Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Membranes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 24753

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Ilan University, Yilan City 260, Taiwan
Interests: membrane; hybrid; thin-film composite; membrane separation; pervaporation; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis; gas separation
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Guest Editor
R&D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
Interests: membrane formation; polymeric membranes; pervaporation; nanofiltration; gas separation; surface modification; microstructure analysis; thin-film technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
R&D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
Interests: membrane filtration; membrane preparation and fabrication; membrane applications; interfacial polymerization; nanomaterials; desalination; nanofiltration; pervaporation; thin-film composite membranes; mixed-matrix membranes; polymeric membranes; water treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Membrane technology is a promising solution to problems encountered in wastewater treatment, the recovery of solvents from waste streams discharged by industrial processes, and the emission of flue gases or spent gases from industrial sectors. Now, the goal of industrial process design is to achieve zero waste. Hence, it is essential to implement the recycling, reuse, and recovery of valuable compounds. For over a decade, porous and dense membranes have been an indispensable part of separation processes because they offer low footprint, are simple and flexible to construct, and have low energy consumption. Upgrading current membrane materials for separation processes to support global industrialization is key to achieving the sustainability of unit operations. New materials are explored as alternatives to traditional materials to attain sustainable and efficient separation processes. 

In connection to this Special Issue on “Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications,” Membranes is pleased to invite you to submit your latest discoveries related to current state-of-the-art porous and dense membranes, dealing with various applications in wastewater treatment, solvent recovery, desalination, and gas separation. For this Special Issue, we welcome you to submit original research articles and reviews. Research areas include (but are not limited to) the following: characterization of novel porous or dense membranes; porous or dense membranes and their applications; inorganic membranes and their applications; hybrid membranes for membrane separations; bio-inspired membranes and their applications; and transport mechanisms for porous or dense membranes. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Shu-Hsien Huang
Prof. Dr. Kueir-Rarn Lee
Dr. Micah Belle Marie Yap Ang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • porous membranes
  • dense membranes
  • polymeric materials
  • inorganic materials
  • nanocomposite materials
  • mixed-matrix membranes
  • bio-inspired membranes

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4491 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Solar-Driven Hollow Fiber Membrane Liquid Dehumidification System
by Cai-Hang Liang, Jia-Li Hu, Nan-Feng Li, Zhi-Peng He, Chou Mo and Si Zeng
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040383 - 27 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
The hollow fiber membrane modules act as dehumidifiers and regenerators to avoid gas–liquid entrainment problems in direct-contact dehumidification systems. A solar-driven hollow fiber membrane dehumidification experimental rig was designed to investigate its performance from July to September in Guilin, China. The dehumidification, regeneration, [...] Read more.
The hollow fiber membrane modules act as dehumidifiers and regenerators to avoid gas–liquid entrainment problems in direct-contact dehumidification systems. A solar-driven hollow fiber membrane dehumidification experimental rig was designed to investigate its performance from July to September in Guilin, China. The dehumidification, regeneration, and cooling performance of the system between 8:30 and 17:30 are analyzed. The energy utilization of the solar collector and system is investigated. The results show that solar radiation has a significant influence on the system. The hourly regeneration of the system has the same trend as the temperature of solar hot water, which ranges from 0.13 g/s to 0.36 g/s. The regeneration capacity of the dehumidification system is always larger than the dehumidification capacity after 10:30, which increases the solution concentration and the dehumidification performance. Further, it ensures stable system operation when the solar radiation is lower (15:30–17:50). In addition, the hourly dehumidification capacity and efficiency of the system ranges from 0.15 g/s to 0.23 g/s and 52.4 to 71.3%, respectively, with good dehumidification performance. The COP of the system and solar collector have the same trend, in which their maximum values are 0.874 and 0.634, respectively, with high energy utilization efficiency. The solar-driven hollow fiber membrane liquid dehumidification system performs better in regions with larger solar radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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11 pages, 2651 KiB  
Article
Using Tannic-Acid-Based Complex to Modify Polyacrylonitrile Hollow Fiber Membrane for Efficient Oil-In-Water Separation
by Micah Belle Marie Yap Ang, Wei-Lin Hsu, You-Syuan Wang, Hsin-Yu Kuo, Hui-An Tsai and Kueir-Rarn Lee
Membranes 2023, 13(3), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030351 - 18 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Separating oil from water allows us to reuse both fluids for various applications, leading to a more economical process. Membrane separation has been evidenced as a cost-effective process for wastewater treatment. A hollow fiber membrane made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is an excellent choice [...] Read more.
Separating oil from water allows us to reuse both fluids for various applications, leading to a more economical process. Membrane separation has been evidenced as a cost-effective process for wastewater treatment. A hollow fiber membrane made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is an excellent choice for separating oil from water because of its superior chemical resistance. Its low antifouling ability, however, reduces the effectiveness of its separation. Hence, in this study, we used tannic acid (TA) and FeIII complex to modify the surface of the PAN hollow fiber membrane. To improve membrane performance, different reaction times were investigated. The results demonstrate that even when the TA-FeIII covered the pores of the PAN membrane, the water flux remained constant. However, when an emulsion was fed to the feed solution, the flux increased from 50 to 66 LMH, indicating low oil adhesion on the surface of the modified membrane. When compared to the pristine membrane, the modified membrane had superior antifouling and reusability. As a result, the hydrophilic TA-FeIII complex on PAN surface improves overall membrane performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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6 pages, 1554 KiB  
Communication
Environmental Friendly Fabrication of Porous Cement Membranes via Reusable Camphene-Based Freeze-Casting Method
by Zhen Wang, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhantong Sun, Xiaofeng Wang, Hongdong Wang, Congjie Gao and Xueli Gao
Membranes 2022, 12(9), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12090867 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Inorganic membranes have been developed rapidly in recent years because of excellent anti-fouling performance, high mechanical strength and outstanding resistances to acid and alkali. However, the high production cost still restricts its large-scale industrial application. In this work, an environmental friendly unidirectional freezing [...] Read more.
Inorganic membranes have been developed rapidly in recent years because of excellent anti-fouling performance, high mechanical strength and outstanding resistances to acid and alkali. However, the high production cost still restricts its large-scale industrial application. In this work, an environmental friendly unidirectional freezing method via introducing camphene as a reusable template was adapted to prepare porous cement membranes (PCMs). The naturally formed and highly aligned porous structures of PCMs could be divided into three parts: a dense layer, a transition layer and a supporting layer. With the solid content rising from 40 wt.% to 60 wt.%, the pore size of the PCMs decreased from 3.34 nm to 3.62 nm, the bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection increased from 81.3% to 93.5% and water flux decreased from 346.8 L·m−2·h−1 to 167.3 L·m−2·h−1 (0.2 MPa). Significantly, the performance of PCMs was maintained; even the camphene was reused 20 times. Additionally, the recovery rate of camphene could be reached up to 97.16%. Therefore, this method is cost effective and environmental friendly, which endowed the PCMs great potential in water treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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13 pages, 3756 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Porous Silicate Cement Membranes via a One-Step Water-Based Hot–Dry Casting Method
by Zhantong Sun, Xiaojuan Wang, Haifeng Yuan, Shizhong Sang, Huacheng Xu, Yijun Huang, Congjie Gao and Xueli Gao
Membranes 2022, 12(9), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12090838 - 28 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
A commercial interest in the improvement in the separation performance and permeability of porous materials is driving efforts to deeply explore new preparation methods. In this study, the porous silicate cement membranes (PSCMs) were successfully prepared through an adjustable combination of hot–dry casting [...] Read more.
A commercial interest in the improvement in the separation performance and permeability of porous materials is driving efforts to deeply explore new preparation methods. In this study, the porous silicate cement membranes (PSCMs) were successfully prepared through an adjustable combination of hot–dry casting and a cement hydration process. The obtained membrane channel was unidirectional, and the surface layer was dense. The physical characteristics of the PSCMs including their pore morphology, porosity, and compressive strength, were diversified by adjusting the solid content and hot–dry temperature. The results indicated that with the solid content increasing from 40 wt. % to 60 wt. %, the porosity decreased by 8.07%, while the compressive strength improved by 12.46%. As the hot–dry temperature increased from 40 °C to 100 °C, the porosity improved by 23.04% and the BET specific surface area and total pore volume enlarged significantly, while the compressive strength decreased by 27.03%. The pore size distribution of the PSCMs exhibited a layered structure of macropores and mesopores, and the pore size increased with the hot–dry temperature. Overall, the PSCMs, which had typical structures and adjustable physical characteristics, exhibited excellent permeability and separation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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23 pages, 9584 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Dialysis Treatment Using Hollow Fiber Membrane: A New Approach by CFD
by Hortência L. F. Magalhães, Ricardo S. Gomez, Boniek E. Leite, Jéssica B. S. Nascimento, Mirenia K. T. Brito, Morgana V. Araújo, Daniel C. M. Cavalcante, Elisiane S. Lima, Antonio G. B. Lima and Severino R. Farias Neto
Membranes 2022, 12(7), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12070710 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
Due to the increase in the number of people affected by chronic renal failure, the demand for hemodialysis treatment has increased considerably over the years. In this sense, theoretical and experimental studies to improve the equipment (hemodialyzer) are extremely important, due to their [...] Read more.
Due to the increase in the number of people affected by chronic renal failure, the demand for hemodialysis treatment has increased considerably over the years. In this sense, theoretical and experimental studies to improve the equipment (hemodialyzer) are extremely important, due to their potential impact on the patient’s life quality undergoing treatment. To contribute to this research line, this work aims to study the fluid behavior inside a hollow fiber dialyzer using computational fluid dynamics. In that new approach, the blood is considered as multiphase fluid and the membrane as an extra flow resistance in the porous region (momentum sink). The numerical study of the hemodialysis process was based on the development of a mathematical model that allowed analyzing the performance of the system using Ansys® Fluent software. The predicted results were compared with results reported in the literature and a good concordance was obtained. The simulation results showed that the proposed model can predict the fluid behavior inside the hollow fiber membrane adequately. In addition, it was found that the clearance decreases with increasing radial viscous resistance, with greater permeations in the vicinity of the lumen inlet region, as well as the emergence of the retrofiltration phenomenon, characteristic of this type of process. Herein, velocity, pressure, and volumetric fraction fields are presented and analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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20 pages, 5574 KiB  
Article
Cobalt-Based Cathode Catalysts for Oxygen-Reduction Reaction in an Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
by Tar-Hwa Hsieh, Yen-Zen Wang and Ko-Shan Ho
Membranes 2022, 12(7), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12070699 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
A novel cobalt-chelating polyimine (Co-PIM) containing an additional amine group is prepared from the condensation polymerization of diethylene triamine (DETA) and terephthalalehyde (PTAl) by the Schiff reaction. A Co, N-co-doped carbon material (Co-N-C), obtained from two-stage calcination in different gas atmospheres is used [...] Read more.
A novel cobalt-chelating polyimine (Co-PIM) containing an additional amine group is prepared from the condensation polymerization of diethylene triamine (DETA) and terephthalalehyde (PTAl) by the Schiff reaction. A Co, N-co-doped carbon material (Co-N-C), obtained from two-stage calcination in different gas atmospheres is used as the cathode catalyst of an anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). The Co-N-C catalyst demonstrates a CoNx-type single-atom structure seen under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The Co-N-C catalysts are characterized by FTIR, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy as well. Their morphologies are also illustrated by SEM and TEM micrographs, respectively. Surface area and pore size distribution are found by BET analysis. Co-N-C catalysts exhibit a remarkable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at 0.8 V in the KOH(aq). From the LSV (linear-sweeping voltammetry) curves, the onset potential relative to RHE is 1.19–1.37 V, the half wave potential is 0.73–0.78 V, the Tafel slopes are 76.9–93.6 mV dec−1, and the average number of exchange electrons is 3.81. The limiting reduction current of CoNC-1000A-900 is almost the same as that of commercial 20 wt% Pt-deposited carbon particles (Pt/C), and the max power density (Pmax) of the single cell using CoNC-1000A-900 as the cathode catalyst reaches 361 mW cm−2, which is higher than Pt/C (284 mW cm−2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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22 pages, 3687 KiB  
Article
Ion Separations Based on Spontaneously Arising Streaming Potentials in Rotating Isoporous Membranes
by Chao Tang, Andriy Yaroshchuk and Merlin L. Bruening
Membranes 2022, 12(6), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12060631 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Highly selective ion separations are vital for producing pure salts, and membrane-based separations are promising alternatives to conventional ion-separation techniques. Our previous work demonstrated that simple pressure-driven flow through negatively charged isoporous membranes can separate Li+ and K+ with selectivities as [...] Read more.
Highly selective ion separations are vital for producing pure salts, and membrane-based separations are promising alternatives to conventional ion-separation techniques. Our previous work demonstrated that simple pressure-driven flow through negatively charged isoporous membranes can separate Li+ and K+ with selectivities as high as 70 in dilute solutions. The separation mechanism relies on spontaneously arising streaming potentials that induce electromigration, which opposes advection and separates cations based on differences in their electrophoretic mobilities. Although the separation technique is simple, this work shows that high selectivities are possible only with careful consideration of experimental conditions including transmembrane pressure, solution ionic strength, the K+/Li+ ratio in the feed, and the extent of concentration polarization. Separations conducted with a rotating membrane show Li+/K+ selectivities as high as 150 with a 1000 rpm membrane rotation rate, but the selectivity decreases to 1.3 at 95 rpm. These results demonstrate the benefits and necessity of quantitative control of concentration polarization in highly selective separations. Increases in solution ionic strength or the K+/Li+ feed ratio can also decrease selectivities more than an order of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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13 pages, 4380 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Performance of Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membranes by Embedding in Situ Silica Nanoparticles
by Manuel Reyes De Guzman, Micah Belle Marie Yap Ang, Kai-Ting Hsu, Min-Yi Chu, Jeremiah C. Millare, Shu-Hsien Huang, Hui-An Tsai and Kueir-Rarn Lee
Membranes 2022, 12(6), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12060607 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
In this work, silica nanoparticles were produced in situ, to be embedded eventually in the polyamide layer formed during interfacial polymerization for fabricating thin-film nanocomposite membranes with enhanced performance for dehydrating isopropanol solution. The nanoparticles were synthesized through a sol-gel reaction between 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane [...] Read more.
In this work, silica nanoparticles were produced in situ, to be embedded eventually in the polyamide layer formed during interfacial polymerization for fabricating thin-film nanocomposite membranes with enhanced performance for dehydrating isopropanol solution. The nanoparticles were synthesized through a sol-gel reaction between 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMOS) and 1,3-cyclohexanediamine (CHDA). Two monomers—CHDA (with APTMOS) and trimesoyl chloride—were reacted on a hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile (hPAN) support. To obtain optimum fabricating conditions, the ratio of APTMOS to CHDA and reaction time were varied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to illustrate the change in morphology as a result of embedding silica nanoparticles. The optimal conditions for preparing the nanocomposite membrane turned out to be 0.15 (g/g) APTMOS/CHDA and 60 min mixing of APTMOS and CHDA, leading to the following membrane performance: flux = 1071 ± 79 g∙m−2∙h−1, water concentration in permeate = 97.34 ± 0.61%, and separation factor = 85.39. A stable performance was shown by the membrane under different operating conditions, where the water concentration in permeate was more than 90 wt%. Therefore, the embedment of silica nanoparticles generated in situ enhanced the separation efficiency of the membrane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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16 pages, 3290 KiB  
Article
Reagent-Free Immobilization of Industrial Lipases to Develop Lipolytic Membranes with Self-Cleaning Surfaces
by Martin Schmidt, Andrea Prager, Nadja Schönherr, Roger Gläser and Agnes Schulze
Membranes 2022, 12(6), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12060599 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
Biocatalytic membrane reactors combine the highly efficient biotransformation capability of enzymes with the selective filtration performance of membrane filters. Common strategies to immobilize enzymes on polymeric membranes are based on chemical coupling reactions. Still, they are associated with drawbacks such as long reaction [...] Read more.
Biocatalytic membrane reactors combine the highly efficient biotransformation capability of enzymes with the selective filtration performance of membrane filters. Common strategies to immobilize enzymes on polymeric membranes are based on chemical coupling reactions. Still, they are associated with drawbacks such as long reaction times, high costs, and the use of potentially toxic or hazardous reagents. In this study, a reagent-free immobilization method based on electron beam irradiation was investigated, which allows much faster, cleaner, and cheaper fabrication of enzyme membrane reactors. Two industrial lipase enzymes were coupled onto a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat sheet membrane to create self-cleaning surfaces. The response surface methodology (RSM) in the design-of-experiments approach was applied to investigate the effects of three numerical factors on enzyme activity, yielding a maximum activity of 823 ± 118 U m−2 (enzyme concentration: 8.4 g L−1, impregnation time: 5 min, irradiation dose: 80 kGy). The lipolytic membranes were used in fouling tests with olive oil (1 g L−1 in 2 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate), resulting in 100% regeneration of filtration performance after 3 h of self-cleaning in an aqueous buffer (pH 8, 37 °C). Reusability with three consecutive cycles demonstrates regeneration of 95%. Comprehensive membrane characterization was performed by determining enzyme kinetic parameters, permeance monitoring, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and zeta potential, as well as water contact angle measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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15 pages, 3170 KiB  
Article
Morphology Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on the Gas Separation Performance of Polyurethane Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Recovery from CH4, O2, and N2
by Tatyana Sergeevna Sazanova, Kirill Alexandrovich Smorodin, Dmitriy Mikhailovich Zarubin, Kseniia Vladimirovna Otvagina, Alexey Andreevich Maslov, Artem Nikolaevich Markov, Diana Georgievna Fukina, Alla Evgenievna Mochalova, Leonid Alexandrovich Mochalov, Artem Anatolevich Atlaskin and Andrey Vladimirovich Vorotyntsev
Membranes 2022, 12(6), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12060577 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
The effect of the morphology and content of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the physicochemical, mechanical, and gas transport properties of the polyurethane (PU) mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with respect to CO2 recovery from CH4, O2, and N [...] Read more.
The effect of the morphology and content of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the physicochemical, mechanical, and gas transport properties of the polyurethane (PU) mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with respect to CO2 recovery from CH4, O2, and N2 was studied. The MMMs based on PU with spherical and rod-shaped ZnO-NPs at various loadings, namely, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 wt. %, were prepared with membrane density control and studied using AFM, wettability measurements, surface free energy calculation, gas separation and mechanical testing. To evaluate the resistance of the ZnO-NPs to agglomeration in the polymer solutions, zeta potential was determined. The ZnO-NPs with average cross sectional size of 30 nm were obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from elemental high-purity zinc in a zinc-oxygen-hydrogen plasma-forming gas mixture. It was established that the spherical ZnO-NPs are promising to improve the gas performance of PU-based MMMs for CO2 recovery from natural gas, while the rod-shaped NPs better demonstrate their potential in capturing CO2 in flue gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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15 pages, 5683 KiB  
Article
Vacuum-Assisted Interfacial Polymerization Technique for Enhanced Pervaporation Separation Performance of Thin-Film Composite Membranes
by Marwin R. Gallardo, Micah Belle Marie Yap Ang, Jeremiah C. Millare, Shu-Hsien Huang, Hui-An Tsai and Kueir-Rarn Lee
Membranes 2022, 12(5), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12050508 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
In this work, thin-film composite polyamide membranes were fabricated using triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) following the vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization (VAIP) method for the pervaporation (PV) dehydration of aqueous isopropanol (IPA) solution. The physical and chemical properties as well as separation performance [...] Read more.
In this work, thin-film composite polyamide membranes were fabricated using triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) following the vacuum-assisted interfacial polymerization (VAIP) method for the pervaporation (PV) dehydration of aqueous isopropanol (IPA) solution. The physical and chemical properties as well as separation performance of the TFCVAIP membranes were compared with the membrane prepared using the traditional interfacial polymerization (TIP) technique (TFCTIP). Characterization results showed that the TFCVAIP membrane had a higher crosslinking degree, higher surface roughness, and denser structure than the TFCTIP membrane. As a result, the TFCVAIP membrane exhibited a higher separation performance in 70 wt.% aqueous IPA solution at 25 °C with permeation flux of 1504 ± 169 g∙m−2∙h−1, water concentration in permeate of 99.26 ± 0.53 wt%, and separation factor of 314 (five times higher than TFCTIP). Moreover, the optimization of IP parameters, such as variation of TETA and TMC concentrations as well as polymerization time for the TFCVAIP membrane, was carried out. The optimum condition in fabricating the TFCVAIP membrane was 0.05 wt.% TETA, 0.1 wt% TMC, and 60 s polymerization time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

53 pages, 4632 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances on the Fabrication of Antifouling Phase-Inversion Membranes by Physical Blending Modification Method
by Tesfaye Abebe Geleta, Irish Valerie Maggay, Yung Chang and Antoine Venault
Membranes 2023, 13(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13010058 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4204
Abstract
Membrane technology is an essential tool for water treatment and biomedical applications. Despite their extensive use in these fields, polymeric-based membranes still face several challenges, including instability, low mechanical strength, and propensity to fouling. The latter point has attracted the attention of numerous [...] Read more.
Membrane technology is an essential tool for water treatment and biomedical applications. Despite their extensive use in these fields, polymeric-based membranes still face several challenges, including instability, low mechanical strength, and propensity to fouling. The latter point has attracted the attention of numerous teams worldwide developing antifouling materials for membranes and interfaces. A convenient method to prepare antifouling membranes is via physical blending (or simply blending), which is a one-step method that consists of mixing the main matrix polymer and the antifouling material prior to casting and film formation by a phase inversion process. This review focuses on the recent development (past 10 years) of antifouling membranes via this method and uses different phase-inversion processes including liquid-induced phase separation, vapor induced phase separation, and thermally induced phase separation. Antifouling materials used in these recent studies including polymers, metals, ceramics, and carbon-based and porous nanomaterials are also surveyed. Furthermore, the assessment of antifouling properties and performances are extensively summarized. Finally, we conclude this review with a list of technical and scientific challenges that still need to be overcome to improve the functional properties and widen the range of applications of antifouling membranes prepared by blending modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Porous and Dense Membranes: Fabrication and Applications)
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