Infectious and Tropical Diseases: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2024) | Viewed by 4628

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
King's College Hospital, London, UK
Interests: infectious diseases; respiratory infections; cardiac infections; tropical; bacterial; viral; fungal; parasitic

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Within the last century we have experienced a number of epidemics and pandemics caused by infections including cholera, influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Acute Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Zika virus and Mpox. There are also infections such as malaria which persistently have a devastating global health burden (241 million cases of malaria with 627,000 malaria related deaths in 2020) and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future unless further preventative strategies are implemented. Infectious diseases continue to represent a health problem in all regions of the world. As evidenced by the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, new pathogens will continue to emerge and drastically impact all of our lives.

The aim of this Special Issue is to further expand and explore our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and therapeutics of infectious and tropical diseases. Bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections will all be within the scope of this Special Issue. A range of studies, including case reports and series, cohort and case-control studies, narrative reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, are welcome from all over the world.

Dr. Temi Lampejo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • infectious
  • infection
  • tropical
  • bacterial
  • viral
  • fungal
  • parasitic

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2102 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Vitamin D Levels in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis and a Normal Population
by Vasanth Kumar Mamadapur, Shreesha Nagaraju and Mukhyaprana M. Prabhu
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050685 - 23 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. It contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of TB poses a considerable challenge because of emerging drug resistance and the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. It contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of TB poses a considerable challenge because of emerging drug resistance and the longer duration of therapy. Various past studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have established the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and treatment of TB. Results of in vivo studies are inconsistent, and this study aims to determine vitamin D levels and their association with newly diagnosed TB (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) cases and normal populations. Material and Methods: A Prospective Case-Control study with 116 subjects (58 cases and 58 controls) was conducted over two years. 29 cases of pulmonary TB and 29 cases of extrapulmonary TB constituted 58 cases of TB. Vitamin D levels were measured and compared in both the cases and controls. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS software 22.0. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 68.96% in the cases, while it was 51.72% in the controls. The reported median and quartile of serum vitamin D levels were 14.35 ng/mL (8.65, 25.48) in the TB group and 19.08 ng/mL (13.92, 26.17) in the control group. There was a significant statistical difference between the TB and non-TB populations with a p-value of 0.029 on the Mann–Whitney test. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in individuals with TB than those without TB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious and Tropical Diseases: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment)
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11 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of COVID-19 Disease in Renal Transplant Recipients
by Emilija Zimnickaitė, Ieva Kucinaitė, Birutė Zablockienė, Aistė Lisinskaitė, Rolandas Zablockis, Laurynas Rimševičius, Marius Miglinas and Ligita Jančorienė
Medicina 2024, 60(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60020201 - 24 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Kidney transplant recipients are at risk of developing more severe forms of COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical course of COVID-19 infection among kidney transplant patients and a control group. Materials and Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Kidney transplant recipients are at risk of developing more severe forms of COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical course of COVID-19 infection among kidney transplant patients and a control group. Materials and Methods: We examined 150 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection. Patients were divided into study (kidney transplant recipients, n = 53) and control (without a history of kidney transplantation, n = 97) groups. Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment data, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Results: The median patient age was 56.0 (46.0–64.0) years, and seventy-seven patients (51.3%) were men. The median Charlson comorbidity index was higher in the study group (3.0 vs. 2.0, p < 0.001). There was a higher incidence of hypoxemia in the control group upon arrival (52.6% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.001) and a higher NEWS index median (2.0 vs. 1.0 points, p = 0.009) and incidence of pneumonia during hospitalization (88.7% vs. 73.6%, p = 0.023). In the study group, there were more cases of mild (26.4% vs. 11.3%, p = 0.023) and critically severe forms of COVID-19 infection (26.4% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.001), kidney failure was more prevalent (34.0% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.001), and a greater number of patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (22.6% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.001) and died (18.9% vs. 1.0%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that treatment in the intensive care unit correlated with a higher mortality rate than transplantation itself (HR = 20.71, 95% CI 2.01–213.33, p = 0.011). Conclusions: The course of the COVID-19 disease in kidney transplant recipients is heterogeneous and can be more severe than in the general population. Even though patients may be hospitalized with fewer symptoms, complications and death are more likely to occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious and Tropical Diseases: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment)

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12 pages, 990 KiB  
Brief Report
Frailty in Older Adults with Dengue Fever
by Yu-Sheng Hu, Yu-Tai Lo, Yi-Ching Yang and Jiun-Ling Wang
Medicina 2024, 60(4), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60040537 - 26 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Dengue is one of the most common epidemic infections around the world. Dengue infections in older adults are related to an atypical presentation and a high mortality. Frailty is associated with poor recovery from hospitalization due to infection. However, few [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Dengue is one of the most common epidemic infections around the world. Dengue infections in older adults are related to an atypical presentation and a high mortality. Frailty is associated with poor recovery from hospitalization due to infection. However, few studies describe frailty and functional decline after dengue infection. The current case series study aims to investigate the baseline frailty status, functional decline, and time to recovery in older adults after dengue infection. Method: We studied seven patients with post-dengue frailty who had been admitted to the geriatric ward in one tertiary medical center in Taiwan during the 2023 dengue fever outbreak. Result: The mean age was 82 years old. The clinical frailty scale worsened from a mean of 4.7 at baseline to 6.3 at dengue diagnosis. The mean Katz Index of independence in activities of daily living decreased from 10.6 at baseline to 4.7 with dengue, and it recovered to 6.7 one month after discharge. Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest that there is indeed an increase in frailty in older adults due to dengue. Post-dengue frailty and functional decline might be profound and persistent. Acute geriatric care intervention rehabilitation for frailty after dengue may benefit this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious and Tropical Diseases: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment)
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0 pages, 1153 KiB  
Case Report
Silent Intruder: Unusual Presentation of Neurocysticercosis in an HIV-Infected Patient from the Far Northern Brazilian Amazon
by Luis E. B. Galan, Letícia R. M. Gerolin, Tháilla J. M. Carvalho, Eloise T. M. Filardi, Dafnin L. S. Ramos, Domingos S. M. Dantas, Roberto C. C. Carbonell, Felipe A. Cerni and Manuela B. Pucca
Medicina 2024, 60(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60030489 - 16 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the central nervous system (CNS), is a significant public health issue globally, including in Brazil. This article presents a case report of a 44-year-old male patient residing in the rural area of Roraima, the northernmost region of Brazil [...] Read more.
Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the central nervous system (CNS), is a significant public health issue globally, including in Brazil. This article presents a case report of a 44-year-old male patient residing in the rural area of Roraima, the northernmost region of Brazil within the Amazon Forest. The patient, with chronic HIV infection, acquired the Taenia solium helminth, resulting in neurocysticercosis development. Remarkably, the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis was not initially apparent but emerged through meticulous analysis following a motorcycle accident. The absence of seizures, a common clinical manifestation, complicated the diagnostic process, making it an uncommon case of NCC, which may be related to co-infection. As the patient’s condition progressed, multiple complications arose, requiring additional medical attention and interventions. This case underscores the immense challenges faced by healthcare teams in managing neurocysticercosis effectively. It emphasizes the critical need for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal care for such complex cases. The study’s findings underscore the importance of raising awareness and implementing improved strategies for tackling neurocysticercosis, particularly in regions where it remains a prevalent concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious and Tropical Diseases: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment)
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12 pages, 18590 KiB  
Case Report
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches for a Diabetic Patient Presenting with Secondary Syphilis and Severe Odynophagia
by Bramantono Bramantono, Henry Sutanto, Hermawan Susanto, Muhammad Vitanata Arfijanto and Usman Hadi
Medicina 2024, 60(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60020298 - 9 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Syphilis, an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, represents a pervasive global epidemic. Secondary syphilis is typically marked by the emergence of highly contagious mucocutaneous manifestations, including non-pruritic rashes on the palms and soles of the feet, alopecia, mucous patches, [...] Read more.
Syphilis, an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, represents a pervasive global epidemic. Secondary syphilis is typically marked by the emergence of highly contagious mucocutaneous manifestations, including non-pruritic rashes on the palms and soles of the feet, alopecia, mucous patches, and condyloma lata. Here, we report a rare case of a 30-year-old male with newly discovered type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with severe odynophagia due to secondary syphilis, confirmed by both nontreponemal VDRL/RPR and treponemal TPHA tests. Following the administration of a single-dose intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units, the symptoms gradually decreased, allowing the patient to regain his health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious and Tropical Diseases: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment)
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