Membrane Separation Process in Wastewater and Water Purification, Volume II

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 7314

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Post-Graduation Programme in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (PPGE3M), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, n. 9500, Agronomia, Porto Alegre CEP 91509-900, RS, Brazil
Interests: water reuse; electrodialysis; membrane electrolysis; desalination; pressure driven membrane processes; membrane distillation; emerging organic contaminants; advanced oxidation processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Post-Graduation Program in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, (PPGE3M), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, n. 9500, Agronomia, Porto Alegre CEP 91509–900, RS, Brazil
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; membrane technology; resources recovery; water reuse
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current scenario of increasing water scarcity and degradation of water bodies has led to the development of processes and technologies that provide more suitable treatment for both water and wastewater. Among the possible technologies used, membrane separation processes (MSPs) such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), and membrane distillation (MD) have gained prominence compared to other technologies, since MSPs provide greater security to the treatment. In addition, in the case of wastewater treatment, depending on the technology adopted, it is still possible to obtain high-quality water that can be reused in different activities, and to recover resources from the wastewater.

Therefore, this Special Issue aims to cover recent developments and advances in all aspects related to Membrane Separation Process in Wastewater and Water Purification, including but not limited to membrane-based processes for obtaining pure and ultrapure water, the treatment of brines and hypersaline solutions, the development of new materials for water or wastewater purification, process development/integration for wastewater and water purification, concentration polarization and fouling, and the recovery of water and resources.

Both original research and review papers are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Andréa Moura Bernardes
Dr. Alexandre Giacobbo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pure and ultrapure water
  • brines and hypersaline solutions
  • membrane preparation for wastewater and water purification
  • process development/integration for wastewater and water purification
  • concentration polarization and fouling
  • recovery of water and resources
  • circular economy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 215 KiB  
Editorial
Membrane Separation Processes in Wastewater and Water Purification, Volume II
by Alexandre Giacobbo and Andréa Moura Bernardes
Membranes 2024, 14(6), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes14060119 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Water is a crucial natural resource, essential for the development of a range of human activities, from agricultural and industrial to domestic; therefore, its availability is associated with a region or country’s economic growth [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 9787 KiB  
Article
Simulation, Fabrication and Microfiltration Using Dual Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane
by Faheem Qasim, Muhammad Waseem Ashraf, Shahzadi Tayyaba, Muhammad Imran Tariq and Agustín L. Herrera-May
Membranes 2023, 13(10), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13100825 - 8 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Microfluidic devices have gained subsequent attention due to their controlled manipulation of fluid for various biomedical applications. These devices can be used to study the behavior of fluid under several micrometer ranges within the channel. The major applications are the filtration of fluid, [...] Read more.
Microfluidic devices have gained subsequent attention due to their controlled manipulation of fluid for various biomedical applications. These devices can be used to study the behavior of fluid under several micrometer ranges within the channel. The major applications are the filtration of fluid, blood filtration and bio-medical analysis. For the filtration of water, as well as other liquids, the micro-filtration based microfluidic devices are considered as potential candidates to fulfill the desired conditions and requirements. The micro pore membrane can be designed and fabricated in such a way that it maximizes the removal of impurities from fluid. The low-cost micro-filtration method has been reported to provide clean fluid for biomedical applications and other purposes. In the work, anodic-aluminum-oxide-based membranes have been fabricated with different pore sizes ranging from 70 to 500 nm. A soft computing technique like fuzzy logic has been used to estimate the filtration parameters. Then, the finite-element-based analysis system software has been used to study the fluid flow through the double membrane. Then, filtration is performed by using a dual membrane and the clogging of the membrane has been studied after different filtration cycles using characterization like a scanning electron microscope. The filtration has been done to purify the contaminated fluid which has impurities like bacteria and protozoans. The membranes have been tested after each cycle to verify the results. The decrease in permeance with respect to the increase in the velocity of the fluid and the permeate volume per unit clearly depicts the removal of containments from the fluid after four and eight cycles of filtration. The results clearly show that the filtration efficiency can be improved by increasing the number of cycles and adding a dual membrane in the micro-fluidic device. The results show the potential of dual anodic aluminum oxide membranes for the effective filtration of fluids for biomedical applications, thereby offering a promising solution to address current challenges. Full article
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15 pages, 9467 KiB  
Article
Study of the Removal Efficiency of Chromium Ions Using a Membrane by Electro-Kinetic Technique from Sludge
by Nabaa S. Hadi and Huda H. Awadh
Membranes 2023, 13(9), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13090806 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Recently, electro-kinetic (EK) remediation has become more popular as a novel method for removing chromium contamination from soil. This approach, however, is ineffective since it uses both cationic and anionic forms of chromium. In this study, a membrane-based technique was employed to increase [...] Read more.
Recently, electro-kinetic (EK) remediation has become more popular as a novel method for removing chromium contamination from soil. This approach, however, is ineffective since it uses both cationic and anionic forms of chromium. In this study, a membrane-based technique was employed to increase the efficiency of the electro-kinetic removal of chromium. Chromium removal from polluted sludge was studied using four bench-scale experiments. Two of these experiments employed distilled water (EK1 and EK2 and membrane), whereas the other used acetic acid as the catholyte (EK3 and EK4 and membrane). The pH, total chromium, and fractionation of chromium in the sludge were measured after remediation. In the EK1, EK2 and membrane, and EK3 and EK4 and membrane trials, the average removal efficiencies of total chromium were 47.6%, 58.6%, and 74.4%, 79.6%, respectively. In contrast to the electro-kinetic remediation strategy, which left approximately 80% of the sludge neutral or alkaline after treatment, the membrane created acidic soil conditions throughout the sludge. For example, the high field intensity used in the membrane tests may have helped to facilitate chromium desorption, dissolution, and separation from the sludge and enhanced chromium mobility. The findings show that the membrane can improve the effectiveness of chromium removal from sludge when utilized in the EK remediation process. Full article
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19 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of the Self-Cleaning and Filtration Performance of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed TiO2 Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Membranes
by Elnaz Alebrahim and Christian Moreau
Membranes 2023, 13(9), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13090750 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
This study investigated the performance of photocatalytic titanium dioxide microfiltration membranes with an average pore size of approximately 180 nm and ultrafiltration membranes with an average pore size of around 40 nm fabricated with the suspension plasma spray process. The membranes were evaluated [...] Read more.
This study investigated the performance of photocatalytic titanium dioxide microfiltration membranes with an average pore size of approximately 180 nm and ultrafiltration membranes with an average pore size of around 40 nm fabricated with the suspension plasma spray process. The membranes were evaluated for their filtration performance using SiO2 particles of different sizes and polyethylene oxide with molecular weights of 20 kDa to 1000 kDa, and the fouling parameters were characterized. The rejection rate was enhanced by increasing the thickness of the membranes. This effect was more pronounced with the ultrafiltration membranes. The rejection rate of the ultrafiltration membrane was improved significantly after filling the larger pores on the surface with agglomerates of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The self-cleaning performance of the membranes was assessed under visible light. Both ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes showed a flux recovery under visible light illumination due to the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide. The membranes also show a flux recovery of more than 90%. Full article
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22 pages, 5049 KiB  
Article
Mathematical and Statistical Evaluation of Reverse Osmosis in the Removal of Manganese as a Way to Achieve Sustainable Operating Parameters
by Paola Andrea Alvizuri-Tintaya, Esteban Manuel Villena-Martínez, Vanesa G. Lo-Iacono-Ferreira, Juan Ignacio Torregrosa-López, Jaime Lora-García and Paul d’Abzac
Membranes 2023, 13(8), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13080724 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Manganese is the Earth’s crust’s third most abundant transition metal. Decades of increased mining activities worldwide have inevitably led to the release of large amounts of this metal into the environment, specifically in water resources. Up to a certain level, manganese acts as [...] Read more.
Manganese is the Earth’s crust’s third most abundant transition metal. Decades of increased mining activities worldwide have inevitably led to the release of large amounts of this metal into the environment, specifically in water resources. Up to a certain level, manganese acts as an essential micronutrient to maintain health and support the growth and development of microorganisms, plants, and animals, while above a specific limit, manganese can cause toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. There are conventional ways to remove manganese from water, such as chemical precipitation, sorption, and biological methods. However, other treatments have yet to be studied much, such as reverse osmosis (RO), which has demonstrated its effectiveness in the removal of heavy metals and could be a suitable alternative for manganese removal if its energy consumption is reduced. This research presents mathematical and statistical modeling of the behavior of a system in laboratory-scale RO. The principal finding was that it is possible to remove Mn using the RO operated with low pressures without decreasing the sustainable removal efficiency. Reducing the operating costs of RO opens the possibility of implementing RO in different contexts where there are problems with water contamination and economic limitations. Full article
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11 pages, 3732 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of a PVDF–Tin Dioxide Membrane Assisted by Electric Field Treatment
by Muhammad Syahrul Nasution, Agung Mataram, Irsyadi Yani and Gurruh Dwi Septano
Membranes 2022, 12(8), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12080772 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Polymeric membranes have good properties for filtering water. In this paper, a membrane made from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer with 15 wt%, 17.5 wt%, and 20 wt% polymer content, with the addition of 1 wt% of tin dioxide with electric field treatment, is [...] Read more.
Polymeric membranes have good properties for filtering water. In this paper, a membrane made from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer with 15 wt%, 17.5 wt%, and 20 wt% polymer content, with the addition of 1 wt% of tin dioxide with electric field treatment, is presented. The electric field used was DC 15,000 V. The membrane was tested to determine its characteristics and properties. The physical properties were examined with a scanning electron microscope, and the mechanical properties of the membrane were tested by tensile testing. The maximum tensile stress was obtained at 0.746 MPa, and the minimum tensile stress was obtained at 0.487 MPa. Microscopic examination of the membrane’s surface identified the shape, the structure of the fibers formed, and the amount of agglomeration. The flow rate, membrane flux, and normalized water permeability (NWP) were tested, using the water treatment performance test to measure the membrane’s filtering ability. Full article
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