Metabolic and Endocrine Responses to Stress and Disease in Animal Production

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2024) | Viewed by 11370

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: dairy cows; metabolic disease; oxidative stress; bovine mastitis

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Græcia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: proteomics; metabolomics; one health; microbiome; animal health; microbiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are delighted to announce a Special Issue of the high-ranking journal Metabolites that is focused on metabolic and endocrine changes as responses to stress and diseases during animal production. 

Stress and diseases during animal production trigger numerous metabolic and endocrine responses influencing animal growth and performance, the quality of products of animal origin, and also animal welfare. In addition, these changes could have a great impact on public health, giving further importance to a One Health approach.

You are warmly welcome to submit a research article or a review paper relevant to the scopes of this Special Issue, which will highly contribute to a better understanding of complex metabolic pathways in different organs the including liver, adipose tissue, and mammary glands; host–pathogen interactions; the role of microbiome and the environmental impacts on animal production; and the influence of animal production on human health. Different novel techniques, including proteomics and metabolomics, could improve the knowledge on an intrigued metabolic network during stress and diseases in animal production.

Prof. Dr. Romana Turk
Prof. Dr. Paola Roncada
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • animal production
  • stress
  • lipid metabolism
  • adipose tissue
  • liver
  • mammary gland
  • milk
  • microbiome
  • host-pathogen interaction
  • proteomics
  • metabolomics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1010 KiB  
Article
Effects of Summer Heat on Adipose Tissue Activity in Periparturient Simmental Cows
by Romana Turk, Nikola Rošić, Blanka Beer Ljubić and Silvijo Vince
Metabolites 2024, 14(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo14040207 - 06 Apr 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Hot climate is one of the major factors affecting the dairy industry. Heat stress could be responsible for decreased feed intake and consequently leads to alterations in energy metabolism, particularly during late pregnancy and early lactation. This study aimed to assess the effects [...] Read more.
Hot climate is one of the major factors affecting the dairy industry. Heat stress could be responsible for decreased feed intake and consequently leads to alterations in energy metabolism, particularly during late pregnancy and early lactation. This study aimed to assess the effects of summer heat on adipose tissue activities during the periparturient period in Simmental cows. Two groups of cows were involved: heat-stressed cows (n = 12) that calved from June to August and thermoneutral cows (n = 12) that calved from October to December. Blood samples were taken from each cow during the periparturient period: 21 and 7 days before calving and 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 days after calving. Glucose, beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), leptin (LP), and adiponectin (ADP) were measured in serum samples by commercial kits. Thermoneutral cows expressed higher degrees of lipomobilization syndrome than heat-stressed cows, indicated by significantly higher serum NEFA and BHB concentrations in the early lactation. Leptin levels were significantly decreased, while adiponectin was increased in heat-stressed cows compared to thermoneutral ones. The results indicated that heat-stressed cows during the periparturient period mobilized less fat from adipose tissue to reduce the heat generation by fatty acid oxidation. Full article
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17 pages, 2260 KiB  
Article
Influence of Heat Stress on Body Surface Temperature and Blood Metabolic, Endocrine, and Inflammatory Parameters and Their Correlation in Cows
by Bojan Blond, Mira Majkić, Jovan Spasojević, Slavča Hristov, Miodrag Radinović, Sandra Nikolić, Ljiljana Anđušić, Aleksandar Čukić, Maja Došenović Marinković, Biljana Delić Vujanović, Nemanja Obradović and Marko Cincović
Metabolites 2024, 14(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo14020104 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
This study aimed to determine whether heat stress affected the values and correlations of metabolic, endocrinological, and inflammatory parameters as well as the rectal and body surface temperature of cows in the early and middle stages of lactation. This experiment was conducted in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine whether heat stress affected the values and correlations of metabolic, endocrinological, and inflammatory parameters as well as the rectal and body surface temperature of cows in the early and middle stages of lactation. This experiment was conducted in May (thermoneutral period), June (mild heat stress), and July (moderate to severe heat stress). In each period we included 15 cows in early lactation and 15 in mid-lactation. The increase in rectal and body surface temperatures (°C) in moderate to severe heat stress compared to the thermoneutral period in different regions was significant (p < 0.01) and the results are presented as mean and [95%CI]: rectal + 0.9 [0.81–1.02], eye + 6 [5.74–6.25], ear + 13 [11.9–14.0], nose + 3.5 [3.22–3.71], forehead + 6.6 [6.43–6.75], whole head + 7.5 [7.36–7.68], abdomen + 8.5 [8.25–8.77], udder + 7.5 [7.38–7.65], front limb + 6 [5.89–6.12], hind limb + 3.6 [3.46–3.72], and whole body + 9 [8.80–9.21]. During heat stress (in both mild and moderate to severe stress compared to a thermoneutral period), an increase in the values of extracellular heat shock protein 70 (eHsp70), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), cortisol (CORT), insulin (INS), revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI), urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate transpaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatin kinase (CK) occurred, as well as a decrease in the values of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose (GLU), β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB), calcium, phosphorus, total protein (TPROT), albumin (ALB), triglycerides (TGCs), and cholesterol (CHOL). In cows in early lactation compared to cows in mid-lactation, there was a significantly larger increase (p < 0.01) in the values of eHsp70, TNFα, GLU, RQUICKI, and GGT, while the INS increase was smaller during the three experimental periods. The decrease in the values of Ca, CHOL, and TGC was more pronounced in cows in early lactation compared to cows in mid-lactation during the three experimental periods. Rectal temperature was related to eHsp70 (r = 0.38, p < 0.001) and TNFα (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) and showed non-significant poor correlations with other blood parameters. Blood parameters correlate with body surface temperature, with the following most common results: eHsp70 and TNFα showed a moderately to strongly significant positive correlation (r = 0.79–0.96, p < 0.001); CORT, INS, and Creat showed fairly to moderately significant positive correlations; T3, T4, NEFA and GLU showed fairly to moderately significant negative correlations (r = 0.3–0.79; p < 0.01); RQUICKI, urea, AST, and GGT showed fairly and significantly positive correlations; and TGC, CHOL, TPROT, and ALB showed fairly and significantly negative correlations (r = 0.3–0.59; p < 0.01). Measuring the surface temperature of the whole body or head can be a useful tool in evaluating the metabolic response of cows because it has demonstrated an association with inflammation (TNFα, eHsp70), endocrine response (CORT, T3, T4), the increased use of glucose and decreased use of lipids for energy purposes (INS, NEFA, GLU, and RQUICKI), and protein catabolism (ALB, TPROT, urea, Creat), which underlies thermolysis and thermogenesis in cows under heat stress. In future research, it is necessary to examine the causality between body surface area and metabolic parameters. Full article
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16 pages, 3767 KiB  
Article
Influence of Heat Stress on Body Temperatures Measured by Infrared Thermography, Blood Metabolic Parameters and Its Correlation in Sheep
by Aleksandar Čukić, Simeon Rakonjac, Radojica Djoković, Marko Cincović, Snežana Bogosavljević-Bošković, Milun Petrović, Željko Savić, Ljiljana Andjušić and Biljana Andjelić
Metabolites 2023, 13(8), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13080957 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
The aim of this research is to examine the influence of heat stress (HS) on body temperature (BT) measured rectally (RT) or by infrared thermography (IRT) of the nose (NT), eye (ET), leg (LT) and abdominal (AT) regions in intensively and extensively breed [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to examine the influence of heat stress (HS) on body temperature (BT) measured rectally (RT) or by infrared thermography (IRT) of the nose (NT), eye (ET), leg (LT) and abdominal (AT) regions in intensively and extensively breed sheep and to detect a correlation between body temperature and metabolic response in sheep. A total of 33 Wurttemberg × Sjenica Pramenka sheep breeds were examined, 17 ewes were from outdoors and 16 were from indoor housing systems during three experimental periods (thermoneutral period, severe HS and moderate HS). Sheep under HS have a higher BT, and the magnitude of BT measured by infrared thermography (IRT) was higher than RT. LT and AT showed positive linear correlations with the temperature–humidity index (THI), while other ways of measuring BT did not give statistically significant correlations. Sheep under HS showed higher cortisol, insulin, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and index of insulin resistance, with lower values of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, calcium, inorganic phosphates, magnesium and cholesterol. BT and metabolic response were different in the function of the housing method of sheep. LT and AT showed a significant correlation with almost all blood parameters, and the strongest connections were made with T3, T4, BHB and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index of insulin resistance. The abdomen and legs are good thermal windows because LT and AT are good summative responses to external ambient THI and internal metabolic changes in sheep under heat stress. Full article
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15 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
A Pilot Study on Across-Generation Impacts of Maternal Heat Stress on Blood Metabolites of Female Holstein Dairy Calves
by Kathrin Halli, Imke Cohrs, Kerstin Brügemann, Christian Koch and Sven König
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040494 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Heat stress (HS) during late gestation implies unfavorable effects on dairy cows and their in-utero heat stressed offspring. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of intrauterine (maternal) HS during the last week of gestation on blood metabolite concentrations [...] Read more.
Heat stress (HS) during late gestation implies unfavorable effects on dairy cows and their in-utero heat stressed offspring. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of intrauterine (maternal) HS during the last week of gestation on blood metabolite concentrations of female dairy calves during their first week of life. We defined the mean temperature humidity index (mTHI) during the last gestation week of ≥60 as threshold for maternal HS. In this regard, we compared differences in metabolite concentrations of maternally heat stressed (MHSCALVES) (n = 14) and not heat stressed (NMHSCALVES) (n = 33) calves. We identified 15 metabolites from five different biochemical classes (phosphatidylcholines, cholesteryl esters, sphingomyelins, cresols and hexoses) as potential biomarkers for maternal HS in calves. The plasma concentrations of all significantly affected metabolites were lower in MHSCALVES when compared to NMHSCALVES. The effect of maternal HS during the last week of gestation on blood metabolite concentrations of the female offspring during the first week after birth might be due to HS induced intergenerational physiological alterations, impaired colostrum quality or epigenetic modifications of the calf genome. The results of this pilot study should be validated in ongoing fully standardized studies. Full article
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13 pages, 4968 KiB  
Article
Effect of Supplementation of Lambs with Whole Cottonseed: Impact on Serum Biomarkers and Infection by Gastrointestinal Parasites under Field Conditions
by Vitoldo Antonio Kozlowski Neto, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos Schmidt, Camila Peres Rubio, Naiara Mirelly Marinho da Silva, Renata Tardivo, Ciniro Costa, Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles, José Joaquín Cerón, Asta Tvarijonaviciute and Alessandro Francisco Talamini do Amarante
Metabolites 2023, 13(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13030398 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemical analytes in crossbred lambs during the rearing phase in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The experiment used 36 crossbred lambs (cross: Ile de [...] Read more.
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemical analytes in crossbred lambs during the rearing phase in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The experiment used 36 crossbred lambs (cross: Ile de France × White Dorper × Texel) divided into two groups. The WCS group was supplemented with whole cottonseed (WCS), and controls had no supplementation. Body weight, blood collection, and fecal analysis of nematode eggs and Eimeria oocysts counting per gram of feces were performed for each animal within 84 days of experiment. The following serum analytes were determined: total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, and 10 oxidative stress biomarkers: cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, thiol, uric acid, paraoxonase-1, total oxidant status, ferric-xylenol orange, advanced oxidation protein products, and reactive oxygen metabolites derived compounds. The inclusion of WCS suggested the benefit in controlling infection as well as inducing an increase in antioxidants and a decrease in oxidants in lambs naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites. The combination of WCS and ICLS could be a useful tool in controlling gastrointestinal parasite infection without affecting the production performance. Full article
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11 pages, 1784 KiB  
Article
Association between Tryptophan Metabolism and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Dairy Cows with Ketosis
by Zhengzhong Luo, Kang Yong, Zhenlong Du, Yixin Huang, Tao Zhou, Li Ma, Xueping Yao, Liuhong Shen, Shumin Yu, Zuoting Yan and Suizhong Cao
Metabolites 2023, 13(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13030333 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Dairy cows with ketosis have high circulating beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) concentrations alongside which inflammation is concomitantly developed. Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid that participates in the regulation of the inflammatory response. However, the association between Trp metabolism and inflammation in dairy [...] Read more.
Dairy cows with ketosis have high circulating beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) concentrations alongside which inflammation is concomitantly developed. Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid that participates in the regulation of the inflammatory response. However, the association between Trp metabolism and inflammation in dairy cows with ketosis remains unclear. Therefore, blood samples from healthy (n = 10) and ketotic (n = 10) primiparous dairy cows were collected at the calving date and the day of ketosis diagnosis (7 days in milk (7 DIM)). Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), BHBA, haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide, and cortisol were analyzed. Tryptophan and its metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. At 7 DIM, the concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, HP, and SAA were higher and the levels of Trp, kynurenine (KYN), indoleacetic acid, indole-3-lactic acid, and 3-indoxyl sulfate were lower in the dairy cows with ketosis compared with those in the healthy cows. However, the KYN/Trp and melatonin/Trp ratios increased in the cows with ketosis. At the calving date, the serum lipopolysaccharide levels did not differ between the healthy and ketotic cows, whereas the levels of NEFA, HP, and cortisol increased in the ketotic cows. Correlation analysis showed that Trp deficiency and elevated Trp metabolism in the dairy cows occurred during ketosis. Overall, our results suggest that abnormal Trp metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of ketosis. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 1507 KiB  
Review
Different Types of Glucocorticoids to Evaluate Stress and Welfare in Animals and Humans: General Concepts and Examples of Combined Use
by María Botía, Damián Escribano, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Fernando Tecles, Marina López-Arjona and José J. Cerón
Metabolites 2023, 13(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13010106 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
The main glucocorticoids involved in the stress response are cortisol and cortisone in most mammals and corticosterone in birds and rodents. Therefore, these analytes are currently the biomarkers more frequently used to evaluate the physiological response to a stressful situation. In addition, “total [...] Read more.
The main glucocorticoids involved in the stress response are cortisol and cortisone in most mammals and corticosterone in birds and rodents. Therefore, these analytes are currently the biomarkers more frequently used to evaluate the physiological response to a stressful situation. In addition, “total glucocorticoids”, which refers to the quantification of various glucocorticoids by immunoassays showing cross-reactivity with different types of glucocorticoids or related metabolites, can be measured. In this review, we describe the characteristics of the main glucocorticoids used to assess stress, as well as the main techniques and samples used for their quantification. In addition, we analyse the studies where at least two of the main glucocorticoids were measured in combination. Overall, this review points out the different behaviours of the main glucocorticoids, depending on the animal species and stressful stimuli, and shows the potential advantages that the measurement of at least two different glucocorticoid types can have for evaluating welfare. Full article
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