Evolution in Treatment and Diagnosis of Spine Disorders

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Orthopedics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 March 2024 | Viewed by 3372

Special Issue Editor

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
Interests: cervical spine diseases; lumbar spine diseases; thoracic spine diseases; spinal deformity
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, we have been observing great evolution in the treatment of spine disorders.

In addition, diagnostic tools and methods for spinal disorders have been essentially improved.

The main aim of this Special Issue of Medicina is to deliver evolution in the treatment and diagnosis of spine disorders.

This Special Issue is open to studies for surgical strategies, diagnoses, clinical outcomes, etiology, and systematic reviews, etc.

We invite authors to submit articles related to all the area of spinal disorders.

The types of paper can be either of original articles, review articles, technical notes, and case reports.

Dr. Hidetoshi Nojiri
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cervical spine disorders
  • lumbar spine disorders
  • thoracic spine disorders
  • spinal deformity
  • treatment
  • diagnosis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 4957 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Vascular Structures in OLIF51 and the Lateral Corridor Approach under Supine MRI and Intraoperative Enhanced CT in the Lateral Decubitus Position
Medicina 2024, 60(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60020326 - 14 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: As the oblique lateral interbody fusion at L5/S1 (OLIF51) and the lateral corridor approach (LCA) have gained popularity, an understanding of the precise vascular structure at the L5/S1 level is indispensable. The objectives of this study were to investigate [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: As the oblique lateral interbody fusion at L5/S1 (OLIF51) and the lateral corridor approach (LCA) have gained popularity, an understanding of the precise vascular structure at the L5/S1 level is indispensable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the vascular anatomy at the L5/S1 level, and to compare the movement of vascular tissue between the supine and lateral decubitus positions using intraoperative enhanced CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 patients who underwent either OLIF51 or LCA were investigated with an average age at surgery of 60.4 (37–80) years old. The preoperative MRI was taken to observe the axial and sagittal anatomy of the vascular position under the supine position. The intraoperative vein-enhanced CT was taken just before incision in the right decubitus position, and compared to supine MRI anatomy. Iliolumbar vein appearance and its types were also classified. Results: The average vascular window allowed for OLIF51 was 22.8 mm and 34.1 mm at either the L5 caudal endplate level or the S1 cephalad endplate level, respectively. The LCA was 14.2 mm and 12.6 mm at either level, respectively. The left common iliac vein moved 3.8 mm and 6.9 mm to the right direction at either level from supine to the right decubitus position, respectively. The bifurcation moved 6.3 mm to the caudal direction from supine to right decubitus. The iliolumbar vein was located at 31 mm laterally from the midline, and the MRI detection rate was 52%. Conclusions: The precise measurement of vascular anatomy indicated that the OLIF51 approach was the standard minimally invasive anterior approach for the L5/S1 disc level compared to LCA; however, there were many variations in quantitative anatomy as well as significant vascular movements between the supine and right decubitus positions. In the clinical setting of OLIF51 and LCA surgeries, careful preoperative evaluation and intraoperative 3D imaging are recommended for safe and accurate surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution in Treatment and Diagnosis of Spine Disorders)
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14 pages, 3273 KiB  
Article
Navigation-Assisted One-Staged Posterior Spinal Fusion Using Pedicle Screw Instrumentation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis—A Case Series
Medicina 2024, 60(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60020300 - 09 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a prevalent three-dimensional spinal disorder, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, including genetics and environmental aspects. Treatment options include non-surgical and surgical treatment. Surgical interventions demonstrate positive outcomes in terms of deformity correction, pain relief, and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a prevalent three-dimensional spinal disorder, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, including genetics and environmental aspects. Treatment options include non-surgical and surgical treatment. Surgical interventions demonstrate positive outcomes in terms of deformity correction, pain relief, and improvements of the cardiac and pulmonary function. Surgical complications, including excessive blood loss and neurologic deficits, are reported in 2.27–12% of cases. Navigation-assisted techniques, such as the O-arm system, have been a recent focus with enhanced precision. This study aims to evaluate the results and complications of one-stage posterior instrumentation fusion in AIS patients assisted by O-arm navigation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study assesses 55 patients with AIS (12–28 years) who underwent one-stage posterior instrumentation correction supported by O-arm navigation from June 2016 to August 2023. We examined radiological surgical outcomes (initial correction rate, loss of correction rate, last follow-up correction rate) and complications as major outcomes. The characteristics of the patients, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, number of fusion levels, and screw density were documented. Results: Of 73 patients, 55 met the inclusion criteria. The average age was 16.67 years, with a predominance of females (78.2%). The surgical outcomes demonstrated substantial initial correction (58.88%) and sustained positive radiological impact at the last follow-up (56.56%). Perioperative complications, including major and minor, occurred in 18.18% of the cases. Two patients experienced a major complication. Blood loss (509.46 mL) and operation time (402.13 min) were comparable to the literature ranges. Trend analysis indicated improvements in operation time and blood loss over the study period. Conclusions: O-arm navigation-assisted one-stage posterior instrumentation proves reliable for AIS corrective surgery, achieving significant and sustained positive radiological outcomes, lower correction loss, reduced intraoperative blood loss, and absence of implant-related complications. Despite the challenges, our study demonstrates the efficacy and maturation of this surgical approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution in Treatment and Diagnosis of Spine Disorders)
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11 pages, 1607 KiB  
Article
Elucidation of the Mechanism of Occasional Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Rupture with Posterior Correction Procedure for Adult Spinal Deformity Using LLIF–Finite Element Analysis of the Impact of the Lordotic Angle of Intervertebral LLIF Cage
Medicina 2023, 59(9), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59091569 - 29 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: There are several advantages of using lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) for correction surgeries for adult spinal deformity (ASD); however, we currently have unresolved new issues, including occasional anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) rupture during the posterior correction procedure. When LLIF [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: There are several advantages of using lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) for correction surgeries for adult spinal deformity (ASD); however, we currently have unresolved new issues, including occasional anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) rupture during the posterior correction procedure. When LLIF was initially introduced, only less lordotic cages were available and ALL rupture was more frequently experienced compared with later periods when more lordotic cages were available. We performed finite element analysis (FEA) regarding the mechanism of ALL rupture during a posterior correction procedure. Methods: A spring (which mimics ALL) was introduced at the location of ALL in the FEA and an LLIF cage with two different lordotic angles, 6 and 12 degrees (6DC/12DC), was employed. To assess the extent of burden on the ALL, the extension length of the spring during the correction procedure was measured and the location of the rotation center was examined. Results: We observed a significantly higher degree of length extension of the spring during the correction procedure in the FEA model with 6DC compared with that of 12DC. We also observed that the location of the rotation center was shifted posteriorly in the FEA model with 6DC compared with that of 12DC. Conclusions: It is considered that the posterior and rostral edge of the less lordotic angle cage became a hinge, and the longer lever arm increased the burden on ALL as the principle of leverage. It is important to use an LLIF cage with a sufficient lordotic angle, that is compatible with the degree of posterior osteotomy in ASD correction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution in Treatment and Diagnosis of Spine Disorders)
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7 pages, 1603 KiB  
Case Report
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in a Patient with Chronic Back Pain Caused by Multiple Schmorl’s Nodes: A Case Report
Medicina 2023, 59(10), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59101839 - 16 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Schmorl’s nodes (SNs), formed by the herniation of intervertebral discs into adjacent vertebral bodies, are generally asymptomatic and do not require treatment. However, certain types of SNs can cause intractable back pain. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old man presented [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Schmorl’s nodes (SNs), formed by the herniation of intervertebral discs into adjacent vertebral bodies, are generally asymptomatic and do not require treatment. However, certain types of SNs can cause intractable back pain. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old man presented to our hospital with back pain after a fall 1 month prior. Physical examination revealed back pain that worsened with movement and paraspinal tenderness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed immediately after presentation revealed subacute to chronic compression fractures with SNs at the upper endplates of the 11th and 12th thoracic and 1st lumbar vertebrae. Pain (numeric rating scale (NRS), 7–8/10) persisted despite 6 months of conservative treatment and MRI revealed increased signal intensity in T2-weighted images in the regions around the SNs. Based on these findings, an epidural nerve block was performed, and then repeated; however, no significant improvement was observed. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) was performed at the 11th and 12th thoracic and 1st lumbar vertebrae. Pain levels decreased substantially 1 week after PVP (NRS, 3–4/10). Subsequent treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids for two weeks further reduced pain levels (NRS, 1–2/10), following which steroid use was discontinued and NSAID use became intermittent. At the six-month follow-up, pain levels remained low and the patient reported an improvement in activity levels of 90% or more. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates that PVP safely and effectively improved symptoms in a patient with multiple SNs and intractable back pain. Nevertheless, further research, particularly large-scale randomized prospective studies, is necessary to validate the long-term efficacy and safety of this intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution in Treatment and Diagnosis of Spine Disorders)
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