Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Urology & Nephrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2023) | Viewed by 9592

Special Issue Editors


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Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” of Iași, 700115 Iasi, Romania Clinic of Infectious Diseases, “Sf. Parascheva” Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, 700116 Iasi, Romania
Interests: antibiotic resistance; urinary tract infections; carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales; multidrug-resistant bacteria; healthcare-associated infections
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Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases (Internal Medicine II), Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr. T. Popa”, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: infectious diseases; urinary tract infections; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic stewardship

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Guest Editor
Department of Morpho-Functional Sciences II, Discipline of Physiology, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Interests: endothelial dysfunction; oxidative stress; atherosclerosis; molecular biology; inflammatory diseases; cardiovascular diseases; type 2 diabetes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a major public health problem and are among the most common bacterial infections, affecting an estimated 150 million people globally each year, across all age groups.

The integrative approach to UTIs has an important role in improving patient prognosis, which implies that, in most cases, antimicrobial therapy should often be prescribed empirically. In order to implement appropriate empirical therapy, it is essential to know the main bacteria commonly involved in UTI pathology, as well as their antibiotic resistance profile. This approach reduces the incidence of antimicrobial resistance and prevents the spread of bacterial strains resistant to multiple antibiotics.

Antibiotic resistance has generated a massive global crisis and is one of the biggest challenges facing humanity. Some bacteria have developed resistance to all antibiotic classes, so there is a critical need to create new antibacterial agents that overcome the microorganisms' counter-attack mechanisms.

Less than 9 decades after the introduction of antibiotics into medical practice, we are facing a difficult situation: the risk of entering a post-antibiotic era, in which previously treatable infections become increasingly difficult or even impossible to control with existing antibiotics.

Therefore, this Special Issue aims to create an opportunity to update the information on antibiotic resistance and the newest insights into innovative approaches for the diagnosis and management of UTIs.

This Special Issue welcomes all submissions related to the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs, including original research articles, reviews and opinion papers. 

Dr. Ionela-Larisa Miftode
Dr. Andrei Vâță
Prof. Dr. Ionela Lacramioara Serban
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • urinary tract infections
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • Enterobacterales
  • diagnostic methods
  • infection control
  • novel antibacterial

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 519 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Increased Risk of Urosepsis during Pregnancy and Treatment Outcomes, in a Urology Clinic
by Viorel Dragos Radu, Radu Cristian Costache, Pavel Onofrei, Liviu Antohi, Razvan Lucian Bobeica, Iacov Linga, Ingrid Tanase-Vasilache, Anca Irina Ristescu, Alina-Mariela Murgu, Ionela-Larisa Miftode and Bogdan Alexandru Stoica
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59111972 - 08 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Urosepsis is a significant cause of maternal and fetal mortality. While certain risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnant women are well established, those associated with an elevated risk of urosepsis in pregnant women with upper UTIs remain [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Urosepsis is a significant cause of maternal and fetal mortality. While certain risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnant women are well established, those associated with an elevated risk of urosepsis in pregnant women with upper UTIs remain less defined. This study aims to identify factors linked to an increased risk of urosepsis and examine urologic treatment outcomes in such cases. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis on 66 pregnant women diagnosed with urosepsis over a nine-year period. A control group included 164 pregnant women with upper UTIs, excluding urosepsis, admitted during the same timeframe. This study highlights factors potentially contributing to urosepsis risk, including comorbidities like anemia, pregnancy-related hydronephrosis or secondary to reno-ureteral lithiasis, prior UTIs, coexisting urological conditions, and urologic procedures. Outcomes of urologic treatments, hospitalization duration, obstetric transfers due to fetal distress, and complications associated with double-J catheters were analyzed. Results: Pregnant women with urosepsis exhibited a higher prevalence of anemia (69.7% vs. 50.0%, p = 0.006), 2nd–3rd grade hydronephrosis (81.8% vs. 52.8%, p = 0.001), and fever over 38 °C (89.4% vs. 42.1%, p = 0.001). They also had a more intense inflammatory syndrome (leukocyte count 18,191 ± 6414 vs. 14,350 ± 3860/mmc, p = 0.001, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 142.70 ± 83.50 vs. 72.76 ± 66.37 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and higher creatinine levels (0.77 ± 0.81 vs. 0.59 ± 0.22, p = 0.017). On multivariate analysis, factors associated with increased risk for urosepsis were anemia (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.622, 95% CI 1.220–5.634), 2nd–3rd grade hydronephrosis (OR 6.581, 95% CI 2.802–15.460), and fever over 38 °C (OR 11.612, 95% CI 4.804–28.07). Regarding outcomes, the urosepsis group had a higher rate of urological maneuvers (87.9% vs. 36%, p = 0.001), a higher rate of obstetric transfers due to fetal distress (22.7% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.001), and migration of double-J catheters (6.1% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.016), but no maternal fatality was encountered. However, they experienced the same rate of total complications related to double-J catheters (19.69% vs. 12.80%, p > 0.05). The pregnant women in both groups had the infection more frequently on the right kidney, were in the second trimester and were nulliparous. Conclusions: Pregnant women at increased risk for urosepsis include those with anemia, hydronephrosis due to gestational, or reno-ureteral lithiasis, and fever over 38 °C. While the prognosis for pregnant women with urosepsis is generally favorable, urological intervention may not prevent a higher incidence of fetal distress and the need for obstetric transfers compared to pregnant women with uncomplicated upper UTIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection)
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12 pages, 4585 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Dynamic Role of Bacterial Etiology in Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
by Mădălin Guliciuc, Daniel Porav-Hodade, Raul Mihailov, Laura-Florentina Rebegea, Septimiu Toader Voidazan, Veronica Maria Ghirca, Adrian Cornel Maier, Monica Marinescu and Dorel Firescu
Medicina 2023, 59(9), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59091686 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Background and Objectives. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the epidemiological characteristics of urinary tract infections (UTI) and sepsis. However, there is still a lack of relevant bacteriological features and prognostic information regarding urosepsis based on bacteriological etiology. The current study [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the epidemiological characteristics of urinary tract infections (UTI) and sepsis. However, there is still a lack of relevant bacteriological features and prognostic information regarding urosepsis based on bacteriological etiology. The current study aims to evaluate the bacterial etiology of complicated UTI (cUTI) and bacterial resistance to antibiotics and whether they present an intrinsic risk of developing urosepsis. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was performed that included 102 patients who were diagnosed with cUTI and admitted to the urology department of the “Sfântul Apostol Andrei” County Emergency Clinical Hospital (GCH) from September 2019 to May 2022. Results. A considerable number of patients, n = 41 (40.2%), were diagnosed with multi drug-resistant (MDR) infection. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was identified as the prevailing pathogen, accounting for 51 patients. Klebsiella manifested itself as the subsequent causative agent in 27 instances. The presence of Enterococcus spp. infection was documented in 13 patients, whereas Pseudomonas emerged as the etiological perpetrator in the clinical context of 8 patients. The current study found a substantial prevalence of resistance to first-line antibiotics. The overall resistance rate was 74.5% for penicillin, 58.82% for trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole and 49% for fluoroquinolones; cephalosporin resistance displayed an inverse correlation with antibiotic generation with fourth-generation cephalosporins exhibiting a resistance rate of 24.5%, and first-generation cephalosporins demonstrating a resistance rate of 35.29%. Conclusions. Age, comorbidities and indwelling urinary catheters are risk factors for developing MDR infections. While the intrinsic characteristics of the causative bacterial agent in cUTI may not be a risk factor for developing urosepsis, they can contribute to increased mortality risk. For empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with cUTI who are at a high risk of developing urosepsis and experiencing a potentially unfavorable clinical course, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is recommended. This may include antibiotics, such as amikacin, tigecycline, carbapenems and piperacillin–tazobactam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection)
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18 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Linguistic and Clinical Validation of the Tajik Acute Cystitis Symptom Score for Diagnosis and Patient-Reported Outcome in Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis
by Abdukhamid Radzhabov, Musluhuddin Zamuddinov, Jakhongir F. Alidjanov, Adrian Pilatz, Florian M. Wagenlehner and Kurt G. Naber
Medicina 2023, 59(9), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59091549 - 25 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a self-reporting questionnaire for clinical diagnosis and follow-up of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC) in women. The ACSS, originally developed in Uzbek and Russian, both considered original languages, is now available in several other [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a self-reporting questionnaire for clinical diagnosis and follow-up of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC) in women. The ACSS, originally developed in Uzbek and Russian, both considered original languages, is now available in several other languages. This study aimed to translate and validate the ACSS in the Tajik language. Material and Methods: Linguistic validation was carried out according to the Linguistic Validation Manual for Patient-Reported Outcomes Instruments guidelines. Clinical validation was performed by enrolling fifty-four Tajik-speaking women. All women included in this study were first interviewed about the understandability of all questions and statements in the final Tajik ACSS and were asked to fill in form A at the first visit (diagnostics) and form B at any follow-up visit (patient-reported outcome). Results: Thirty-three women, median (range) age of 35 (18–77), were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while twenty-one women, median (range) age of 34 (20–61) (p = 0.109), were enrolled as the control group without any other urological disease. For the diagnostics of AC, a summary score of the six typical symptoms (“Typical” domain) showed the best balance between sensitivity (0.73) and specificity (0.71) at 5 and above. Cronbach’s alpha [95% CI] and split-half reliability [95%] were 0.82 [0.76; 0.98] and 0.84 [0.77; 0.87], respectively. At the follow-up visit, the patients reported a significant reduction in the “Typical” domain and an improvement in the “Quality of Life” domain. Conclusion: The Tajik ACSS showed good reliability and diagnostic values and may be used as a reliable tool for the diagnosis and patient-reported outcome in women with AC in clinical and epidemiological studies and for daily practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection)
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8 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
D-Mannose Plus Saccharomyces boulardii to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections and Discomfort after Cystoscopy: A Single-Center Prospective Randomized Pilot Study
by Carmelo Quattrone, Celeste Manfredi, Luigi Napolitano, Angelo Ferraro, Concetta Distefano, Antonio Di Girolamo, Carmine Sciorio, Vittorio Imperatore, Francesco Bottone, Roberto La Rocca, Davide Arcaniolo, Marco De Sio and Lorenzo Spirito
Medicina 2023, 59(6), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59061165 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Patients undergoing cystoscopy can experience discomfort or pain during the procedure. In some cases, a urinary tract infection (UTI) with storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may occur in the days following the procedure. This study aimed to assess [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Patients undergoing cystoscopy can experience discomfort or pain during the procedure. In some cases, a urinary tract infection (UTI) with storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may occur in the days following the procedure. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of D-mannose plus Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of UTIs and discomfort in patients undergoing cystoscopy. Materials and Methods: A single-center prospective randomized pilot study was conducted between April 2019 and June 2020. Patients undergoing cystoscopy for suspected bladder cancer (BCa) or in the follow-up for BCa were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups: D-Mannose plus Saccharomyces boulardii (Group A) vs. no treatment (Group B). A urine culture was prescribed regardless of symptoms 7 days before and 7 days after cystoscopy. The International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), 0–10 numeric rating scale (NRS) for local pain/discomfort, and EORTC Core Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were administered before cystoscopy and 7 days after. Results: A total of 32 patients (16 per group) were enrolled. No urine culture was positive in Group A 7 days after cystoscopy, while 3 patients (18.8%) in Group B had a positive control urine culture (p = 0.044). All patients with positive control urine culture reported the onset or worsening of urinary symptoms, excluding the diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. At 7 days after cystoscopy, the median IPSS of Group A was significantly lower than that of Group B (10.5 vs. 16.5 points; p = 0.021), and at 7 days, the median NRS for local discomfort/pain of Group A was significantly lower than that for Group B (1.5 vs. 4.0 points; p = 0.012). No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the median IPSS-QoL and EORTC QLQ-C30 was found between groups. Conclusions: D-Mannose plus Saccharomyces boulardii administered after cystoscopy seem to significantly reduce the incidence of UTI, the severity of LUTS, and the intensity of local discomfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection)
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13 pages, 1439 KiB  
Article
The Role of Biomarkers and Scores in Describing Urosepsis
by Mădălin Guliciuc, Daniel Porav-Hodade, Bogdan-Calin Chibelean, Septimiu Toader Voidazan, Veronica Maria Ghirca, Adrian Cornel Maier, Monica Marinescu and Dorel Firescu
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030597 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Patients with urinary tract obstruction (UTO) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are at risk of developing urosepsis, whose evolution involves increased morbidity, mortality and cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of already existing [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Patients with urinary tract obstruction (UTO) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are at risk of developing urosepsis, whose evolution involves increased morbidity, mortality and cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of already existing scores and biomarkers to diagnose, describe the clinical status, and predict the evolution of patients with complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) and their risk of progressing to urosepsis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including patients diagnosed with UTI hospitalized in the urology department of” Sfântul Apostol Andrei” County Emergency Clinical Hospital (GCH) in Galati, Romania, from September 2019 to May 2022. The inclusion criteria were: UTI proven by urine culture or diagnosed clinically complicated with UTO, fever or shaking chills, and purulent collections, such as psoas abscess, Fournier Syndrome, renal abscess, and paraurethral abscess, showing SIRS. The exclusion criteria were: patients age < 18 years, pregnancy, history of kidney transplantation, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, and patients with missing data. We used the Sequential (Sepsis-Related) Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and qSOFA (quick SOFA) scores, and procalcitonin (PCT) to describe the clinical status of the patients. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to assesses pre-existing morbidities. The hospitalization days and costs and the days of intensive care were considered. Depending on the diagnosis at admission, we divided the patients into three groups: SIRS, sepsis and septic shock. The fourth group was represented by patients who died during hospitalization. Results: A total of 174 patients with complicated UTIs were enrolled in this study. From this total, 46 were enrolled in the SIRS group, 88 in the urosepsis group, and 40 in the septic shock group. A total of 23 patients died during hospitalization and were enrolled in the deceased group. An upward trend of age along with worsening symptoms was highlighted with an average of 56.86 years in the case of SIRS, 60.37 years in the sepsis group, 69.03 years in the septic shock, and 71.04 years in the case of deceased patients (p < 0.04). A statistically significant association between PCT and complex scores (SOFA, CCI and qSOFA) with the evolution of urosepsis was highlighted. Increased hospitalization costs can be observed in the case of deceased patients and those with septic shock and statistically significantly lower in the case of those with SIRS. The predictability of discriminating urosepsis stages was assessed by using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and very good specificity and sensitivity was identified in predicting the risk of death for PCT (69.57%, 77.33%), the SOFA (91.33%, 76.82%), qSOFA (91.30%, 74.17%) scores, and CCI (65.22%, 88.74%). The AUC value was best for qSOFA (90.3%). For the SIRS group, the PCT (specificity 91.30%, sensitivity 85.71%) and SOFA (specificity 84.78%, sensitivity 78.74%), qSOFA scores (specificity 84.78%, sensitivity 76, 34%) proved to be relevant in establishing the diagnosis. In the case of the septic shock group, the qSOFA (specificity 92.5%, sensitivity 82.71%) and SOFA (specificity 97.5%, sensitivity 77.44%) as well as PCT (specificity 80%, sensitivity 85.61%) are statistically significant disease-defining variables. An important deficit in the tools needed to classify patients into the sepsis group is obvious. All the variables have an increased specificity but a low sensitivity. This translates into a risk of a false negative diagnosis. Conclusions: Although SOFA and qSOFA scores adequately describe patients with septic shock and they are independent prognostic predictors of mortality, they fail to be accurate in diagnosing sepsis. These scores should not replace the conventional triage protocol. In our study, PCT proved to be a disease-defining marker and an independent prognostic predictor of mortality. Patients with important comorbidities, CCI greater than 10, should be treated more aggressively because of increased mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection)
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Review

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11 pages, 754 KiB  
Review
Particularities of Urinary Tract Infections in Diabetic Patients: A Concise Review
by Luminita-Georgeta Confederat, Mihaela-Iustina Condurache, Raluca-Elena Alexa and Oana-Maria Dragostin
Medicina 2023, 59(10), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59101747 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that, untreated or poorly controlled, can lead to serious complications, reducing life expectancy and quality. Diabetic patients are more likely to develop infections, including many common infections, but also pathognomonic ones such as emphysematous pyelonephritis, malignant otitis [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that, untreated or poorly controlled, can lead to serious complications, reducing life expectancy and quality. Diabetic patients are more likely to develop infections, including many common infections, but also pathognomonic ones such as emphysematous pyelonephritis, malignant otitis externa, mucormycosis and Fournier’s gangrene. Considering the fact that diabetic patients experience more frequently urinary tract infections (UTIs) with a worse prognosis than non-diabetic people, we conducted a review study based on data in the literature, following the particularities of UTIs in this group of patients, the risk factors, the mechanisms involved and the challenges in their management. The findings highlight that UTI in diabetic patients have some particularities, including a more frequent evolution to bacteremia, increased hospitalizations, and elevated rates of recurrence and mortality than non-diabetic patients. The possible risk factors identified seem to be female gender, pregnancy, older age, UTI in the previous six months, poor glycemic control and duration of diabetes. The mechanisms involved are related to glucosuria and bladder dysfunction, factors related to bacterial strains and host response. The bacterial strains involved in UTIs in diabetic patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile are, with some exceptions, similar to those in non-diabetic people; however, the antimicrobial agents should be carefully chosen and the duration of the treatment should be as those required for a complicated UTI. The data related to the risk of developing UTIs in patients treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors, a new class of oral hypoglycaemic agents with cardiovascular and renal benefits, are controversial; overall, it was evidenced that UTIs occurred at the initiation of the treatment, recurrent infection was uncommon and the majority of UTIs responded to treatment with standard antibiotics. Moreover, interruption or discontinuation of SGLT-2 inhibitor as a result of UTI was rare and SGLT-2 inhibitors did not increase the risk of severe infections such as urosepsis and pyelonephritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection)
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