Modeling and Simulation of Industrial and Environmental Membrane Technologies

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Physics and Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 5907

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Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: desalination; membrane technology; CFD simulation; reverse osmosis; membrane separation; water treatment; modeling and simulation; process optimization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Process modeling and simulation have been widely used in the design, control, and optimal operation of processes contributing to cost reduction and process sustainability.

Membrane technologies are no exception, and they also require the development of models that allow their behavior to be more accurately described as well as to simulate their behavior both as isolated parts of the process or through interaction with other process units.

However, unlike other process units, where well-established models exist, membrane technologies require the development of specific models adapted to the membrane materials used and the feed streams to be treated.

Following the success of the recent Special Issue “Modeling and Simulation of Industrial and Environmental Processes with Membranes”, this new edition continues to seek recent contributions to the modeling and simulation of membrane processes. Of interest for this Special Issue are all aspects associated with the simulation procedure of membrane processes from the microscale, the macroscopic membrane process, and the interaction of the membrane process with other units. Also welcome are successful applications of membrane processes, especially those of a sustainable character, as well as comprehensive reviews within the fields of membrane process modeling and simulation.

Prof. Dr. José M. Gozálvez-Zafrilla
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • membrane process
  • modeling
  • simulation
  • industry
  • environment
  • sustainability
  • optimization
  • computer fluid dynamics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1983 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Water Flux during the Concentration of an Olive Mill Wastewater Model Solution by Means of Forward Osmosis
by Magdalena Cifuentes-Cabezas, Silvia Álvarez-Blanco, José Antonio Mendoza-Roca, María Cinta Vincent-Vela and José M. Gozálvez-Zafrilla
Membranes 2023, 13(8), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13080745 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Currently, understanding the dynamics of the interaction between the agents in a process is one of the most important factors regarding its operation and design. Membrane processes for industrial wastewater management are not strangers to this topic. One such example is the concentration [...] Read more.
Currently, understanding the dynamics of the interaction between the agents in a process is one of the most important factors regarding its operation and design. Membrane processes for industrial wastewater management are not strangers to this topic. One such example is the concentration of compounds with high added value, such as the phenolic compounds present in olive mill wastewater (OMW). This process is a viable option, thanks to the forward osmosis (FO) process, osmotically driven by a saline stream. In this context, the transport of the solute and the solvent through the FO membranes, although essential to the process, remains problematic. This paper presents a study to predict, by means of a theoretical model, the water flux for two membranes (a cellulose triacetate flat sheet and a polyamide hollow fiber with integrated aquaporin proteins) with different characteristics using a sodium chloride solution as the draw solution (DS). The novelty of this model is the consideration of the contribution of organic compounds (in addition to the inorganic salts) to the osmotic pressure in the feed side. Moreover, the geometry of the modules and the characteristics of the membranes were also considered. The model was developed with the ability to run under different conditions, with or without tyrosol (the compound chosen as representative of OMW phenolic compounds) in the feed solution (FS), and was fitted and evaluated using experimental data. The results presented a variability in the model prediction, which was a function of both the membrane used and the FS and DS, with a greater influence of tyrosol observed on the permeate flux in the flat cellulose triacetate membrane. Full article
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21 pages, 13797 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Photocatalytic PVDF Membranes Containing Inorganic Nanoparticles for Model Dairy Wastewater Treatment
by Elias Jigar Sisay, Ákos Ferenc Fazekas, Tamás Gyulavári, Judit Kopniczky, Béla Hopp, Gábor Veréb and Zsuzsanna László
Membranes 2023, 13(7), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13070656 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Membrane separation processes are promising methods for wastewater treatment. Membrane fouling limits their wider use; however, this may be mitigated using photocatalytic composite materials for membrane preparation. This study aimed to investigate photocatalytic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based nanocomposite membranes for treating model dairy wastewater [...] Read more.
Membrane separation processes are promising methods for wastewater treatment. Membrane fouling limits their wider use; however, this may be mitigated using photocatalytic composite materials for membrane preparation. This study aimed to investigate photocatalytic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based nanocomposite membranes for treating model dairy wastewater containing bovine serum albumin (BSA). Membranes were fabricated via physical coating (with TiO2, and/or carbon nanotubes, and/or BiVO4) and blending (with TiO2). Another objective of this study was to compare membranes of identical compositions fabricated using different techniques, and to examine how various TiO2 concentrations affect the antifouling and cleaning performances of the blended membranes. Filtration experiments were performed using a dead-end cell. Filtration resistances, BSA rejection, and photocatalytic cleanability (characterized by flux recovery ratio (FRR)) were measured. The surface characteristics (SEM, EDX), roughness (measured by atomic force microscopy, AFM), wettability (contact angle measurements), and zeta potential of the membranes were also examined. Coated PVDF membranes showed higher hydrophilicity than the pristine PVDF membrane, as evidenced by a decreased contact angle, but the higher hydrophilicity did not result in higher fluxes, unlike the case of blended membranes. The increased surface roughness resulted in increased reversible fouling, but decreased BSA retention. Furthermore, the TiO2-coated membranes had a better flux recovery ratio (FRR, 97%) than the TiO2-blended membranes (35%). However, the TiO2-coated membrane had larger total filtration resistances and a lower water flux than the commercial pristine PVDF membrane and TiO2-blended membrane, which may be due to pore blockage or an additional coating layer formed by the nanoparticles. The BSA rejection of the TiO2-coated membrane was lower than that of the commercial pristine PVDF membrane. In contrast, the TiO2-blended membranes showed lower resistance than the pristine PVDF membrane, and exhibited better antifouling performance, superior flux, and comparable BSA rejection. Increasing the TiO2 content of the TiO2-blended membranes (from 1 to 2.5%) resulted in increased antifouling and comparable BSA rejection (more than 95%). However, the effect of TiO2 concentration on flux recovery was negligible. Full article
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17 pages, 3885 KiB  
Article
Minimizing Area-Specific Resistance of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor under Various Operating Conditions Using Unsteady 3D Single-Channel Model
by Myungkeun Gong, Changhyun Jin and Youngseung Na
Membranes 2023, 13(6), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13060555 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Extensive research has been conducted over the past few decades on carbon-free hydrogen energy. Hydrogen, being an abundant energy source, requires high-pressure compression for storage and transportation due to its low volumetric density. Mechanical and electrochemical compression are two common methods used to [...] Read more.
Extensive research has been conducted over the past few decades on carbon-free hydrogen energy. Hydrogen, being an abundant energy source, requires high-pressure compression for storage and transportation due to its low volumetric density. Mechanical and electrochemical compression are two common methods used to compress hydrogen under high pressure. Mechanical compressors can potentially cause contamination due to the lubricating oil when compressing hydrogen, whereas electrochemical hydrogen compressors (EHCs) can produce high-purity, high-pressure hydrogen without any moving parts. A study was conducted using a 3D single-channel EHC model focusing on the water content and area-specific resistance of the membrane under various temperature, relative humidity, and gas diffusion layer (GDL) porosity conditions. Numerical analysis demonstrated that the higher the operating temperature, the higher the water content in the membrane. This is because the saturation vapor pressure increases with higher temperatures. When dry hydrogen is supplied to a sufficiently humidified membrane, the actual water vapor pressure decreases, leading to an increase in the membrane’s area-specific resistance. Furthermore, with a low GDL porosity, the viscous resistance increases, hindering the smooth supply of humidified hydrogen to the membrane. Through a transient analysis of an EHC, favorable operating conditions for rapidly hydrating membranes were identified. Full article
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20 pages, 3105 KiB  
Article
Kinetic Effects of Ciprofloxacin, Carbamazepine, and Bisphenol on Biomass in Membrane Bioreactor System at Low Temperatures to Treat Urban Wastewater
by Laura Antiñolo Bermúdez, Antonio Martín-Luis, Juan Carlos Leyva Díaz, María del Mar Muñío Martínez and José Manuel Poyatos Capilla
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040419 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
This study analysed the kinetic results in the presence and absence of micropollutants (bisphenol A, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, and the mixture of the three compounds) obtained with respirometric tests with mixed liquor and heterotrophic biomass in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) working for two different [...] Read more.
This study analysed the kinetic results in the presence and absence of micropollutants (bisphenol A, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, and the mixture of the three compounds) obtained with respirometric tests with mixed liquor and heterotrophic biomass in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) working for two different hydraulic retention times (12–18 h) and under low-temperature conditions (5–8 °C). Independently of the temperature, the organic substrate was biodegraded faster over a longer hydraulic retention time (HRT) with similar doping, which was probably due to the longer contact time between the substrate and microorganisms within the bioreactor. However, low values of temperature negatively affected the net heterotrophic biomass growth rate, with reductions from 35.03 to 43.66% in phase 1 (12 h HRT) and from 37.18 to 42.77% in phase 2 (18 h HRT). The combined effect of the pharmaceuticals did not worsen the biomass yield compared with the effects caused individually. Full article
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18 pages, 7179 KiB  
Article
Clean Energy Based Multigeneration System for Sustainable Cities: Thermodynamic, and Stability Analyses
by Uzair Bhatti, Hamza Aamir, Khurram Kamal, Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala, Fahad Alqahtani, Mohammed Alkahtani, Emad Mohammad and Moath Alatefi
Membranes 2023, 13(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030358 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
This paper concerns the development and analysis of multigeneration systems based on hybrid sources such as biomass and wind. Industry requires different types of sources to provide several outputs, so the goal of this research was to fulfill the industrial requirement with optimization. [...] Read more.
This paper concerns the development and analysis of multigeneration systems based on hybrid sources such as biomass and wind. Industry requires different types of sources to provide several outputs, so the goal of this research was to fulfill the industrial requirement with optimization. The multigeneration cycle supplies enough power to satiate energy demands, i.e., power, cooling, hydrogen, air conditioning, freshwater, hot water, and heating. For this, the multigeneration cycle was modeled in the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and Simulink to obtain optimized results for the industry. Energy and exergy for the multigeneration cycle were determined to assess the performance of the cycle and to investigate the optimized results for the overall system. This study shows that for configuration selection and design, different thermodynamic, economic, and environmental aspects should be considered. Based on the results, the selection of the best location for this multigeneration system was made. Power output from the wind turbine was around 7 MW and from biogas 0.6 MW. The overall exergy efficiency of the multigeneration system was found to be 0.1401. Full article
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