Oral Dysbiosis and Systemic Diseases: A Two-Way Relationship?

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2024) | Viewed by 1527

Special Issue Editors

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry "Scuola Medica Salernitana", University of Salerno, 84100 Salerno, Italy
Interests: restorative dentistry; pediatric dentistry; endodontics; esthetic dentistry; dental materials; dental public health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry "Scuola Medica Salernitana", via Salvador Allende 43, 84081, Baronissi, SA, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; temporomandibular disorders, orofacial pain; COVID-19; dental materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many microorganisms live in symbiosis in humans.

Microorganisms perform several important functions as commensals, such as safeguarding the health of the host, fighting pathogens, contributing to homeostasis and increasing the activity of the immune system.

Numerous types of microorganisms are present in the mouth, including viruses, bacteria, archaea, fungi, mycoplasmas, and protozoa. All these microorganisms form the oral microbiome, which in healthy situations coexists in harmony with the host.

In case there are changes in local conditions, there could be changes in the composition of the oral flora, resulting in a change in microbial interactions, which would result in a change in the relationship between the oral microbiome and the host from symbiotic to potentially harmful (dysbiotic), increasing the risk of oral diseases such as caries or periodontal disease.

In the literature, there is evidence that links systemic diseases to the conditions of oral dysbiosis, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, degenerative diseases (such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), endocrine diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, age-related macular degeneration, and some types of cancer.

  • Oral microorganisms;
  • Oral dysbiosis and systemic diseases;
  • Oral dysbiosis;
  • Systemic diseases and oral health;
  • Oral health;
  • Oral microbiome.

Dr. Francesco D’Ambrosio
Dr. Massimo Pisano
Dr. Stefano Martina
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oral microbiome
  • dysbiosis
  • systemic diseases
  • oral health

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 252 KiB  
Editorial
Oral Dysbiosis and Systemic Diseases: A Two-Way Relationship?
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59111933 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
The human body consists of its own cells, but also of microorganisms that are found both inside and outside the human body [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Dysbiosis and Systemic Diseases: A Two-Way Relationship?)

Review

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10 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
Effects of Vape Use on Oral Health: A Review of the Literature
Medicina 2024, 60(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60030365 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The widespread use of tobacco has evolved with the popularity of vapes, especially among young people, despite the lack of clarity in warnings about their risks. Studies indicate the need for more effective communication about the oral risks of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The widespread use of tobacco has evolved with the popularity of vapes, especially among young people, despite the lack of clarity in warnings about their risks. Studies indicate the need for more effective communication about the oral risks of vaping. In addition to systemic, respiratory, and cardiovascular effects, vaping is associated with an increased risk of gingivitis and periodontal disease as well as reduced antioxidant capacity of saliva. The objectives of this narrative review are to summarize the existing information in the literature on the effects of vaping at the oral level and to bring together knowledge about the mechanism of action of vaping in oral tissues. Materials and Methods: In the present study, articles were searched in PubMed, Elsevier Scopus, and Web of Science using the keywords “oral health”, “vaping”, and “vape”. Studies published in the last 6 years that addressed the effects of oral vaping were selected, including comparisons among vape users, smokers, and non-smokers. Repeated articles, prior to 2017 and in languages other than English, were excluded. Two review authors (A.M.I and M.F.E.M) independently selected the papers based on titles and abstracts and conducted a full review of the remaining papers. In cases of disagreement, a third reviewer was used. Results: A total of 113 results were obtained, distributed as 16 from PubMed, 35 from Web of Science, and 62 from Elsevier Scopus. After removing duplicates, 67 articles were filtered by reviewing titles and abstracts, and finally, 22 articles were selected for comprehensive reading. Subsequently, eight of these articles were chosen for qualitative synthesis and are presented in standardized tables. The sample size of all included studies was composed of 31,647 participants, (14,477 male and 17,170 female) with a mean of 35.016 ± 7.57 years of age. Conclusions: This review indicates that the use of vapes is associated with an increased risk of periodontitis and caries. Although users experience more oral problems than non-smokers, these are less severe than those of traditional smokers. The widespread prevalence, especially among young people, highlights the urgency of awareness campaigns to warn of risks and understand potential harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Dysbiosis and Systemic Diseases: A Two-Way Relationship?)
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