, and 87.00% after 7500 h aging, respectively. The tensile strength of the alloy at 760 °C first decreases and then increases, with a minimum value at 5000 h; there is a gradual increase in elongation; there is a gradual decrease in tensile strength at 980 °C; and there is first an increase and then decrease in elongation, with a maximum value at 1000 h. This is due to the diffusion phenomenon of the elements in the alloy after 5000 h aging, the emergence of W-rich, Re-, Mo-, and Ni-poor phenomena, and the transformation of the μ-phase from needle-like to rod-like and block-like. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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15 pages, 4145 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Resistance of AlFeCoNiMo0.2 High-Entropy Alloy in NaCl and H2SO4 Solutions
by Yuhan Peng, Ge Zhou, Jinke Han, Jianlin Li, Haoyu Zhang, Siqian Zhang, Li Lin, Lijia Chen and Xue Cao
Metals 2023, 13(5), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13050849 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The effects of casting and different heat treatment processes on the corrosion resistance of AlFeCoNiMo0.2 high-entropy alloy in 3.5% NaCl (mass fraction) and 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solutions were investigated using dynamic potential polarization curves, SEM, XRD, XPS, and other [...] Read more.
The effects of casting and different heat treatment processes on the corrosion resistance of AlFeCoNiMo0.2 high-entropy alloy in 3.5% NaCl (mass fraction) and 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solutions were investigated using dynamic potential polarization curves, SEM, XRD, XPS, and other test methods. The results show that in the Cl environment, the cast alloy has the lowest corrosion current density and higher corrosion resistance compared to the annealed alloy. The elements Al and Mo are severely segregated in the crystal and in the grain boundaries, where galvanic corrosion occurs, and the Al-rich phase produces pitting corrosion in the crystal. The main components of its passive film are oxides of Al, Fe, Co, and Mo, and oxides and hydroxides of Ni. In the SO42− environment, the best corrosion resistance is achieved in the 900 °C annealed state of the alloy. Electrochemical test results show that the alloys all undergo secondary passivation, producing two successive product films to protect the metal matrix. Preferential corrosion areas are concentrated in the molybdenum-rich grain boundaries and nearby dendritic regions, reducing the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The main components of the passive film are oxides of Al and Mo; oxides of Fe, Co, Ni; and hydroxides. The Mo element in the passive film prevents the activated dissolution of Fe and produces the protective component MoO3, which inhibits the dissolution of the alloy and improves the stability of the passive film. The presence of Mo elements increases the selective dissolution of Fe, and the aggregation of Mo elements at grain boundaries after annealing weakens the corrosion resistance of the alloy and leads to the dissolution of the passive film. The main components of the passive film are oxides of Al and Mo; oxides of Fe, Co, Ni; and hydroxides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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12 pages, 5312 KiB  
Article
High Ductile Medium Mn Lightweight Alloy: The Role of Intensive Quenching and Deep Cryogenic Treatment
by Fan Fei, Shenghui Sun, Ziqiang Wei, Huiwen Li and Minghui Cai
Metals 2023, 13(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13030499 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Medium Mn lightweight steels with a relatively higher Mn content of 9–12 wt% have been actively developed recently to meet the demands of crashworthiness and lightweight vehicles. In this study, a combined intensive quenching (IQ) and deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) was first proposed [...] Read more.
Medium Mn lightweight steels with a relatively higher Mn content of 9–12 wt% have been actively developed recently to meet the demands of crashworthiness and lightweight vehicles. In this study, a combined intensive quenching (IQ) and deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) was first proposed to achieve the microstructural homogeneity as well as the final strength–ductility synergy of medium Mn lightweight steels with Mn segregation bands, together with a comparison with the conventional intercritical annealing. The proposed IQ and DCT process induced the formation of finer large fractioned plate-like martensite in the austenite matrix and thereby contributed to finer and uniform austenite grains after subsequent intercritical annealing. The martensitic transformation rate (dVγ/dε) and transformation kinetics (k value) were used to evaluate the mechanical stability of retained austenite, showing that the D700&750 sample exhibited a similar dVγ/dε value and extremely low k value when compared to the conventional IA650–850 samples, implying that the former had the higher mechanical stability of austenite. The higher mechanical stability of austenite enabled the TRIP effect to occur in a larger strain range, leading to continuous strain hardening behavior. Thus, the highest yield strength (728 MPa) and the largest total elongation of 61.6% were achieved in the D700&750 sample, where the ductility was more than three times higher than that of the conventional IA samples. The grain size and morphologies of retained austenite were believed to be the main factors influencing the strain-hardening behavior of this type of ultrafine lamellar and equiaxed ferrite and austenite duplex structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microalloying in Ferrous and Non-ferrous Alloys)
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