Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Fat: Cardiovascular Implications

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Cardiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 1213

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Cardiology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beersheva 8484101, Israel
2. Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva 8484105, Israel
Interests: cardiovascular prevention; aortic stiffness; dyslipidemia; diabetes mellitus; glycemic control; acute cardiovascular care; heart failure; atrial fibrillation; obesity; adiposity; pericardial fat; metabolic syndrome; endothelial function; hormonal regulation of insulin resistance; hormones and cardiovascular health

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Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Interests: epidemiology; genetics; epigenetics; inflammation; dietary interventions; clinical nutrition; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; obesity; aging
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity and adiposity, along with their associated metabolic complications, are steadily growing globally and have become a major concern for public health. However, obesity is a broad spectrum engulfing several adiposity phenotypes; each carries distinct related risks and metabolic implications. The obesity epidemic is a key promotor, growing in importance, of cardiovascular diseases, the most substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.

Adiposity phenotypes are associated with specific hormonal alterations mainly related to a complex crosstalk between distinct fat depots, the gut, the liver, and the brain. Adipose tissue is one of the most active endocrine organs of the human body. It affects not only insulin resistance but also sex hormones metabolism and levels, gut hormones secretion, systemic inflammation, and central functions such as satiety, hunger, mood disorders, and reward system activity. The endocrine system, on its different axes, has considerable implications on cardiovascular health, and its adiposity-related alterations might have a detrimental or positive influence on cardiovascular health. However, the complex interplay between adiposity, the endocrine system, and cardiovascular health is not fully understood.

Also, the potential hormonal-targeted interventions to affect obesity-related cardiometabolic health is an area of growing focus, where the scientific community has just scratched the surface. In this special issue, we aim to focus on unique phenotypes and mechanisms of adiposity-related hormonal adaptations and their influence on cardiometabolic health. We also aim to address potential lifestyle, recreational, and pharmacological interventions that might benefit adiposity-related cardiovascular complications via targeting endocrine axes.

Dr. Gal Tsaban
Dr. Anat Yaskolka Meir
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • adiposity
  • metabolic syndrome
  • insulin resistance
  • hormones
  • obesity
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • lifestyle intervention
  • pharmacologic interventions
  • ectopic fat
  • gut-fat-brain axis

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

16 pages, 933 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Relationship between Indexed Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness, Oxidative Stress in Adipocytes, and Coronary Artery Disease Complexity in Open-Heart Surgery Patients
by Laurentiu Braescu, Adrian Sturza, Oana Maria Aburel, Raluca Sosdean, Danina Muntean, Constantin Tudor Luca, Daniel Miron Brie, Horea Feier, Simina Crisan and Cristian Mornos
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010177 - 19 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: This cross-sectional study conducted at the Timișoara Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Romania, and the Centre for Translational Research and Systems Medicine from “Victor Babeș” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timișoara, Romania, investigated the relationship between indexed epicardial adipose [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This cross-sectional study conducted at the Timișoara Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Romania, and the Centre for Translational Research and Systems Medicine from “Victor Babeș” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timișoara, Romania, investigated the relationship between indexed epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATTi) and oxidative stress in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) adipocytes in the context of coronary artery disease (CAD) among open-heart surgery patients. The objective was to elucidate the contribution of EATTi as an additional marker for complexity prediction in patients with CAD, potentially influencing clinical decision-making in surgical settings. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, with a mean age of 65.16 years and a body mass index of 27.61 kg/m2. Oxidative stress in EAT was assessed using the ferrous iron xylenol orange oxidation spectrophotometric assay. The patients were divided into three groups: those with valvular heart disease without CAD, patients with CAD without diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with both CAD and DM. The CAD complexity was evaluated using the SYNTAX score. Results: The EATTi showed statistically significant elevations in the patients with both CAD and DM (mean 5.27 ± 0.67 mm/m2) compared to the CAD without DM group (mean 3.78 ± 1.05 mm/m2, p = 0.024) and the valvular disease without CAD group (mean 2.67 ± 0.83 mm/m2, p = 0.001). Patients with SYNTAX scores over 32 had significantly higher EATTi (5.27 ± 0.66 mm/m2) compared to those with lower scores. An EATTi greater than 4.15 mm/m2 predicted more complex CAD (SYNTAX score >22) with 80% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The intra- and interobserver reproducibility for the EATTi measurement were excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.911, inter-class correlation coefficient 0.895). Conclusions: EATTi is significantly associated with CAD complexity in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. It serves as a reliable indicator of more intricate CAD forms, as reflected by higher SYNTAX scores. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of EATTi in pre-operative assessment, suggesting its potential utility as a prognostic marker in cardiac surgical patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Fat: Cardiovascular Implications)
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