Advance in Metabolomics Application for Food Fermentation

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbiology and Ecological Metabolomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2022) | Viewed by 20087

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Japan
Interests: food metabolomics; fermented food; fermentation; fermentation microorganisms; flavor; food secondary function; sensory evaluation; food ternary function; health-promoting function; nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fermented foods are one of the important food categories that are frequently used all over the world, including alcoholic beverages, dairy products, and seasonings. In fermented foods, in addition to the food material itself, various taste compounds created by the action of fermented microorganisms form a unique flavor. Fermented foods are multifunctional foods consisting of a wide variety of compounds, and the relationship between the contained compounds and their functions is extremely complicated. In this Special Issue, the editor expects the results of research that explores the relationship between various functions of fermented foods and the components contained in them by metabolomics method. Fermented foods are not limited to finished products such as alcoholic beverages, dairy products, and seasonings. For example, research related to the fermentation of beverages, such as coffee and tea, and food ingredients, such as cacao, are also welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Eiichiro Fukusaki
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • metabolomics
  • food
  • fermentation
  • sensory evaluation
  • food function

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 8617 KiB  
Article
Microbial Interactions in Kombucha through the Lens of Metabolomics
by Thierry Tran, Chloé Roullier-Gall, François Verdier, Antoine Martin, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Hervé Alexandre, Cosette Grandvalet and Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal
Metabolites 2022, 12(3), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030235 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented beverage obtained through the activity of a complex microbial community of yeasts and bacteria. Exo-metabolomes of kombucha microorganisms were analyzed using FT-ICR-MS to investigate their interactions. A simplified set of microorganisms including two yeasts (Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Hanseniaspora [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented beverage obtained through the activity of a complex microbial community of yeasts and bacteria. Exo-metabolomes of kombucha microorganisms were analyzed using FT-ICR-MS to investigate their interactions. A simplified set of microorganisms including two yeasts (Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Hanseniaspora valbyensis) and one acetic acid bacterium (Acetobacter indonesiensis) was used to investigate yeast–yeast and yeast–acetic acid bacterium interactions. A yeast–yeast interaction was characterized by the release and consumption of fatty acids and peptides, possibly in relationship to commensalism. A yeast–acetic acid bacterium interaction was different depending on yeast species. With B. bruxellensis, fatty acids and peptides were mainly produced along with consumption of sucrose, fatty acids and polysaccharides. In opposition, the presence of H. valbyensis induced mainly the decrease of polyphenols, peptides, fatty acids, phenolic acids and putative isopropyl malate and phenylpyruvate and few formulae have been produced. With all three microorganisms, the formulae involved with the yeast–yeast interactions were consumed or not produced in the presence of A. indonesiensis. The impact of the yeasts’ presence on A. indonesiensis was consistent regardless of the yeast species with a commensal consumption of compounds associated to the acetic acid bacterium by yeasts. In detail, hydroxystearate from yeasts and dehydroquinate from A. indonesiensis were potentially consumed in all cases of yeast(s)–acetic acid bacterium pairing, highlighting mutualistic behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Metabolomics Application for Food Fermentation)
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17 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Solid-State Fermented Okara with Aspergillus spp. Improves Lipid Metabolism and High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity
by Natsumi Ichikawa, Li Shiuan Ng, Saneyuki Makino, Luo Lin Goh, Yun Jia Lim, Ferdinandus, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shigenobu Shibata and Chi-Lik Ken Lee
Metabolites 2022, 12(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030198 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6194
Abstract
Okara is a major by-product of soymilk and tofu production. Despite retaining abundant nutrients after the process, okara is often under-utilized. In this study, solid-state fermentation (SSF) of okara was carried out using a koji starter (containing both Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae [...] Read more.
Okara is a major by-product of soymilk and tofu production. Despite retaining abundant nutrients after the process, okara is often under-utilized. In this study, solid-state fermentation (SSF) of okara was carried out using a koji starter (containing both Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae) with the intention of releasing its untapped nutrients. Its effects on lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity (DIO) were observed. The nutritional profile of fermented okara was elucidated using the following parameters: total phenolic content (TPC), pH, protein content, dietary fiber, amino acid content, and free sugar content. In vivo experiments were conducted using high-fat diets supplemented with unfermented okara and fermented okara over three weeks. Supplementation with fermented okara reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, the serum triglyceride profile, and lipid accumulation in the liver, and altered the mRNA expression levels related to lipid metabolism; however, it did not affect pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in this study. In conclusion, high-fat diets supplemented using okara fermented with Aspergillus spp. improved the lipid metabolism in mice, due to their high nutritional value, such as TPC, soy protein, and amino acids, and their synergistic effects without altering the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Metabolomics Application for Food Fermentation)
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14 pages, 3800 KiB  
Article
Non-Targeted Metabolomic Analysis of the Kombucha Production Process
by Thierry Tran, Rémy Romanet, Chloé Roullier-Gall, François Verdier, Antoine Martin, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Hervé Alexandre, Cosette Grandvalet and Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020160 - 8 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2574
Abstract
Kombucha is a traditional fermented beverage obtained from the transformation of sugared black tea by a community of yeasts and bacteria. Kombucha production recently became industrialized, but its quality standards remain poorly defined. Metabolomic analyses were applied using FT-ICR-MS to characterize the impacts [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a traditional fermented beverage obtained from the transformation of sugared black tea by a community of yeasts and bacteria. Kombucha production recently became industrialized, but its quality standards remain poorly defined. Metabolomic analyses were applied using FT-ICR-MS to characterize the impacts of production phases and the type of tea on the non-volatile chemical composition of kombucha. Independently from tea type, the first phase of acidification in open vessel was characterized by the release of gluconate and gallate from acetic acid bacteria metabolism and probably from polymeric polyphenols, respectively. The second phase of carbonation in closed vessel induced a consumption or transformation of oleic acid that could be consecutive of oxygen limitation. The first phase had the most impact on molecular diversity, but tea type mainly influenced the global composition in polyphenol profile. Black tea polyphenols were more impacted by microbial activity compared to green tea polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Metabolomics Application for Food Fermentation)
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18 pages, 2197 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Changes in the Bacterial Community and Metabolic Profile during Fermentation of Low-Salt Shrimp Paste (Terasi)
by Henny Helmi, Dea Indriani Astuti, Sastia Prama Putri, Arisa Sato, Walter A. Laviña, Eiichiro Fukusaki and Pingkan Aditiawati
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020118 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4046
Abstract
Low-salt shrimp paste, or terasi, is an Indonesian fermented food made from planktonic shrimp mixed with a low concentration of salt. Since high daily intake of sodium is deemed unhealthy, reduction of salt content in shrimp paste production is desired. Until now, there [...] Read more.
Low-salt shrimp paste, or terasi, is an Indonesian fermented food made from planktonic shrimp mixed with a low concentration of salt. Since high daily intake of sodium is deemed unhealthy, reduction of salt content in shrimp paste production is desired. Until now, there is no reported investigation on the bacterial population and metabolite composition of terasi during fermentation. In this study, the bacterial community of terasi was assessed using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3–V4 region. From this analysis, Tetragenococcus, Aloicoccus, Alkalibacillus, Atopostipes, and Alkalibacterium were found to be the dominant bacterial genus in low-salt shrimp paste. GC/MS-based metabolite profiling was also conducted to monitor the metabolite changes during shrimp paste fermentation. Results showed that acetylated amino acids increased, while glutamine levels decreased, during the fermentation of low-salt shrimp paste. At the start of shrimp paste fermentation, Tetragenococcus predominated with histamine and cadaverine accumulation. At the end of fermentation, there was an increase in 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid levels, as well as the predominance of Atopostipes. Moreover, we found that aspartic acid increased during fermentation. Based on our findings, we recommend that fermentation of low-salt shrimp paste be done for 7 to 21 days, in order to produce shrimp paste that has high nutritional content and reduced health risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Metabolomics Application for Food Fermentation)
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13 pages, 1814 KiB  
Article
Effects of Soaking Tempe in Vinegar on Metabolome and Sensory Profiles
by Hadi Akbar Dahlan, Yosuke Nambu, Sastia Prama Putri and Eiichiro Fukusaki
Metabolites 2022, 12(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12010030 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
Tempe is a fermented soybean food that is globally renowned for its high protein content. Methods of preparing tempe vary worldwide, and include soaking in vinegar before fermentation. This study aimed to determine the effects of soaking in vinegar by metabolome analysis, gas [...] Read more.
Tempe is a fermented soybean food that is globally renowned for its high protein content. Methods of preparing tempe vary worldwide, and include soaking in vinegar before fermentation. This study aimed to determine the effects of soaking in vinegar by metabolome analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and sensory attribute evaluation. Vinegar affected metabolism during tempe fermentation, which led to altered metabolite profiles in the final product. We validated the metabolite profiles of two types of tempe using triangle tests and rate-all-that-apply (RATA) tests, which revealed that the sensory attributes of a golden-brown color, ammonia smell, pleasant smell, salty flavor, and acceptance significantly differed (p < 0.05) between the two types of tempe. A high concentration of specific amino acids in the control tempe explained a strong ammonia smell, saltiness, and darker golden-brown sensory attributes. Tempe soaked in vinegar contained high concentrations of metabolites associated with a roasted aroma and cooked meat. In conclusion, most RATA panelists who were being introduced to tempe preferred that soaked in vinegar to the control that was not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Metabolomics Application for Food Fermentation)
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