Environmentally Friendly Approaches for Fabrication of Filtration Membranes (Volume II)

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 12610

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
A.V.Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis RAS (TIPS RAS), Leninsky pr., 29, Moscow, Russia
Interests: polymeric membranes; micro-, ultrafiltration; water-oil emulsions; water treatment; fouling; organic solvent nanofiltration; chemical resistance; synthetic and bio-polymers; nanocellulose; preparation polymeric membranes; hollow fiber; 3D printing; Palladium (Pd); trichloroethylene; hydrodechlorination; membrane contactor; catalytic reactor
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Guest Editor
Institute on Membrane Technology, National esearch Council, ITM-CNR, via P. Bucci, 17/C, 87036 Rende, Cosenza, Italy
Interests: polymeric membranes; hollow-fibers; membrane preparation; bio-polymeric membranes; membrane characterization; pervaporation; antifouling coatings; self-cleaning membranes; ultra-micro filtration; sustainable membrane preparation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Membrane separation has become one of the fastest growing technologies over the past few decades. Along with the improvement of membrane properties for various separation tasks in connection with the tightening of requirements for environmental protection in recent years, the creation of environmentally friendly approaches for the production of polymer membranes has become key. The absence of solvents, the partial or complete replacement of highly toxic solvents with non-toxic ones, and the use of biopolymers as membrane materials or modifiers can reduce the negative impact on the environment. Those approaches listed above and further novel approaches may have great potential to compete with traditional processes. Special emphasis will be placed on but not limited to the following:

  • Biopolymers as membrane materials;
  • New biodegradable membrane materials;
  • Green or more sustainable solvents for membrane preparation;
  • Biopolymers as membrane modifiers to improve transport and release properties and to increase resistance to fouling;
  • Environmentally friendly membrane processes for separation in aqueous and non-aqueous media.

A combination of traditional and new membrane technologies to reduce the negative impact on the environment. 

Dr. Tatyana Anokhina
Dr. Francesco Galiano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microfiltration
  • ultrafiltration
  • nanofiltration
  • pervaporation
  • biopolymers
  • composite membranes
  • green solvents
  • sustainable materials
  • polyelectrolytes
  • water treatment
  • water–oil emulsions
  • fouling
  • modifiers

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Membranes Based on Cellulose and Copolymers of Acrylonitrile Prepared from Joint Solutions
by Igor S. Makarov, Gulbarshin K. Shambilova, Markel I. Vinogradov, Tatyana S. Anokhina, Aigul S. Bukanova, Fazilat B. Kairliyeva, Saule K. Bukanova and Ivan S. Levin
Membranes 2023, 13(7), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13070667 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Cellulose and copolymers of acrylonitrile (PAN) are characterized by their chemical resistance to several conventional solvents. Therefore, these polymers are often used to obtain membranes for the recovery of such solvents. In this work, for the first time, composite membranes formed from highly [...] Read more.
Cellulose and copolymers of acrylonitrile (PAN) are characterized by their chemical resistance to several conventional solvents. Therefore, these polymers are often used to obtain membranes for the recovery of such solvents. In this work, for the first time, composite membranes formed from highly concentrated mixed solutions based on cellulose and PAN are considered (the total content of polymers is 18 wt.%). For mixed solutions, the morphology and rheological behavior were evaluated. It is shown that the resulting solutions are two-phase, and their morphology depends on the components’ ratio and the system’s history. The non-monotonous change in the viscosity with the PAN content indicates a specific interaction of cellulose and PAN in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide solutions. The rheological behavior of mixed solutions allows for their processing in conditions identical to those of cellulose solutions. The introduction of PAN into the cellulose matrix promotes a decrease in the structural order in the system, affecting the membranes’ transport properties. For composite membranes, it was found that with an increase in the content of the PAN phase, the retention of Remazol and Orange decreases, while the observed values are several times higher than those for cellulose membranes. The permeability of ethanol increases with increasing terpolymer content. Full article
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17 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Merging Proline:Xylitol Eutectic Solvent in Crosslinked Chitosan Pervaporation Membranes for Enhanced Water Permeation in Dehydrating Ethanol
by Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Maksymilian Plata-Gryl and Grzegorz Boczkaj
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040451 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The scope of this research aims at merging a new deep eutectic mixture (DES) into a biopolymer-based membrane for a pervaporation application in dehydrating ethanol. Herein, an L-proline:xylitol (at 5:1) eutectic mixture was successfully synthesized and blended with chitosan (CS). A complete characterization [...] Read more.
The scope of this research aims at merging a new deep eutectic mixture (DES) into a biopolymer-based membrane for a pervaporation application in dehydrating ethanol. Herein, an L-proline:xylitol (at 5:1) eutectic mixture was successfully synthesized and blended with chitosan (CS). A complete characterization of the hybrid membranes, in terms of morphology, solvent uptake, and hydrophilicity, has been conducted. As part of their applicability, the blended membranes were assayed for their ability to separate water from ethanolic solutions by means of pervaporation. At the highest temperature (50 °C), a water permeation of ca. 0.46 kg m−2 h−1 was acquired, representing a higher permeation than the pristine CS membranes (ca. 0.37 kg m−2 h−1). Therefore, CS membranes demonstrated an enhanced water permeation thanks to their blending with the hydrophilic L-proline:xylitol agent, making these membranes a good candidate for other separations containing polar solvents. Full article
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20 pages, 37156 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of a Zircon Microfiltration Membrane for Culture Medium Sterilization
by Zineb Khebli, Ferhat Bouzerara, Nourddine Brihi, Alberto Figoli, Francesca Russo, Francesco Galiano and Sadek Chahredine
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040399 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Multilayer ceramic membranes to be used for bacteria removal by filtration were prepared from ceramic materials. They consist of a macro-porous carrier, an intermediate layer and a thin separation layer at the top. Tubular and flat disc supports were prepared from silica sand [...] Read more.
Multilayer ceramic membranes to be used for bacteria removal by filtration were prepared from ceramic materials. They consist of a macro-porous carrier, an intermediate layer and a thin separation layer at the top. Tubular and flat disc supports were prepared from silica sand and calcite (natural raw materials), using extrusion and uniaxial pressing methods, respectively. Making use of the slip casting technique, the silica sand intermediate layer and the zircon top-layer were deposited on the supports, in this order. The particle size and the sintering temperature for each layer were optimized to achieve a suitable pore size for the deposition of the next layer. Morphology, microstructures, pore characteristics, strength and permeability were also studied. Filtration tests were conducted to optimize the permeation performance of the membrane. Experimental results show that the total porosity and average pore size of the porous ceramic supports sintered at different temperatures within the range (1150–1300 °C), and lie in the ranges of 44–52% and 5–30 μm, respectively. For the ZrSiO4 top-layer, after firing at 1190 °C, a typical average pore size of about 0.3 μm and a thickness of about 70 μm were measured, while water permeability is estimated to a value of 440 lh−1m−2bar−1. Finally, the optimized membranes were tested in the sterilization of a culture medium. Filtration results show the efficiency of the zircon-deposited membranes for bacteria removal; indeed, the growth medium was found to be free of all microorganisms. Full article
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21 pages, 3970 KiB  
Article
Novel Inorganic Membranes Based on Magnetite-Containing Silica Porous Glasses for Ultrafiltration: Structure and Sorption Properties
by Marina Konon, Elena Yu. Brazovskaya, Valery Kreisberg, Ekaterina Semenova, Irina G. Polyakova, Armenak Osipov and Tatiana Antropova
Membranes 2023, 13(3), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030341 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Porous glasses (PGs) obtained from sodium borosilicate (NBS) phase-separated glasses via leaching are promising inorganic membranes. Introducing Fe2O3 into NBS glasses imparts ferrimagnetic properties due to magnetite crystallization. Leaching of such glasses leads to the formation of magnetic PGs with [...] Read more.
Porous glasses (PGs) obtained from sodium borosilicate (NBS) phase-separated glasses via leaching are promising inorganic membranes. Introducing Fe2O3 into NBS glasses imparts ferrimagnetic properties due to magnetite crystallization. Leaching of such glasses leads to the formation of magnetic PGs with interesting electro-surface characteristics. This work aimed to investigate the process of obtaining magnetite-containing PGs from NBS glasses depending on silica content, using XRPD and Raman spectroscopy, studying the PG membranes’ structural characteristics and their sorption properties with respect to methylene blue (MB). Obtained PGs were characterized by a polymodal distribution of mesopores and a small number of micropores with specific surface area values of 32–135 m2/g and an average mesopore diameter of 5–41 nm. The kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion equations. The equilibrium isotherms were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. MB adsorption was found to be a complex process. The glass with the highest specific surface area demonstrated the maximum sorption capacity (10.5 mg/g). The pore size of PGs allowed them to be considered potential novel magnetic membranes for ultrafiltration. Full article
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15 pages, 2976 KiB  
Article
Eco-Friendly OSN Membranes Based on Alginate Salts with Variable Nanofiltration Properties
by Evgenia Dmitrieva, Alisa Raeva, Daria Razlataya and Tatyana Anokhina
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020244 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
In this work, membranes for organic solvents nanofiltration (OSN) based on a natural polymer, sodium alginate, were fabricated. They are chemically stable in organic solvents, including aprotic polar solvents. The unique advantage of these membranes is the absence of toxic reagents and solvents [...] Read more.
In this work, membranes for organic solvents nanofiltration (OSN) based on a natural polymer, sodium alginate, were fabricated. They are chemically stable in organic solvents, including aprotic polar solvents. The unique advantage of these membranes is the absence of toxic reagents and solvents during their production. This ensures the safety and environmental friendliness of the production process. It has been shown that an operation as simple as changing the cation in alginate (Cu2+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Zn2+, Ca2+) makes it possible to control the transport and separating properties of membranes, depending on the organic solvent being separated. Therefore, to isolate RemazolBrilliant Blue with MM = 626 g·mol−1 from ethanol, membranes based on iron alginate with a rejection R = 97% and a permeability of 1.5 kg·m−2·h−1·bar−1 are the most efficient. For isolation of the same solute from DMF and MP, membranes based on calcium alginate with an R of about 90% and a permeability of 0.1–0.2 kg·m−2·h−1·bar−1 are the most efficient. The resulting membranes based on natural biodegradable sodium alginate are competitive compared to membranes based on synthetic polymers. Full article
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19 pages, 9747 KiB  
Article
Alginate Ag for Composite Hollow Fiber Membrane: Formation and Ethylene/Ethane Gas Mixture Separation
by Evgenia Dmitrieva, Evgenia Grushevenko, Daria Razlataya, George Golubev, Tatiana Rokhmanka, Tatyana Anokhina and Stepan Bazhenov
Membranes 2022, 12(11), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12111090 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Membranes based on natural polymers, in particular alginate, are of great interest for various separation tasks. In particular, the possibility of introducing silver ions during the crosslinking of sodium alginate makes it possible to obtain a membrane with an active olefin transporter. In [...] Read more.
Membranes based on natural polymers, in particular alginate, are of great interest for various separation tasks. In particular, the possibility of introducing silver ions during the crosslinking of sodium alginate makes it possible to obtain a membrane with an active olefin transporter. In this work, the creation of a hollow fiber composite membrane with a selective layer of silver alginate is proposed for the first time. The approach to obtaining silver alginate is presented in detail, and its sorption and transport properties are also studied. It is worth noting the increased selectivity of the material for the ethylene/ethane mixture (more than 100). A technique for obtaining a hollow fiber membrane from silver alginate has been developed, and its separating characteristics have been determined. It is shown that in thin layers, silver alginate retains high values of selectivity for the ethylene/ethane gas pair. The obtained gas transport properties demonstrate the high potential of using membranes based on silver alginate for the separation of an olefin/paraffin mixture. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 4864 KiB  
Review
Green Methods for the Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Membranes: From Graphite to Membranes
by Alessandro Pedico, Luisa Baudino, Anna Aixalà-Perelló and Andrea Lamberti
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040429 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
Graphene oxide (GO) has shown great potential as a membrane material due to its unique properties, including high mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability, versatility, tunability, and outperforming molecular sieving capabilities. GO membranes can be used in a wide range of applications, such as [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide (GO) has shown great potential as a membrane material due to its unique properties, including high mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability, versatility, tunability, and outperforming molecular sieving capabilities. GO membranes can be used in a wide range of applications, such as water treatment, gas separation, and biological applications. However, the large-scale production of GO membranes currently relies on energy-intensive chemical methods that use hazardous chemicals, leading to safety and environmental concerns. Therefore, more sustainable and greener approaches to GO membrane production are needed. In this review, several strategies proposed so far are analyzed, including a discussion on the use of eco-friendly solvents, green reducing agents, and alternative fabrication techniques, both for the preparation of the GO powders and their assembly in membrane form. The characteristics of these approaches aiming to reduce the environmental impact of GO membrane production while maintaining the performance, functionality, and scalability of the membrane are evaluated. In this context, the purpose of this work is to shed light on green and sustainable routes for GO membranes’ production. Indeed, the development of green approaches for GO membrane production is crucial to ensure its sustainability and promote its widespread use in various industrial application fields. Full article
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