Topical Collection "Interdisciplinary Medicine – The Key For Personalized Medicine"

A topical collection in Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144).

Viewed by 41200

Editor

University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, Internal Medicine Department, Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: heart failure; arterial hypertension; comorbidities; interdisciplinary issues; ultrasonography; arterial diseases; dyslipidemia management; diabetes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Personalized medicine is the approach that can tailor diagnosis and treatment to ensure the best patient care in uncertain times. The challenging field of medicine and healthcare is rapidly adopting scientific and technological innovations, making interdisciplinary collaborations especially important. In this context, medical disciplines are becoming increasingly interlinked with other specialities and fields. A more interdisciplinary approach to the patient is needed, especially for complex patients with numerous comorbidities, most of them usually elderly and fragile. The greatest challenges to human health lie at the intersection of different medical fields. An interdisciplinary medical team is more and more necessary, with the rapid expansion of medical knowledge.

Given the importance of interdisciplinarity in the field of medicine and research, the journal Medicina is launching this Special Issue.

We encourage you and your colleagues to submit your articles reporting on this topic. Reviews or original articles dealing with interdisciplinary medical issues, as well as articles providing an up-to-date overview of the diagnostic protocols and individualized treatments for patients with multiple comorbidities, are particularly welcome. In addition, we warmly invite you to submit articles reporting on rare diseases.

Dr. Camelia Diaconu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Interdisciplinarity
  • Comorbidities
  • Chronic heart failure
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cardiovascular risk assessment
  • Cancer
  • Surgical treatment

Published Papers (19 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Stage II and III Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer after Multimodality Approach. Which Is the Best Option?
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010050 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Background and Objectives: There is no consensus regarding the optimal therapy sequence in stage II and III bladder cancer. The study aimed to evaluate the long-term oncologic outcomes in patients with bladder cancer after a multimodality approach. Materials and methods: Medical [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: There is no consensus regarding the optimal therapy sequence in stage II and III bladder cancer. The study aimed to evaluate the long-term oncologic outcomes in patients with bladder cancer after a multimodality approach. Materials and methods: Medical files of 231 consecutive patients identified with stage II (46.8%), IIIA (30.3%), and IIIB (22.9%) transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (BC) treated with a multimodality approach were retrospectively reviewed. The treatment consisted of transurethral resections or cystectomy, radiotherapy alone or concurrent chemoradiotherapy as definitive treatment, or neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum salt regimens. Results: Median age at diagnosis was 65 ± 10.98 years. Radical or partial cystectomy was performed in 88 patients (37.1%), and trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) alone was performed in 143 (61.9%) patients. Overall, 40 patients (17.3%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 82 (35.5%) received definitive chemoradiotherapy. After a median follow-up of 30.6 months (range 3–146 months), the median disease-free survival (DFS) for an entire lot of patients was 32 months, and the percentage of patients without recurrence at 12, 24, and 36 months was 86%, 58%, and 45%, respectively. Patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a better oncologic outcome compared to patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (median DFS not reached vs. 31 months, p = 0.038, HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.310–0.951). There was a trend for better 3-year DFS with radical cystectomy vs. TURBT (60 months vs. 31 months, p = 0.064). Definitive chemoradiotherapy 3-year DFS was 58% compared to 44% in patients who received radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone. Conclusions: In patients with stages II and III, both neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent radio-chemotherapy are valid options for treatment and must be part of a multidisciplinary approach. Full article
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Article
Mode of Delivery and Neonatal Outcome in Adolescent Pregnancy (13–16 Years Old) Associated with Anemia
Medicina 2022, 58(12), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58121796 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Background: Adolescent pregnancy represents an important public-health problem due to its maternal and fetal outcomes. Adolescent patients are predisposed to multiple obstetrical complications, including anemia and preterm birth which has a higher incidence among this population; withal, in the specialty literature, anemia is [...] Read more.
Background: Adolescent pregnancy represents an important public-health problem due to its maternal and fetal outcomes. Adolescent patients are predisposed to multiple obstetrical complications, including anemia and preterm birth which has a higher incidence among this population; withal, in the specialty literature, anemia is considered to be a risk factor for preterm delivery; furthermore, multiple studies have demonstrated that a very young age is an independent risk factor for preterm birth. Objectives: The study aims to reveal if anemia during adolescent pregnancy has a negative impact on the time and mode of delivery and newborns’ outcomes. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective multicentric study on adolescent pregnancy. We analyzed 172 patients aged between 13 and 16 years who delivered in two large tertiary hospitals between 1 October 2018 and 15 April 2022. We divided the patients into two groups—a study group (n = 64) with anemia and a control group (n = 108) without anemia. We evaluated the modes of delivery, the times of birth, and the neonatal outcomes by 1-min newborn’s Apgar score, neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) admission, and the newborns’ weights. Results: The rate of cesarean section was higher in patients with anemia than in the control group (45.31% vs. 38.88%, p < 0.001). We found that patients between 13 and 16 years diagnosed with anemia have a higher risk of preterm birth than those without anemia (35.93% vs. 21.29%, p < 0.001); however, an increased rate of LBW neonates was observed in the anemic adolescent group ≤14 years (p < 0.001). Regarding the newborns’ 1-min Apgar score, NICU admission, no statistically significant differences were recorded between the two groups according to the severity of anemia. In the anemic patients’ group, prenatal screening was identified in 9.37% of cases, while in the control group, in 16.67% (p = 0.034), which represents negative predictive factors, along with a low socio-economic status for the presence of anemia in young adolescent patients. Conclusions: Anemia is a risk factor for preterm birth, LBW, and cesarean section in young adolescent pregnancy. The association of lack of prenatal care and low socio-economic status worsens maternal and neonatal outcomes. Full article
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Article
Public Health Concern on Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease: A Bibliometric Analysis of Literature from 1990 to 2022
Medicina 2022, 58(12), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58121764 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Cardiovascular disease is a long-term threat to global public health security, while sedentary behavior is a modifiable behavior among cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to analyze the peer-reviewed literature published globally on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (SB-CVD) [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Cardiovascular disease is a long-term threat to global public health security, while sedentary behavior is a modifiable behavior among cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to analyze the peer-reviewed literature published globally on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (SB-CVD) and identify the hotspots and frontiers within this research area. Materials and Methods: Publications on SB-CVD from 1990 to 2022 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection. CiteSpace and VOSviewer were applied to perform bibliometric and knowledge mapping visualization analyses. Results: A total of 2071 publications were retrieved, presenting a gradual growing trend. Authors from the USA topped the list with 748 (36.12%), followed by authors from England (373, 18.01%) and Australia (354, 17.09%). The University of Queensland, Australia, led with 95 (4.5%) publications. The top five active authors were all from Australia, while Dunstan D and Owen N published the most documents (56, 2.7%). A total of 71.27% of the publications received funding, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services provided 363 (17.53%) grants. Public Environmental Occupational Health (498, 24.05%), Sport Sciences (237, 11.44%), and Cardiac Cardiovascular Systems (212, 10.24%) were the three most popular disciplines, while PLOS One (96, 4.64%) and BMC Public Health (88, 4.25%) were the two most popular journals. Investigations within the SB-CVD research area addressed the entire lifespan, the most popular type of research was the epidemiological study, and the accelerometer was the primary instrument for measuring sedentary behavior. In terms of variables, physical activity and sedentary behavior were the dominant lifestyle behaviors, while obesity and hypertension were common health problems. Occupational physical activity and guidelines are at the frontier and are currently in the burst stage. Conclusions: The last three decades have witnessed the rapid development of the SB-CVD research area, and this study provided further research ideas for subsequent investigations. Full article
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Article
External Cephalic Version—A Chance for Vaginal Delivery at Breech Presentation
Medicina 2022, 58(11), 1619; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58111619 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In recent years, the rate of caesarean section (CS) has increased constantly. Although vaginal breech delivery has a long history, breech presentation has become the third most common indication for CS. This study aims to identify factors associated with [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In recent years, the rate of caesarean section (CS) has increased constantly. Although vaginal breech delivery has a long history, breech presentation has become the third most common indication for CS. This study aims to identify factors associated with the success of external cephalic version (ECV), underline the success rate of ECV for breech presentation and highlight the high rate of vaginal delivery after successful ECV. Material and Methods: This retrospective observational study included 113 patients with singleton fetuses in breech presentation, who underwent ECV from January 2016 to March 2021 in the Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Diakonieklinikum Schwäbisch Hall, Germany. Maternal and fetal parameters and data related to procedure and delivery were collected. Possible predictors of successful ECV were evaluated. Results: The success rate of ECV was 54.9%. The overall rate of vaginal birth was 44.2%, regardless of ECV outcome. The vaginal birth rate after successful ECV was 80.6%. Overall, 79.0% of women with successful ECV delivered spontaneously without complications, 19.4% delivered through CS performed during labor by medical necessity, and 1.6% delivered through vacuum extraction. ECV was performed successfully in three of the four women with history of CS. Gravidity, parity, maternal age, gestational age, fetal weight, and amniotic fluid index (AFI) were significantly correlated with the outcome of ECV. Conclusions: ECV for breech presentation is a safe procedure with a good success rate, thus increasing the proportion of vaginal births. Maternal and fetal parameters can be used to estimate the chances of successful ECV. Full article
Reply
Reply to Çınar et al. Comment on “Zamfir et al. Hematologic Malignancies Diagnosed in the Context of the mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign: A Report of Two Cases. Medicina 2022, 58, 874”
Medicina 2022, 58(11), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58111576 - 01 Nov 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
We would like to thank Çınar et al. for their appreciation and insightful discussions presented in their comment [...] Full article
Comment
Comment on Zamfir et al. Hematologic Malignancies Diagnosed in the Context of the mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign: A Report of Two Cases. Medicina 2022, 58, 874
Medicina 2022, 58(11), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58111575 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mRNA-based vaccines have prevented countless mortality and morbidity, and have an excellent risk/benefit ratio. However, various adverse events may rarely occur after the BNT162b2 vaccine, like any other medical intervention. The COVID-19 itself and the spike protein produced endogenously [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mRNA-based vaccines have prevented countless mortality and morbidity, and have an excellent risk/benefit ratio. However, various adverse events may rarely occur after the BNT162b2 vaccine, like any other medical intervention. The COVID-19 itself and the spike protein produced endogenously by mRNA vaccines may have immunological, microenvironmental, prothrombotic, and neoplastic effects. As a contribution to the published report, we would like to share our experience regarding four cases in which myeloid neoplasms emerged following the vaccination. Conclusions: There is no doubt that vaccination could continue along the lines of established universal recommendations. Meanwhile, all hematological adverse events must be closely monitored and reported. Further efforts should be focused on the probable pathobiological mechanisms and causalities of spike protein-related toxicity and clonal myeloid disorders. Full article
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Article
Pulmonary Involvement in SARS-CoV-2 Infection Estimates Myocardial Injury Risk
Medicina 2022, 58(10), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58101436 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection represents a pathology with primary pulmonary involvement and multisystemic impact, including cardiovascular injuries. The present study aimed to assess the value of clinical, biochemical, and imaging factors in COVID-19 patients in [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection represents a pathology with primary pulmonary involvement and multisystemic impact, including cardiovascular injuries. The present study aimed to assess the value of clinical, biochemical, and imaging factors in COVID-19 patients in determining the severity of myocardial involvement, and to create a model that can be used toevaluate myocardial injury risk based on clinical, biochemical and imaging factors. Materials and Methods: We performed an observational cohort study on 150 consecutive patients, evaluating their age, sex, hospitalization period, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) in ambient air, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, biochemical markers of cardiac dysfunction (TnI, and NT-proBNP), inflammatory markers (C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, serum ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), myoglobin and radio-imaging parameters. All patients underwent computerized tomography chest scan in the first two days following admission. Results: We observed elevated heart and respiratory rates, higher systolic blood pressure, and a lower diastolic blood pressure in the patients with cardiac injury; significant differences between groups were registered in TnI, NT-proBNP, LDH, CRP, and D-dimers. For the radiological parameters, we found proportional correlations with the myocardial injury for the severity of lung disease, number of pulmonary segments with alveolar consolidation, number of pulmonary lobes with pneumonia, crazy paving pattern, type of lung involvement, the extent of fibroatelectatic lesions and the mediastinal adenopathies. Conclusions: Myocardial injury occurred in 12% of patients in the study group. Ground glass opacities, interstitial interlobular septal thickening (crazy paving pattern), fibroatelectasic lesions and alveolar consolidations on CT scan were correlated with myocardial injury. Routine lung sectional imaging along with non-specific biomarkers (LDH, D-dimers, and CRP) can be further valuable in the characterization of the disease burden, thus impacting patient care. Full article
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Article
Impact of Pulmonary Hypertension on Mortality after Surgery for Aortic Stenosis
Medicina 2022, 58(9), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58091231 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The prognosis of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) adding pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is worse than in those with normal pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and there are few results reported for the association between PHT and adverse outcomes of AS. We [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The prognosis of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) adding pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is worse than in those with normal pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and there are few results reported for the association between PHT and adverse outcomes of AS. We aimed to determine the predictive factors for the development of PHT in patients with surgical AS and to identify those factors that may predict the surgical prognosis. We aimed to identify the independent predictors for PHT regression at 2 years after surgery. Additionally, we tried to evaluate the involvement of PHT as an additional perioperative risk factor in patients with AS undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Materials and Methods: We carried out a two-year prospective study on 340 patients with AS undergoing surgical AVR. Results: The independent predictors for the occurrence of PHT in patients with surgical AS were: age > 75 years (RR = 6, p = 0.001), a restrictive left ventricle diastolic filling pattern (LVDFP) (RR = 9, p = 0.001) and associated moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) (RR = 9, p = 0.0001). The presence of severe PHT increased by 7.6 times the early postoperative risk of death, regardless of the presence of other parameters. The independent predictors for early postoperative mortality were: severe PHT, restrictive left ventricle diastolic pattern, age > 75 years, interventricular septum (IVS) thickness >18 mm and the presence of comorbidities. Conclusions: The presence of a severe PHT in patients with AS undergoing surgical AVR is associated with an early postoperative increased mortality rate. The mean PAP is a more reliable parameter for prognosis appreciation than the LV systolic function. Full article
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Case Report
Pancreatic Tuberculosis—A Condition That Mimics Pancreatic Cancer
Medicina 2022, 58(9), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58091165 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Tuberculosis is a disease with serious consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pancreatic localization is very rare and is mostly encountered in patients with immunosuppressive disorders. A 59-year-old woman with arterial hypertension, grade 2 obesity, and a history of cholecystectomy, was admitted [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis is a disease with serious consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pancreatic localization is very rare and is mostly encountered in patients with immunosuppressive disorders. A 59-year-old woman with arterial hypertension, grade 2 obesity, and a history of cholecystectomy, was admitted for fever (38.5 °C), jaundice, and marked physical asthenia. The blood tests showed severe metabolic acidosis, with partial respiratory compensation, mild microcytic normochromic anemia, inflammatory syndrome, procalcitonin value ten times the upper limit of normal, nitrogen retention syndrome, hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and moderate hyponatremia. The electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and abdominal ultrasound did not show any significant pathological changes. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography raised the suspicion of acute-on-chronic pancreatitis and subsequent evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging raised the suspicion of a pancreatic tumor. Pancreatic fine needle biopsy under echoendoscopic guidance revealed purulent material, which was sent for cytological and bacteriological examination. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed acid-alcoholic resistant bacilli, while bacterial cultures were positive for gentamicin and tigecycline-sensitive Klebsiella. The diagnosis of pancreatic tuberculosis was established. Pancreatic tuberculosis is a very rare condition that often mimics pancreatic cancer. The peculiarity of the case is the appearance of pancreatic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman and the association with Klebsiella infection. Full article
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Article
Enoxaparin versus Unfractionated Heparin for the Perioperative Anticoagulant Therapy in Patients with Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valve Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery
Medicina 2022, 58(8), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58081119 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Immediate postoperative anticoagulation regimens in patients with mechanical prosthetic valves undergoing non-cardiac surgery are clear only for unfractionated heparin (UH), whereas the few low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) trials available to date concern the use of Enoxaparin in general/orthopedic surgery. We [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Immediate postoperative anticoagulation regimens in patients with mechanical prosthetic valves undergoing non-cardiac surgery are clear only for unfractionated heparin (UH), whereas the few low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) trials available to date concern the use of Enoxaparin in general/orthopedic surgery. We performed a single-center real-world data study comparing the efficacy and safety of LMWH—Enoxaparin (E)— and UH during the perioperative period in non-cardiac surgical procedures in patients with mechanical prosthetic valve replacement in the mitral, aortic, or tricuspid positions. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 380 patients, who received E or UH together with oral anticoagulation with antivitamin K (acenocoumarol) until they achieved an optimal International Normalized Ratio (INR). Objective assessment of E efficacy included the following: normal value for all the parameters of ultrasound prosthetic functioning, no early thrombosis of the prosthesis, and rapid achievement of target INR with a decreased period of subcutaneous anticoagulation. Subjective assessment included the following: clinical improvement with decreased immobilization and in-hospital stay, fewer gluteal ulcerations, and fewer postoperative depression and anxiety episodes. Results: Comparing with UH, anticoagulation with E was more effective (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02). The probability of death was smaller in the E group compared with the UH group. No major hemorrhagic event was reported. Mild bleeding episodes and thrombocytopenia were more common in the UH group. Patient’s compliance and quality of life were better with E due to shortened hospitalization, decreased need for testing of coagulation (every 6 h for UH), better dosing (SC every 12 h for E versus continuous infusion for UH), shortened immobilization during the immediate postoperative period with subsequent improvement in the psychological status, as well as due to lack of significant side effects. Conclusions: Taking into consideration the improved efficiency and safety, as well as all the supplementary advantages, such as no need for anticoagulation monitoring, the ease of administration, and reduced duration of hospitalization, E should be seen as an attractive alternative for anticoagulation which deserves further investigation. Full article
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Case Report
Hematologic Malignancies Diagnosed in the Context of the mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign: A Report of Two Cases
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070874 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4106
Abstract
Background: During the last two years, the COVID-19 pandemic led to millions of disease-related deaths worldwide. The efforts of the scientific community facing this global challenge resulted in outstanding achievements. Thus, within one year, new mRNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection were released, [...] Read more.
Background: During the last two years, the COVID-19 pandemic led to millions of disease-related deaths worldwide. The efforts of the scientific community facing this global challenge resulted in outstanding achievements. Thus, within one year, new mRNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection were released, providing highly efficient protection and showing a very good safety profile in the general population. However, clinical data collection after vaccination is a continuous process for the long-term safety of any new medical product. The aim of our paper is to present two cases of hematological malignancies: diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and T/NK-cell lymphoma, diagnosed shortly after the administration of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Methods and Results: Case 1: A female patient was admitted with a suspicious cervical mass that emerged within one week after the administration of second dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Surgical removal followed by pathology assessment of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Case 2: A male patient was admitted with multiple ulcerative oral lesions arising on the third day after the initial dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. These lesions had a progressive character and during the following months were complicated with repetitive episodes of heavy oral bleeding, requiring blood transfusions. The incisional biopsy of the lesions and pathological assessment of the specimens confirmed the diagnosis of T/NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: The safety profile of the mRNA-based vaccines is an undeniable fact. In most cases, suspicions of potentially aggressive side effects were ruled out, proving to be transient post-vaccine reactions. Clinicians should remain alert to report any potentially aggressive manifestations emerging in the context of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, such as these cases of hematological malignancies, in order to promote additional investigations on the particular mechanisms of action of COVID-19 vaccines and to provide the best medical care to the patients. Full article
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Case Report
Psychosis Associated with Acquired Porencephaly—Cause or Incidental Finding? Case Report and Review of Literature
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050586 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Porencephaly, a rare disease affecting the central nervous system, is represented by a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity in the brain. There are two types of porencephalic cavities: congenital and acquired. Porencephaly is mainly associated with neurological and developmental consequences. Associated psychotic symptoms were reported [...] Read more.
Porencephaly, a rare disease affecting the central nervous system, is represented by a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity in the brain. There are two types of porencephalic cavities: congenital and acquired. Porencephaly is mainly associated with neurological and developmental consequences. Associated psychotic symptoms were reported in a few cases, and due to this fact, there is a knowledge gap regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to such cases. We present the case of a 32-year-old male diagnosed with a psychotic disorder associated with acquired porencephaly. The porencephalic cystic lesions were most probably due to a traumatic brain injury at the age of 6 years old. The psychotic symptomatology consisted of interoceptive/visceral hallucinations, delusions with persecutory and religious/magic content and disorganised behaviour. The porencephalic cavity was confirmed by a computed tomography scan. The patient was treated over the course of time with risperidone, olanzapine and zuclopenthixol. The existing literature regarding other cases of psychosis associated with porencephaly is discussed. In conclusion, even though porencephaly was asymptomatic for a long period of time, we argue that there is a causal relationship between the chronic psychotic symptoms and the porencephalic cyst in our case. Full article
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Case Report
Successful Dabrafenib Desensitization Protocols in a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma
Medicina 2022, 58(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040511 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Dabrafenib and trametinib are two available molecules that have been approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF-V600E or V600K mutations. Their combined therapy has led to long-lasting survival benefits and substantially improved outcomes. Until now, only a few cases of severe [...] Read more.
Dabrafenib and trametinib are two available molecules that have been approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF-V600E or V600K mutations. Their combined therapy has led to long-lasting survival benefits and substantially improved outcomes. Until now, only a few cases of severe hypersensitivity reactions to dabrafenib and vemurafenib have been reported, and even fewer desensitization protocols to these molecules have been documented. We report the case of a 71-year-old female patient with metastatic melanoma harboring a BRAF-V600E mutation undergoing targeted therapy with dabrafenib and trametinib. Two weeks after the initiation of the combined treatment, she developed a hypersensitivity reaction. The cause–effect relationship between dabrafenib and the hypersensitivity reaction was demonstrated twice, when symptoms recurred upon dabrafenib reintroduction. We started a rapid 3-day dabrafenib desensitization protocol, which was well tolerated. When the patient discontinued the drug administration, we decided on a longer protocol that included more steps and more days in order to prevent the occurrence of other hypersensitivity reactions. Our patient tolerated both rapid and slow-going schedules, the first one reaching the final dose within 3 days and the second one reaching the total daily dose within 14 days. Depending on the patient’s needs, the severity of the hypersensitivity reaction and the hospital’s availability, the doctor may choose either the rapid or slow-going desensitization protocol. Full article
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Article
Opioid-Sparing Analgesia Impacts the Perioperative Anesthetic Management in Major Abdominal Surgery
Medicina 2022, 58(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040487 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The management of acute postoperative pain (APP) following major abdominal surgery implies various analgetic strategies. Opioids lie at the core of every analgesia protocol, despite their side effect profile. To limit patients’ exposure to opioids, considerable effort has been [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The management of acute postoperative pain (APP) following major abdominal surgery implies various analgetic strategies. Opioids lie at the core of every analgesia protocol, despite their side effect profile. To limit patients’ exposure to opioids, considerable effort has been made to define new opioid-sparing anesthesia techniques relying on multimodal analgesia. Our study aims to investigate the role of adjuvant multimodal analgesic agents, such as ketamine, lidocaine, and epidural analgesia in perioperative pain control, the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after major abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical, observational, randomized, monocentric study, in which 80 patients were enrolled and divided into three groups: Standard group, C (n = 32), where patients received perioperative opioids combined with a fixed regimen of metamizole/acetaminophen for pain control; co-analgetic group, Co-A (n = 26), where, in addition to standard therapy, patients received perioperative systemic ketamine and lidocaine; and the epidural group, EA (n = 22), which included patients that received standard perioperative analgetic therapy combined with epidural analgesia. We considered the primary outcome, the postoperative pain intensity, assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) at 1 h, 6 h, and 12 h postoperatively. The secondary outcomes were the total intraoperative fentanyl dose, total postoperative morphine dose, maximal intraoperative sevoflurane concentration, confusion assessment method for intensive care units score (CAM-ICU) at 1 h, 6 h, and 12 h postoperatively, and the postoperative dose of ondansetron as a marker for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) severity. Results: We observed a significant decrease in VAS score, as the primary outcome, for both multimodal analgesic regimens, as compared to the control. Moreover, the intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative morphine doses were, consequently, reduced. The maximal sevoflurane concentration and POCD were reduced by EA. No differences were observed between groups concerning PONV severity. Conclusions: Multimodal analgesia concepts should be individualized based on the patient’s needs and consent. Efforts should be made to develop strategies that can aid in the reduction of opioid use in a perioperative setting and improve the standard of care. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Polypharmacy in the Management of Arterial Hypertension—Friend or Foe?
Medicina 2021, 57(12), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57121288 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Polypharmacy is associated with drug–drug or food–drug interactions that may pose treatment difficulties. The objective of the study was to investigate the use of polypharmacy in hypertensive patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinic of a European referral hospital. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Polypharmacy is associated with drug–drug or food–drug interactions that may pose treatment difficulties. The objective of the study was to investigate the use of polypharmacy in hypertensive patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinic of a European referral hospital. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review study on patients identified by a database search of discharge diagnoses to assess the use of polypharmacy and identify potential drug-drug and food-drug interactions. Results: In total, 166 hypertensive patients (68.46 ± 12.70 years, range 42–94 years) were compared to 83 normotensive subjects (67.82 ± 14.47 years, range 22–94 years) who were hospitalized in the clinic during the same period. Polypharmacy was more common in hypertensive versus normotensive subjects (p = 0.007). There were no differences in terms of age, as well as major (0.44 ± 0.77 versus 0.37 ± 0.73 interactions/patient, p = 0.52) and minor (1.25 ± 1.50 versus 1.08 ± 1.84 interactions/patient, p = 0.46) drug–drug interactions between patients with and without hypertension. The mean number of drug–drug interactions (6.55 ± 5.82 versus 4.93 ± 5.59 interactions/patient, p = 0.03), moderate drug–drug interactions (4.94 ± 4.75 versus 3.54 ± 4.17, p = 0.02) and food–drug interactions (2.64 ± 1.29 versus 2.02 ± 1.73, p = 0.00) was higher in patients with hypertension versus their counterparts. Conclusions: The present study reinforces that polypharmacy is a serious concern in hypertensive patients, as reflected by the high number of potentially harmful drug–drug or food–drug interactions. We recorded higher numbers of comorbidities, prescribed drugs, and moderate drug–drug/food–drug interactions in hypertensive versus normotensive patients. A strategy to evaluate the number of discharge medications and reduce drug–drug interactions is essential for the safety of hypertensive patients. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Maternal and Neonatal Complications in a Group of Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111170 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents one of the most common complications during pregnancy, being associated with numerous maternal and neonatal complications. The study aimed to analyze maternal and neonatal complications associated with GDM. The risk factors of GDM and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents one of the most common complications during pregnancy, being associated with numerous maternal and neonatal complications. The study aimed to analyze maternal and neonatal complications associated with GDM. The risk factors of GDM and of the maternal and neonatal complications were studied in order to prevent their occurrence. Materials and Methods: The study included 97 women in the study, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between weeks 24–28 of pregnancy, consequently being divided into two groups: pregnant women with and without GDM. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 26.0 software and MATLAB fitglm, the results being considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. Results: We observed statistically significant differences between the group of women with and without GDM, regarding gestational hypertension (17.6% vs. 0%), preeclampsia (13.72% vs. 0%), and cesarean delivery (96.1% vs. 78,3%). Data on the newborn and neonatal complications: statistically significant differences were recorded between the two groups (GDM vs. no GDM) regarding the average weight at birth (3339.41 ± 658.12 g vs. 3122.83 ± 173.67 g), presence of large for gestational age (21.6% vs. 0%), macrosomia (13.7% vs. 0%), excessive fetal growth (35.3% vs. 0%), respiratory distress (31.4% vs. 0%), hospitalization for at least 24 h in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (9.80% vs. 0%), and APGAR score <7 both 1 and 5 min following birth (7.8% vs. 0%). Additionally, the frequency of neonatal hypoglycemia and hyperbilirubinemia was higher among newborns from mothers with GDM. Conclusions: The screening and diagnosis of GDM is vital, and appropriate management is required for the prevention of maternal and neonatal complications associated with GDM. It is also important to know the risk factors for GDM and attempt to prevent their appearance. Full article
Case Report
Successful Treatment of Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Using Rituximab: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090912 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3767
Abstract
Background: Kidney involvement is a frequent complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and kidney biopsy is essential in differentiating lupus nephritis (LN) from thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) secondary to antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPL). Association between antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and acquired hemophilia due to inhibitors was [...] Read more.
Background: Kidney involvement is a frequent complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and kidney biopsy is essential in differentiating lupus nephritis (LN) from thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) secondary to antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPL). Association between antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and acquired hemophilia due to inhibitors was very rarely described in SLE patients. Case presentation: We present the case of a 61-year-old male diagnosed with SLE who acquired deficiency of clotting factor VIII due to circulating inhibitors, admitted for acute kidney injury (AKI), microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and diplopia. Kidney biopsy showed TMA due to APS, but no signs of LN. Head computed tomography identified low dense areas in the white matter, suggesting small blood vessels’ involvement. A diagnosis of probable catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) was established and treatment with low molecular weight heparin, intravenous methylprednisolone, plasmapheresis, and rituximab was initiated, followed by resolution of AKI, diplopia, and TMA with complete depletion of CD19+B-lymphocytes (CD19+B-Ly) after one month. We further review the current knowledge regarding pathogenesis and management of CAPS in SLE patients. Conclusions: Targeted therapy was possible after kidney biopsy, improving renal and general prognosis. CD19+B-Ly repopulation preceded biological relapse, so monitoring of CD19+B-Ly may serve as a tool to predict relapses and guide rituximab therapy. Full article
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Article
Blood Pressure and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile in Young Saudi Males in a University Setting
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080755 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) poses significant clinical and public health challenges across the world. This study aimed to study the metabolic risk factors and the association with blood pressure alteration. Materials and Methods: This was a [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) poses significant clinical and public health challenges across the world. This study aimed to study the metabolic risk factors and the association with blood pressure alteration. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between 2017 and 2018 among 284 male university students in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. The obesity and cardiovascular measurements were taken using standardized instruments, including blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure, body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP), and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Statistical Analysis: Blood pressure was classified according to the United States of America, Sixth Joint National committee (JNC-VI) guidelines. The mean and standard error were calculated for each hypertension group variable. Logistic regression was applied to predict associations. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in the present study was 61.6%., and that of overweight and obesity was 16.5% and 34.9%, respectively. The cut-off values of BMI and WC were 22.23 and 75.24, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR significantly predict hypertension and that WC has a greater discrimination capacity than other measures. The findings also emphasize the importance of cardiovascular risk screening for young adults to detect any alterations in blood pressure and thus identify the population that is vulnerable to CVDs at an early stage. The findings highlight the need for health and university policymakers to adopt measures to monitor and control hypertension and obesity at the university level. Full article
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Case Report
Gorham-Stout Disease with Multiple Bone Involvement—Challenging Diagnosis of a Rare Disease and Literature Review
Medicina 2021, 57(7), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57070681 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2974
Abstract
Gorham-Stout disease is a rare disorder, which may result in a poor prognosis. This disease, a rare lymphangiomatosis, is defined by progressive bone disappearance due to massive unicentric and multicentric osteolysis. Osteolytic lesions of the spine and pleura effusion are poor prognostic factors. [...] Read more.
Gorham-Stout disease is a rare disorder, which may result in a poor prognosis. This disease, a rare lymphangiomatosis, is defined by progressive bone disappearance due to massive unicentric and multicentric osteolysis. Osteolytic lesions of the spine and pleura effusion are poor prognostic factors. Herein, we will present a case where the onset of disease occurred at the age of 18 with asthenia, myalgia, and major bone pain, followed by incomplete motor deficiency in the lower limbs and, later, in the upper limbs. Imaging studies (CT scan and MRI) of the patient revealed osteolytic lesions (cervical and thoracic vertebrae, rib, and clavicle) and a pathological fracture of the C7 vertebra. Surgical procedures undertaken involved replacing the affected vertebrae with bone grafting and prosthesis. The investigations performed allowed for the exclusion of inflammation, thyroid or parathyroid disease, lymphoma, neoplasia, or autoimmune disorders. A bone marrow biopsy showed osteolysis, the replacement of bone tissues with connective tissue, and chronic non-specific inflammation. The evolution was negative with almost complete osteolysis of the left clavicle, the emergence of new osteolysis areas in the lumbar vertebrae, pelvic bones, and the bilateral proximal femur, splenic nodules, chylothorax, and associated major neurological deficits. Unfortunately, this negative evolution resulted in the patient’s death a year after onset. Full article
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