Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 10726

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321, Japan
Interests: ionic liquid-based extraction; deep eutectic solvent-based extraction
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, entitled “Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction”, is motivated by a growing interest in developing novel selective membranes for metal separation processes. Urban mining refers to the stockpiling of rare metals from discarded electrical and electronic equipment in cities. The separation and recovery of valuable rare metals with high dispersions and low concentrations from urban mining requires highly efficient extraction technology. Thus, for separating rare metals from dilute resources, membrane systems, including with membrane extraction and liquid membranes, have shown significant advantages, owing to their potentially high selectivity and low footprint.

Seawater is another important and largely untapped source of valuable metals. Metals such as boric acid and magnesium chloride should be removed from seawater for water purification. Separation technologies based on sub/nanostructured membranes, i.e., polymer membranes in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration with diameters with narrower than 10 nm, have been developed for metal recovery. These membranes are state-of-the-art for selectivity and stability.

Overall, this Special Issue is orientated to all the above research topics and focused on the latest developments in membrane-based separation processes for metal extraction. Authors are welcome to submit original research papers, communications, and review articles. We look forward to your outstanding contributions for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Michiaki Matsumoto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • metal seaparation
  • extraction
  • urban mining
  • seawater
  • liquid membrane
  • ionic liquid
  • reverse osmosis
  • nanofiltration

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
Tentative Approaches for Extraction of Lanthanides from Wastewater with Low Metal Concentration
by José M. Carretas, Luís M. Ferreira, Pedro M. P. Santos, Susana S. Gomes, Maria Fátima Araújo, Leonor Maria and João Paulo Leal
Membranes 2023, 13(5), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13050467 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Lanthanides are critical elements, and their recovery from wastewater increases the availability of these elements and reduces their impacts on the environment. In this study, tentative approaches to extract lanthanides from low-concentration aqueous solutions were investigated. PVDF membranes soaked with different active compounds [...] Read more.
Lanthanides are critical elements, and their recovery from wastewater increases the availability of these elements and reduces their impacts on the environment. In this study, tentative approaches to extract lanthanides from low-concentration aqueous solutions were investigated. PVDF membranes soaked with different active compounds or synthesized chitosan-based membranes containing these active compounds were used. The membranes were immersed in 10−4 M of aqueous solutions of selected lanthanides, and their extraction efficiency was assessed using ICP-MS. The PVDF membranes showed quite poor results, with only the membrane with oxamate ionic liquid giving some positive results (0.75 mg of Yb, 3 mg of lanthanides per gram of membrane). However, the chitosan-based membranes led to very interesting results, with the maximum concentration factor for the final solution relative to the initial solution being 13 times higher for Yb, which was obtained with the chitosan–sucrose–citric acid membrane. Several of the chitosan membranes, namely the one with 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-di-(2-ethylhexyl)-oxamate, could extract around 10 mg of lanthanides per gram of membrane, with the better one being the membrane with sucrose/citric acid that achieved more than 18 mg/g of membrane. The use of chitosan for this purpose is a novelty. Since these membranes are easily prepared and have a very low cost, practical applications can be envisaged after further studies to better understand the underlying mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction)
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13 pages, 2543 KiB  
Article
Extraction of Copper from Sulfuric Acid Solutions Based on Pseudo-Liquid Membrane Technology
by Artak E. Kostanyan, Vera V. Belova, Yulia A. Zakhodyaeva and Andrey A. Voshkin
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040418 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Pseudo-liquid membranes are extraction devices in which a liquid membrane phase is retained in an apparatus consisting of two interconnected chambers while feed and stripping phases pass through the stationary liquid membrane phase as mobile phases. The organic phase of the liquid membrane [...] Read more.
Pseudo-liquid membranes are extraction devices in which a liquid membrane phase is retained in an apparatus consisting of two interconnected chambers while feed and stripping phases pass through the stationary liquid membrane phase as mobile phases. The organic phase of the liquid membrane sequentially contacts the aqueous phases of the feed and stripping solutions in the extraction and stripping chambers, recirculating between them. This extraction separation method, called multiphase pseudo-liquid membrane extraction, can be implemented using traditional extraction equipment: extraction columns and mixer-settlers. In the first case, the three-phase extraction apparatus consists of two extraction columns connected at the top and bottom by recirculation tubes. In the second case, the three-phase apparatus consists of a recycling close-loop, which includes two mixer-settler extractors. In this study, the extraction of copper from sulfuric acid solutions in two-column three-phase extractors was experimentally studied. A 20% solution of LIX-84 in dodecane was used as the membrane phase in the experiments. It was shown that the extraction of copper from sulfuric acid solutions in the apparatuses studied was controlled by the interfacial area in the extraction chamber. The possibility of the purification of sulfuric acid wastewaters from copper using three-phase extractors is shown. To increase the degree of extraction of metal ions, it is proposed to equip two-column three-phase extractors with perforated vibrating discs. To further increase the efficiency of extraction using the pseudo-liquid membrane method, it is proposed to use multistage processes. The mathematical description of multistage three-phase pseudo-liquid membrane extraction is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction)
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26 pages, 13229 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen Sulphide Sequestration with Metallic Ions in Acidic Media Based on Chitosan/sEPDM/Polypropylene Composites Hollow Fiber Membranes System
by Dumitru Pașcu, Aurelia Cristina Nechifor, Vlad-Alexandru Grosu, Ovidiu Cristian Oprea, Szidonia-Katalin Tanczos, Geani Teodor Man, Florina Dumitru, Alexandra Raluca Grosu and Gheorghe Nechifor
Membranes 2023, 13(3), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030350 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
This paper presents the preparation and characterization of composite membranes based on chitosan (Chi), sulfonated ethylene–propylene–diene terpolymer (sEPDM), and polypropylene (PPy), and designed to capture hydrogen sulfide. The Chi/sEPDM/PPy composite membranes were prepared through controlled evaporation of a toluene dispersion layer of Chi:sEPDM [...] Read more.
This paper presents the preparation and characterization of composite membranes based on chitosan (Chi), sulfonated ethylene–propylene–diene terpolymer (sEPDM), and polypropylene (PPy), and designed to capture hydrogen sulfide. The Chi/sEPDM/PPy composite membranes were prepared through controlled evaporation of a toluene dispersion layer of Chi:sEPDM 1;1, w/w, deposited by immersion and under a slight vacuum (100 mmHg) on a PPy hollow fiber support. The composite membranes were characterized morphologically, structurally, and thermally, but also from the point of view of their performance in the process of hydrogen sulfide sequestration in an acidic media solution with metallic ion content (Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and/or Zn2+). The operational parameters of the pertraction were the pH, pM, matrix gas flow rate, and composition. The results of pertraction from synthetic gases mixture (nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide) indicated an efficient removal of hydrogen sulfide through the prepared composite membranes, as well as its immobilization as sulfides. The sequestration and the recuperative separation, as sulfides from an acid medium, of the hydrogen sulfide reached up to 96%, decreasing in the order: CuS > PbS > CdS > ZnS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction)
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14 pages, 1860 KiB  
Article
Transport of Chromium(VI) across a Supported Liquid Membrane Containing Cyanex 921 or Cyanex 923 Dissolved in Solvesso 100 as Carrier Phase: Estimation of Diffusional Parameters
by Francisco J. Alguacil and Jose I. Robla
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020177 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
An investigation of chromium(VI) transport across a supported liquid membrane containing the phosphine oxides Cyanex 921 and Cyanex 923 dissolved in Solvesso 100 as carrier phases was carried out in batch operation mode. Chromium(VI) transport was investigated as a function of different variables: [...] Read more.
An investigation of chromium(VI) transport across a supported liquid membrane containing the phosphine oxides Cyanex 921 and Cyanex 923 dissolved in Solvesso 100 as carrier phases was carried out in batch operation mode. Chromium(VI) transport was investigated as a function of different variables: hydrodynamic conditions in the feed (1000–1600 min−1) and stripping (600–1500 min−1) phases, HCl (0.25–2 M) and indium (0.01–0.1 g/L) concentrations in the feed phase, and carrier (0.01 M–0.75 M) concentration in the membrane phase. Indium was recovered in the stripping phase using hydrazine sulphate solutions, and, at the same time, chromium(VI) was reduced to the less harmful Cr(III) oxidation state. Models describing the transport mechanism comprising a diffusion process through the feed aqueous diffusion layer, fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion of the respective chromium(VI)–phosphine oxide complexes across the membrane were developed. The equations describing the rate of transport correlate the membrane permeability coefficient with diffusion and equilibrium parameters, as well as the chemical compositions of the respective metal–carrier phases. The models were used to calculate diffusional parameters for each metal–carrier system, and the minimum thickness of the feed boundary layer was calculated as 1 × 10−3 cm and 6.3 × 10−4 cm for the Cr(VI)-Cyanex 921 and Cr(VI)-Cyanex 923 systems, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction)
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Review

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18 pages, 1327 KiB  
Review
The Latest Achievements of Liquid Membranes for Rare Earth Elements Recovery from Aqueous Solutions—A Mini Review
by Małgorzata A. Kaczorowska
Membranes 2023, 13(10), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13100839 - 21 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
The systematic increase in the use of rare earth elements (REEs) in various technologically advanced products around the world (e.g., in electronic devices), the growing amount of waste generated by the use of high-tech materials, and the limited resources of naturally occurring REE [...] Read more.
The systematic increase in the use of rare earth elements (REEs) in various technologically advanced products around the world (e.g., in electronic devices), the growing amount of waste generated by the use of high-tech materials, and the limited resources of naturally occurring REE ores resulted in an intensive search for effective and environmentally safe methods for recovering these elements. Among these methods, techniques based on the application of various types of liquid membranes (LMs) play an important role, primarily due to their high efficiency, the simplicity of membrane formation and use, the utilization of only small amounts of environmentally hazardous reagents, and the possibility of simultaneous extraction and back-extraction and reusing the membranes after regeneration. However, because both primary and secondary sources (e.g., waste) of REEs are usually complex and contain a wide variety of components, and the selectivity and efficiency of LMs depend on many factors (e.g., the composition and form of the membrane, nature of the recovered ions, composition of the feed and stripping phases, etc.), new membranes are being developed that are “tailored” to the properties of the recovered rare earth elements and to the character of the solution in which they occur. This review describes the latest achievements (since 2019) related to the recovery of a range of REEs with the use of various liquid membranes (supported liquid membranes (SLMs), emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs), and polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs)), with particular emphasis on methods that fall within the trend of eco-friendly solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction)
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37 pages, 6260 KiB  
Review
Cation Exchange Membranes and Process Optimizations in Electrodialysis for Selective Metal Separation: A Review
by Önder Tekinalp, Pauline Zimmermann, Steven Holdcroft, Odne Stokke Burheim and Liyuan Deng
Membranes 2023, 13(6), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13060566 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3451
Abstract
The selective separation of metal species from various sources is highly desirable in applications such as hydrometallurgy, water treatment, and energy production but also challenging. Monovalent cation exchange membranes (CEMs) show a great potential to selectively separate one metal ion over others of [...] Read more.
The selective separation of metal species from various sources is highly desirable in applications such as hydrometallurgy, water treatment, and energy production but also challenging. Monovalent cation exchange membranes (CEMs) show a great potential to selectively separate one metal ion over others of the same or different valences from various effluents in electrodialysis. Selectivity among metal cations is influenced by both the inherent properties of membranes and the design and operating conditions of the electrodialysis process. The research progress and recent advances in membrane development and the implication of the electrodialysis systems on counter-ion selectivity are extensively reviewed in this work, focusing on both structure–property relationships of CEM materials and influences of process conditions and mass transport characteristics of target ions. Key membrane properties, such as charge density, water uptake, and polymer morphology, and strategies for enhancing ion selectivity are discussed. The implications of the boundary layer at the membrane surface are elucidated, where differences in the mass transport of ions at interfaces can be exploited to manipulate the transport ratio of competing counter-ions. Based on the progress, possible future R&D directions are also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Systems for Metal Ion Extraction)
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