Regulation of Oxidative Stress on Gut Microbial Homeostasis and Metabolism

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 7334

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: oxidative stress; intestinal structure and function; intestinal neuroendocrinology; inflammatory bowel disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Intestinal health has gradually become the focus of attention. Irregular lifestyle has accelerated the development of intestinal dysfunction, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important to note that there is no complete cure for IBD. Therefore, it is particularly important to explore the mechanism and to prevent intestinal dysfunction. It has been confirmed that oxidative stress conditions will have adverse effects on intestinal function, which involves changes in intestinal microbiota, such as a decrease in the abundance of beneficial bacteria and an increase in the abundance of harmful bacteria. Therefore, further research on the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases is of great significance for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

This Special Issue is devoted to the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and metabolism under oxidative stress, including but not limited to oxidative stress, gut microbiota unbalance and metabolism, intestinal barrier, inflammatory bowel disease, improvement of intestinal function, and maintained intestinal homeostasis.

Prof. Dr. Yulan Dong
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • oxidative stress
  • gut microbiota
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • inflammatory
  • gut homeostasis
  • gut metabolism

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1950 KiB  
Article
Expression of STING in Women with Morbid Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
by Laia Bertran, Laia Adalid, Mercè Vilaró-Blay, Andrea Barrientos-Riosalido, Carmen Aguilar, Salomé Martínez, Fàtima Sabench, Daniel del Castillo, José Antonio Porras, Ajla Alibalic, Cristóbal Richart and Teresa Auguet
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040496 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic hepatic disease. Although mostly benign, this disease can evolve into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) plays an important role in the immune response against stressed cells, but this protein [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic hepatic disease. Although mostly benign, this disease can evolve into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) plays an important role in the immune response against stressed cells, but this protein may also be involved in liver lipogenesis and microbiota composition. In this study, the role of STING in NAFLD was evaluated by RT–qPCR to analyze STING mRNA abundance and by immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate protein expression in liver biopsies from a cohort composed of 69 women with morbid obesity classified according to their liver involvement (normal liver, n = 27; simple steatosis (SS), n = 26; NASH, n = 16). The results showed that STING mRNA expression in the liver increases with the occurrence of NAFLD, specifically in the SS stage in which the degree of steatosis is mild or moderate. Protein analysis corroborated these results. Positive correlations were observed among hepatic STING mRNA abundance and gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, hepatic Toll-like receptor 9 expression and some circulating microbiota-derived bile acids. In conclusion, STING may be involved in the outcome and progression of NAFLD and may be related to hepatic lipid metabolism. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
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17 pages, 3435 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary L-TRP on Immunity, Antioxidant Capacity and Intestinal Microbiota of the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir Sinensis) in Pond Culture
by Mengna Hou, Yangyang Pang, Chao Niu, Dongxin Zhang, Ying Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu, Yameng Song, Aoya Shi, Qing Chen, Junyan Zhang, Yongxu Cheng and Xiaozhen Yang
Metabolites 2023, 13(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
L-tryptophan (L-TRP) is an essential amino acid for the normal growth of crustaceans. As a nutritional supplement and antioxidant, L-TRP has the function of immune and antioxidant capacity regulation. From July to November, the effects of L-TRP on the immunity, antioxidant capacity and [...] Read more.
L-tryptophan (L-TRP) is an essential amino acid for the normal growth of crustaceans. As a nutritional supplement and antioxidant, L-TRP has the function of immune and antioxidant capacity regulation. From July to November, the effects of L-TRP on the immunity, antioxidant capacity and intestinal microflora of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) in pond culture were investigated. After feeding an L-TRP diet for 30 (named as August), 60 (named as September) and 106 (named as November) days, respectively, the activities of the immune and antioxidant enzymes in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph were evaluated, and the intestinal microbiota were profiled via high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The results showed that supplementation of L-TRP significantly increased the activities of AKP in the hepatopancreas in September, and significantly increased the activities of ACP in the hepatopancreas in August and September, and the hemolymph’s ACP activities also significantly increased in August and November (p < 0.05). Similarly, the activities of SOD, AOC and POD in the hepatopancreas significantly increased in September and November (p < 0.05) after feeding the L-TRP diet; meanwhile, the activities of SOD and AOC in the hemolymph also significantly increased in August (p < 0.05). However, in August, the L-TRP diet resulted in a significant increase in MDA activity in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph (p < 0.05). In addition, the results of the intestinal microbiota analysis showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in August, September and November, and Patescibacteria was the dominant phylum in September and November. After feeding the L-TRP diet, the richness of Cyanobacteria and Desulfobacterota significantly increased in August (p < 0.05), and the richness of Actinobacteriota significantly decreased in September (p < 0.05). Moreover, the L-TRP supplementation significantly reduced the abundance of ZOR0006 in the Firmicutes in September (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary L-TRP could improve the immunity and antioxidant ability and impact the intestinal health of E. sinensis at the early stage of pond culturing. However, long-term feeding of an L-TRP diet might have no positive impact on the activities of the immune, antioxidant enzymes and intestinal microbiota. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 771 KiB  
Review
Antioxidants as Protection against Reactive Oxidative Stress in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Sara Jarmakiewicz-Czaja, Katarzyna Ferenc and Rafał Filip
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040573 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) belongs to a group of chronic diseases characterised by periods of exacerbation and remission. Despite many studies and observations, its aetiopathogenesis is still not fully understood. The interactions of genetic, immunological, microbiological, and environmental factors can induce disease development [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) belongs to a group of chronic diseases characterised by periods of exacerbation and remission. Despite many studies and observations, its aetiopathogenesis is still not fully understood. The interactions of genetic, immunological, microbiological, and environmental factors can induce disease development and progression, but there is still a lack of information on these mechanisms. One of the components that can increase the risk of occurrence of IBD, as well as disease progression, is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. The endogenous and exogenous components that make up the body’s antioxidant defence can significantly affect IBD prophylaxis and reduce the risk of exacerbation by neutralising and removing ROS, as well as influencing the inflammatory state. Full article
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17 pages, 1599 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota and Coronary Artery Disease: Current Therapeutic Perspectives
by Themistoklis Katsimichas, Panagiotis Theofilis, Konstantinos Tsioufis and Dimitris Tousoulis
Metabolites 2023, 13(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13020256 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
The human gut microbiota is the community of microorganisms living in the human gut. This microbial ecosystem contains bacteria beneficial to their host and plays important roles in human physiology, participating in energy harvest from indigestible fiber, vitamin synthesis, and regulation of the [...] Read more.
The human gut microbiota is the community of microorganisms living in the human gut. This microbial ecosystem contains bacteria beneficial to their host and plays important roles in human physiology, participating in energy harvest from indigestible fiber, vitamin synthesis, and regulation of the immune system, among others. Accumulating evidence suggests a possible link between compositional and metabolic aberrations of the gut microbiota and coronary artery disease in humans. Manipulating the gut microbiota through targeted interventions is an emerging field of science, aiming at reducing the risk of disease. Among the interventions with the most promising results are probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) inhibitors. Contemporary studies of probiotics have shown an improvement of inflammation and endothelial cell function, paired with attenuated extracellular matrix remodeling and TMAO production. Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides are some of the most well studied probiotics in experimental and clinical settings. Prebiotics may also decrease inflammation and lead to reductions in blood pressure, body weight, and hyperlipidemia. Synbiotics have been associated with an improvement in glucose homeostasis and lipid abnormalities. On the contrary, no evidence yet exists on the possible benefits of postbiotic use, while the use of antibiotics is not warranted, due to potentially deleterious effects. TMAO inhibitors such as 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, iodomethylcholine, and fluoromethylcholine, despite still being investigated experimentally, appear to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic properties. Finally, fecal transplantation carries conflicting evidence, mandating the need for further research. In the present review we summarize the links between the gut microbiota and coronary artery disease and elaborate on the varied therapeutic measures that are being explored in this context. Full article
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