Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 30052

Special Issue Editors

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: dogs; cats; nutrition; intestinal health; feeding management
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Guest Editor
College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
Interests: animal nutrition; metabolomics; microbiome; companion animals; pet food; dog (canine); cat (feline)
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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy
Interests: intestinal microbiota; animal models; pancreatic disease; gastroenterology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Companion animals, regarded as family members, have drawn increasing attention from researchers. Animal owners are increasingly concerned about the health of their companion animals, having moved to feeding pets healthier diets in the hopes of improving the animals' quality of life and prolong their lifespan through daily nutrition. Among them, the most concerning issues, such as obesity, intestinal health, skin health and diabetes, are related to nutrient metabolism. Therefore, nutrient metabolism research in companion animals is a compelling field with important health implications. These studies provide some theoretical basis for precision nutrition in companion animals.

This Special Issue of Metabolites, entitled “Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals”, aims to focus on the study of nutrient metabolism, the interactions between nutrients and gut microbiota and nutrient-related metabolic diseases in companion animals. This Special Issue is not only intended for the presentation of basic research results (cell or animal models), but is also open to results from epidemiological studies. In addition, novel measurement methods, bioinformatical tools and data analysis concepts are welcome.

Dr. Lian Li
Dr. Baichuan Deng
Dr. Giulia Pignataro
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • companion animal
  • canine
  • feline
  • gut
  • microbiota
  • probiotics
  • obesity

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
Baicalin Exhibits a Protective Effect against Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxic Damage in Canine Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells
by Yao Wang, Xiao Li, Chuanguo Yan, Liuwei Xie and Yang Yang
Metabolites 2023, 13(12), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13121173 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Renal failure is a common chronic disease in dogs that substantially affects both their quality of life and longevity. The objective of this study was to assess the protective mechanisms of baicalin in cisplatin-induced Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells’ apoptosis model and [...] Read more.
Renal failure is a common chronic disease in dogs that substantially affects both their quality of life and longevity. The objective of this study was to assess the protective mechanisms of baicalin in cisplatin-induced Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells’ apoptosis model and explore the impacts of baicalin at varying doses on various indexes, such as cisplatin-induced MDCK cell apoptosis, oxidation and antioxidation, and inflammatory factors. (Methods) MDCK cells in the logarithmic growth phase were randomly divided into a control group, a model group (20 μmol/L cisplatin), and a baicalin-protection group (20 μmol/L cisplatin + 50, 25 μmol/L baicalin) and received the corresponding treatments for 24 h. The effects of cisplatin on MDCK cell apoptosis, oxidation and antioxidation, inflammatory factors, and other indicators were studied, and the relieving effect of baicalin on cisplatin-induced MDCK cell damage was explored. Calcein/PI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that cisplatin induced the apoptosis of MDCK cells, while baicalin effectively reduced the damage caused by cisplatin. The ELISA results demonstrated a significant elevation in the nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels within the MDCK cells following treatment with cisplatin (p < 0.01). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH), and catalase (CAT) activities remarkably declined (p < 0.01), while tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression within the MDCK cells were apparently elevated (p < 0.01). However, baicalin treatment resulted in opposite changes in these factors. The findings suggested that baicalin exhibits potential in mitigating cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in MDCK cells. As revealed with the Western blot results, cisplatin promoted P62, P53, and BAX protein levels, increased mTOR phosphorylation, inhibited AMPK phosphorylation, and reduced Beclin1 and BCL-2 protein levels. However, a contrasting trend was observed following baicalin treatment. Cisplatin can inhibit the activity of MDCK cells, lead to abnormalities in oxidation and antioxidation functions and cell inflammatory factors, and accelerate cell apoptosis. Moreover, baicalin can significantly alleviate the damage of cisplatin to MDCK cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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13 pages, 3023 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Mulberry Leaf Powder on the Growth Performance, Lipid Metabolism Parameters, Immunity Indicators, and Gut Microbiota of Dogs
by Aiying Yu, Cuiming Tang, Sutian Wang, Yuan Wang, Lian Chen, Zhiyi Li, Guoqing Luo, Jianwu Zhong, Zhengfeng Fang, Zhenjiang Wang and Sen Lin
Metabolites 2023, 13(8), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13080918 - 4 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Overfeeding and a lack of exercise are increasingly causing obesity in dogs, which has become a big problem threatening the health of dogs. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how dietary regulations can help to improve dogs’ body conditions and minimize obesity. This [...] Read more.
Overfeeding and a lack of exercise are increasingly causing obesity in dogs, which has become a big problem threatening the health of dogs. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how dietary regulations can help to improve dogs’ body conditions and minimize obesity. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary mulberry leaf powder (MLP) supplementation on the growth performance, lipid metabolism parameters, and gut microbiota of Chinese indigenous dogs. Fifteen Chinese indigenous dogs (6.34 ± 0.56 kg) were randomly assigned to three treatment groups and received either the control diet (CON), high-fat diet (HF), or high-fat diet containing 6% Mulberry leaf powder (MLP) for four weeks. The CON group received a basal diet, the HF group received a basal diet supplemented with 10% lard, and the MLP group received a basal diet supplemented with 10% lard and 6% MLP. The trial lasted for four weeks. The growth performance, lipid metabolism parameters, immune globulins, cytokines, and fecal microbiota were measured. Results showed that there was no significant difference in growth performance. The MLP group appeared to have decreased (p < 0.05) the serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apoliprotein-A1(APO-A1) in serum. The MLP group appeared to have higher (p < 0.05) serum immune globulin A (IgA) levels. UPGMA results showed that the MLP group was closer to the CON group than to the HF group. LEfSe analysis showed that dietary supplementation with MLP contributed to an alteration in the genus Alloprevotella, Sarcina, and species belonging to the Bacteroides and Lactobacillus genus. Overall, the dietary supplementation of 6% MLP can improve lipid metabolism conditions and immunity in high-fat-diet-fed dogs, and can alter the gut microbial composition of dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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15 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Effects of Enzymolysis Seaweed Powder and Saccharomyces boulardii on Intestinal Health and Microbiota Composition in Kittens
by Mingrui Zhang, Ruixia Mo, Mingtan Li, Yuankai Qu, Haotian Wang, Tianyi Liu, Pan Liu and Yi Wu
Metabolites 2023, 13(5), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13050637 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Kittens are prone to intestinal health problems as their intestines are not completely developed. Seaweed is rich in plant polysaccharides and bioactive substances that are highly beneficial to gut health. However, the effects of seaweed on cat gut health have not been assessed. [...] Read more.
Kittens are prone to intestinal health problems as their intestines are not completely developed. Seaweed is rich in plant polysaccharides and bioactive substances that are highly beneficial to gut health. However, the effects of seaweed on cat gut health have not been assessed. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with enzymolysis seaweed powder and Saccharomyces boulardii on the intestinal health of kittens. In total, 30 Ragdoll kittens (age: 6 months; weight: 1.50 ± 0.29 kg) were assigned to three treatment groups for a 4-week feeding trial. The dietary treatment given was as follows: (1) basal diet (CON); (2) CON + enzymolysis seaweed powder (20 g/kg of feed) mixed evenly with the diet (SE); and (3) CON + Saccharomyces boulardii (2 × 1010 CFU/kg of feed) mixed evenly with the diet (SB). Compared with the CON and SB groups, dietary supplementation with the enzymolysis seaweed powder improved the immune and antioxidant capacity and also reduced the intestinal permeability and inflammation levels of kittens. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae, and Faecalibacterium in the SE group was higher than those in the CON and SB groups (p ≤ 0.05), while the relative abundance of Desulfobacterota, Sutterellaceae, and Erysipelatoclostridium in the SB group was lower than that in the SE group (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, enzymolysis seaweed powder did not alter the level of intestinal SCFAs in kittens. Conclusively, supplementing kitten diet with enzymolysis seaweed powder can promote intestinal health by enhancing the gut barrier function and optimizing the microbiota composition. Our findings provide new perspectives on the application of enzymolysis seaweed powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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23 pages, 3417 KiB  
Article
Different Diet Energy Levels Alter Body Condition, Glucolipid Metabolism, Fecal Microbiota and Metabolites in Adult Beagle Dogs
by Haoran Sun, Qiaoru Zhang, Chao Xu, Aipeng Mao, Hui Zhao, Miao Chen, Weili Sun, Guangyu Li and Tietao Zhang
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040554 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Diet energy is a key component of pet food, but it is usually ignored during pet food development and pet owners also have limited knowledge of its importance. This study aimed to explore the effect of diet energy on the body condition, glucolipid [...] Read more.
Diet energy is a key component of pet food, but it is usually ignored during pet food development and pet owners also have limited knowledge of its importance. This study aimed to explore the effect of diet energy on the body condition, glucolipid metabolism, fecal microbiota and metabolites of adult beagles and analyze the relation between diet and host and gut microbiota. Eighteen healthy adult neutered male beagles were selected and randomly divided into three groups. Diets were formulated with three metabolizable energy (ME) levels: the low-energy (Le) group consumed a diet of 13.88 MJ/kg ME; the medium-energy (Me) group consumed a diet of 15.04 MJ/kg ME; and the high-energy (He) group consumed a diet of 17.05 MJ/kg ME. Moreover, the protein content of all these three diets was 29%. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, with a two-week acclimation period and an eight-week test phase. Body weight, body condition score (BCS), muscle condition score (MCS) and body fat index (BFI) decreased in the Le group, and the changes in these factors in the Le group were significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05). The serum glucose and lipid levels of the Le and He groups changed over time (p < 0.05), but those of the Me group were stable (p > 0.05). The fecal pH of the Le and He groups decreased at the end of the trial (p < 0.05) and we found that the profiles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bile acids (BAs) changed greatly, especially secondary BAs (p < 0.05). As SCFAs and secondary BAs are metabolites of the gut microbiota, the fecal microbiota was also measured. Fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing found that the Me group had higher α-diversity indices (p < 0.05). The Me group had notably higher levels of gut probiotics, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides plebeius and Blautia producta (p < 0.05). The diet–host–fecal microbiota interactions were determined by network analysis, and fecal metabolites may help to determine the best physical condition of dogs, assisting pet food development. Overall, feeding dogs low- or high-energy diets was harmful for glucostasis and promoted the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria in the gut, while a medium-energy diet maintained an ideal body condition. We concluded that dogs that are fed a low-energy diet for an extended period may become lean and lose muscle mass, but diets with low energy levels and 29% protein may not supply enough protein for dogs losing weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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14 pages, 4013 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Enhances Intestinal Health in Cats by Altering the Composition of Gut Microbiota and Metabolites
by Ruixia Mo, Mingrui Zhang, Haotian Wang, Tianyi Liu, Pan Liu and Yi Wu
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040529 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
The interaction between gut microbiota and the health of the host has gained increasing attention. Chitosan is a natural alkaline polysaccharide with a wide range of beneficial effects. However, rare studies have been observed on the effects of dietary chitosan supplementation on intestinal [...] Read more.
The interaction between gut microbiota and the health of the host has gained increasing attention. Chitosan is a natural alkaline polysaccharide with a wide range of beneficial effects. However, rare studies have been observed on the effects of dietary chitosan supplementation on intestinal health in cats. A total of 30 cats with mild diarrhea were divided into three groups, receiving a basic diet with 0 (CON), 500 (L-CS) or 2000 (H-CS) mg/kg chitosan. Samples of blood and feces were collected and analyzed for serology and gut microbiota composition. The results demonstrated that chitosan alleviated symptoms of diarrhea, with enhanced antioxidant capability and decreased inflammatory biomarker levels in serum. Chitosan reshaped the composition of gut microbiota in cats that the beneficial bacteria Allobaculum was significantly increased in the H-CS group. Acetate and butyrate contents in feces were significantly higher in the H-CS group in comparison to the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the addition of dietary chitosan in cats enhanced intestinal health by modulating their intestinal microbes and improved microbiota-derived SCFA production. Our results provided insights into the role of chitosan in the gut microbiota of felines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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15 pages, 3449 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Peptides Relieve Transportation Stress in Ragdoll Cats by Regulating the Gut Microbiota
by Shansong He, Kang Yang, Jiawei Wen, Tao Kuang, Zhihao Cao, Lingna Zhang, Sufang Han, Shiyan Jian, Xin Chen, Limeng Zhang, Jinping Deng and Baichuan Deng
Metabolites 2023, 13(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13030326 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Transportation is common in cats and often causes stress and intestinal disorders. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, and they may have the capacity for antioxidant and immune regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects [...] Read more.
Transportation is common in cats and often causes stress and intestinal disorders. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, and they may have the capacity for antioxidant and immune regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with AMPs on stress response, gut microbiota and metabolites of cats that have undergone transport stress. A total of 14 Ragdoll cats were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: basal diet (CON) and a basal diet supplemented with 0.3% AMPs. After a 6-week feeding period, all cats were transported for 3 h and, then, fed for another week. The results show that the diarrhea rate of cats was markedly reduced by supplementation with AMPs throughout the trial period (p < 0.05). In addition, AMPs significantly reduced serum cortisol and serum amyloid A (p < 0.05) and increased apolipoprotein 1 after transportation (p < 0.05). Moreover, AMPs reduced the level of inflammatory factors in the serum caused by transportation stress, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) (p < 0.05). The AMPs enhanced the activities of glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (p < 0.05). Furthermore, cats fed AMPs had higher levels of branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) and a relative abundance of Blautia and a lower relative abundance of Negativibacillus after transportation (p < 0.05). The serum metabolome analysis further revealed that AMPs markedly regulated lipid metabolism by upregulating cholic acid expression. In conclusion, AMP supplementation alleviated oxidative stress and inflammatory response in transportation by regulating the gut microbiota and metabolites, thereby relieving stress-induced diarrhea and supporting gut and host health in cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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14 pages, 2832 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Multistrain Probiotic on Feline Gut Health through the Fecal Microbiota and Its Metabolite SCFAs
by Yifei Li, Ilyas Ali, Zhiqi Lei, Yanan Li, Min Yang, Caixia Yang and Lian Li
Metabolites 2023, 13(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13020228 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3049
Abstract
With the increasing awareness of raising pets following scientific methods, people are becoming increasingly more interested in the nutrition and health of pets, especially their intestinal health, which has become a research hotspot. Both Saccharomyces boulardii and Pediococcus acidilactici are probiotics with strong [...] Read more.
With the increasing awareness of raising pets following scientific methods, people are becoming increasingly more interested in the nutrition and health of pets, especially their intestinal health, which has become a research hotspot. Both Saccharomyces boulardii and Pediococcus acidilactici are probiotics with strong probiotic properties that can maintain the balance of intestinal flora. However, the role of Saccharomyces boulardii and Pediococcus acidilactici in felines has not been comprehensively studied to date. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of multistrain probiotics consisting of Saccharomyces boulardii and Pediococcus acidilactici on the gut health of felines by modulating gut microbes and the production of metabolite SCFAs. The results show that the multistrain probiotic did not alter the intestinal microbial diversity and structure of short-haired domestic cats, promoted the colonization of beneficial bacteria, increased the levels of microbiota-derived SCFAs and fecal antioxidants, and reduced the levels of fecal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the use of a multistrain probiotic in healthy, short-haired domestic cats can promote gut health by modulating gut microbes, improving microbiota-derived SCFA production, reducing inflammatory conditions, and improving antioxidant status. These results provide new insights for further exploration of the role of probiotics in the gut microbiome of cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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17 pages, 1983 KiB  
Article
Effects of Softening Dry Food with Water on Stress Response, Intestinal Microbiome, and Metabolic Profile in Beagle Dogs
by Limeng Zhang, Kang Yang, Shiyan Jian, Zhongquan Xin, Chaoyu Wen, Lingna Zhang, Jian Huang, Baichuan Deng and Jinping Deng
Metabolites 2022, 12(11), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12111124 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 9787
Abstract
Softening dry food with water is believed to be more beneficial to the intestinal health and nutrients absorption of dogs by some owners, but there appears to be little scientific basis for this belief. Thus, this study aimed to compare feeding dry food [...] Read more.
Softening dry food with water is believed to be more beneficial to the intestinal health and nutrients absorption of dogs by some owners, but there appears to be little scientific basis for this belief. Thus, this study aimed to compare feeding dry food (DF) and water-softened dry food (SDF) on stress response, intestinal microbiome, and metabolic profile in dogs. Twenty healthy 5-month-old beagle dogs were selected and divided into two groups according to their gender and body weight using a completely randomized block design. Both groups were fed the same basal diet, with one group fed DF and the other fed SDF. The trial lasted for 21 days. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, inflammatory cytokines, stress hormones, heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), fecal microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), branch-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), and metabolomics were measured. Results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight, ATTD, and SCFAs between the DF and SDF groups (p > 0.05), whereas feeding with SDF caused a significant increase in serum cortisol level (p < 0.05) and tended to have higher interleukin-2 (p = 0.062) and HSP-70 (p = 0.097) levels. Fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing found that the SDF group had higher alpha diversity indices (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the SDF group had higher levels of Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Escherichia_Shigella, and lower levels of Faecalibacterium (p < 0.05). Serum and fecal metabolomics further showed that feeding with SDF significantly influenced the purine metabolism, riboflavin metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism (p < 0.05). Overall, feeding with SDF caused higher cortisol level and generated effects of higher intestinal microbial diversity in dogs, but it caused an increase in some pathogenic bacteria, which may result in intestinal microbiome disturbance and metabolic disorder in dogs. In conclusion, feeding with SDF did not provide digestive benefits but caused some stress and posed a potential threat to the intestinal health of dogs. Thus, SDF is not recommended in the feeding of dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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Review

Jump to: Research

35 pages, 1971 KiB  
Review
Determination of Bile Acids in Canine Biological Samples: Diagnostic Significance
by Krisztián Németh, Ágnes Sterczer, Dávid Sándor Kiss, Réka Katalin Lányi, Vivien Hemző, Kriszta Vámos, Tibor Bartha, Anna Buzás and Katalin Lányi
Metabolites 2024, 14(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo14040178 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The comprehensive examination of bile acids is of paramount importance across various fields of health sciences, influencing physiology, microbiology, internal medicine, and pharmacology. While enzymatic reaction-based photometric methods remain fundamental for total BA measurements, there is a burgeoning demand for more sophisticated techniques [...] Read more.
The comprehensive examination of bile acids is of paramount importance across various fields of health sciences, influencing physiology, microbiology, internal medicine, and pharmacology. While enzymatic reaction-based photometric methods remain fundamental for total BA measurements, there is a burgeoning demand for more sophisticated techniques such as liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for comprehensive BA profiling. This evolution reflects a need for nuanced diagnostic assessments in clinical practice. In canines, a BA assessment involves considering factors, such as food composition, transit times, and breed-specific variations. Multiple matrices, including blood, feces, urine, liver tissue, and gallbladder bile, offer insights into BA profiles, yet interpretations remain complex, particularly in fecal analysis due to sampling challenges and breed-specific differences. Despite ongoing efforts, a consensus regarding optimal matrices and diagnostic thresholds remains elusive, highlighting the need for further research. Emphasizing the scarcity of systematic animal studies and underscoring the importance of ap-propriate sampling methodologies, our review advocates for targeted investigations into BA alterations in canine pathology, promising insights into pathomechanisms, early disease detection, and therapeutic avenues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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12 pages, 612 KiB  
Review
The Nexus of Diet, Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Dogs
by Soufien Rhimi, Aicha Kriaa, Vincent Mariaule, Amel Saidi, Amandine Drut, Amin Jablaoui, Nizar Akermi, Emmanuelle Maguin, Juan Hernandez and Moez Rhimi
Metabolites 2022, 12(12), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12121176 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
Canine inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are of increasing interest in veterinary medicine. They refer to complex and debilitating conditions of dogs’ gastrointestinal tract. Although little evidence for causal inferences is currently available, it is believed that IBD pathophysiology entails intricate interactions between environmental [...] Read more.
Canine inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are of increasing interest in veterinary medicine. They refer to complex and debilitating conditions of dogs’ gastrointestinal tract. Although little evidence for causal inferences is currently available, it is believed that IBD pathophysiology entails intricate interactions between environmental factors, the intestinal immune system, and the microbial communities that colonize the gut. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these disorders, leveraging factors associated with the development of these diseases is imperative. Of these factors, emerging evidence supports the role of dietary patterns as key players influencing the composition and function of gut microbes, with subsequent effects on health and disease. In this review, we particularly focus on addressing IBD in dogs and discuss how specific nutrients may elicit or relieve gut inflammation. Gaining mechanistic insights into such interplay and the underpinning mechanisms is key to inferring dietary recommendations, and setting up new and promising therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Metabolism Studies in Companion Animals)
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