Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices

A special issue of Mathematics (ISSN 2227-7390). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Mathematics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 24540

Special Issue Editors

Department of Energy–Electrical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano, Italy
Interests: evolutionary computation techniques; neural networks; optimization of EM devices; reflectarray antennas; electrical microgrid
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Energy – Electrical Engineering, POLITECNICO DI MILANO, Via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (MI), Italy
Interests: evolutionary computation; antenna optimization; antenna theory; wireless sensor networks; tubular permanent magnet linear generators

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms (EAs) are a family of biologically inspired population-based algorithms for global optimization. They are important tools for providing an effective and efficient solution to many real-word engineering problems due to their flexibility and capability to solve multimodal problems.

This Special Issue is focused on the solution of design and operation optimization problems of electromagnetic devices. Potential optimization topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Innovative applications of EAs;
  • Tailored EAs;
  • A surrogate model for reducing the optimization time;
  • New electromagnetic benchmarks;
  • A comparison between EAs;
  • Real-time optimisation;
  • Hardware-in-the-loop or software-in-the-loop optimization;
  • Memory-saving and compact optimisation.

Possible applications include but are not limited to the following:

  • Active antennas;
  • Impulse antennas;
  • Reflectarray and transmitarray antennas;
  • Linear and tubular motors;
  • Electric motors;
  • Wireless power transfer.

Dr. Alessandro Niccolai
Prof. Dr. Riccardo Zich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Evolutionary optimization
  • Antenna optimization
  • Electromagnetic optimization
  • Wireless power transfer
  • Electric motor optimization

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 5680 KiB  
Article
Optimization Environment Definition for Beam Steering Reflectarray Antenna Design
Mathematics 2022, 10(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10010033 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Reflectarray antennas are low-profile high-gain systems widely applied in the aerospace industry. The increase in their application is leading to the problem of getting more advanced performance while keeping the system as simple as possible. In these cases, their design cannot be conducted [...] Read more.
Reflectarray antennas are low-profile high-gain systems widely applied in the aerospace industry. The increase in their application is leading to the problem of getting more advanced performance while keeping the system as simple as possible. In these cases, their design cannot be conducted via analytical methods, thus evolutionary optimization algorithms are often implemented. Indeed, the design is characterized by the presence of many local minima, by high number of design variables, and by the high computational burden required to evaluate the antenna performance. The purpose of this paper is to develop, implement, and test a complete Optimization Environment that can be applied to achieve high scanning capabilities with a reflectarray. The design of the optimization environment has been selected to be flexible enough to be applied also with other different algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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23 pages, 1037 KiB  
Article
Feasible Optimal Solutions of Electromagnetic Cloaking Problems by Chaotic Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization
Mathematics 2021, 9(21), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212725 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
The optimization problem of cloaking a perfectly electric conducting or dielectric spherical core is investigated. The primary excitation is due to an external magnetic dipole. The chaotic accelerated particle swarm optimization (CAPSO) algorithm is adjusted and applied to this optimization problem. The optimization [...] Read more.
The optimization problem of cloaking a perfectly electric conducting or dielectric spherical core is investigated. The primary excitation is due to an external magnetic dipole. The chaotic accelerated particle swarm optimization (CAPSO) algorithm is adjusted and applied to this optimization problem. The optimization variables are the radii, the permittivities and the permeabilities of a small number of spherical shells covering the core. Several feasible optimal designs are obtained, which exhibit perfect or almost perfect cloaking performance for all angles of observation. These optimal designs correspond to two, three or four spherical coating layers composed of ordinary materials. Detailed parametric investigations of the cloaking mechanism with respect to the type and radius of the core and the location of the primary dipole are carried out. The presented optimization procedure and the reported results are expected to be useful in applications like scattering and characterization of optical particles as well as in designing low-profile receiving antennas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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28 pages, 4053 KiB  
Article
Novel Design Framework for Dual-Band Frequency Selective Surfaces Using Multi-Variant Differential Evolution
Mathematics 2021, 9(19), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9192381 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSSs) have become increasingly popular during the last years due to their combined characteristics, which meet, in general, the requirements of the next-generation wireless communication networks. In this work, a cross-platform design framework for FSS structures is presented and evaluated [...] Read more.
Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSSs) have become increasingly popular during the last years due to their combined characteristics, which meet, in general, the requirements of the next-generation wireless communication networks. In this work, a cross-platform design framework for FSS structures is presented and evaluated by utilizing a recently introduced evolutionary optimization algorithm, namely, the Multi-Variant Differential Evolution (MVDE). To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first time that the MVDE algorithm is applied to a design problem in Electromagnetics. The proposed design framework is described in detail and the utilized evolutionary algorithm is assessed in terms of its performance by applying several benchmark functions. In this context, the MVDE is comparatively evaluated against other popular evolutionary algorithms. Moreover, it is applied to the design and optimization of two different representative examples of FSS structures based on three use cases of unit cell geometry. Optimization results indicate the efficacy of the proposed framework by quantifying the performance of the designed FSS structures in terms of several system metrics. The optimized FSS structures exhibit dual-band operation and quite acceptable results in the ISM frequency bands of 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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13 pages, 3751 KiB  
Article
The Design of a Wideband Antenna with Notching Characteristics for Small Devices Using a Genetic Algorithm
Mathematics 2021, 9(17), 2113; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9172113 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2973
Abstract
This paper presents the design and realization of a compact printed ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with notching characteristics for compact devices using a genetic algorithm. The antenna is capable of mitigating an adjacent sub-band ranging from 3.75 to 4.875 GHz, mainly used by many [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and realization of a compact printed ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with notching characteristics for compact devices using a genetic algorithm. The antenna is capable of mitigating an adjacent sub-band ranging from 3.75 to 4.875 GHz, mainly used by many applications and standards such as WiMAX, WLAN and sub-6-GHz. The notch band functionality is achieved by etching out two symmetrical slots from the pentagonal radiating element. The simulation and measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna overperformed compared with state-of-the-art antennas in terms of compactness with an overall size of 20 mm×15 mm×0.508 mm. Moreover, the proposed design shows a large bandwidth in the UWB region with a fractional bandwidth of 180% with respect to the center frequency of 5.25 GHz. The antenna also presents omnidirectional radiations all over the operation band and a good return loss performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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8 pages, 800 KiB  
Article
A Compact Octa-Band Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Wireless Applications
Mathematics 2021, 9(13), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9131557 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
This paper presents the design and realization of a compact frequency reconfigurable antenna for multiband wireless applications. The antenna can operate at overall eight different bands in four dual-band modes. A slot in the radiator and defected ground structure are utilized to achieve [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and realization of a compact frequency reconfigurable antenna for multiband wireless applications. The antenna can operate at overall eight different bands in four dual-band modes. A slot in the radiator and defected ground structure are utilized to achieve a compact size, while PIN diodes are used for frequency reconfigurability in the proposed antenna. The antenna shows broad bandwidth in each operating frequency and has a compact size of 18 mm × 18 mm × 1.524 mm. Moreover, stable radiation patterns and a high value of efficiency make it a potential candidate for various wireless applications. Furthermore, to demonstrate the worth of this work, its performance is compared with state-of-the-art designs reported for similar applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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22 pages, 27660 KiB  
Article
A Modified Rao-2 Algorithm for Optimal Power Flow Incorporating Renewable Energy Sources
Mathematics 2021, 9(13), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9131532 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3055
Abstract
In this paper, a modified Rao-2 (MRao-2) algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of optimal power flow (OPF) in a power system incorporating renewable energy sources (RES). Quasi-oppositional and Levy flight methods are used to improve the performance of the Rao algorithm. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a modified Rao-2 (MRao-2) algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of optimal power flow (OPF) in a power system incorporating renewable energy sources (RES). Quasi-oppositional and Levy flight methods are used to improve the performance of the Rao algorithm. To demonstrate effectiveness of the MRao-2 technique, it is tested on two standard test systems: an IEEE 30-bus system and an IEEE 118-bus system. The objective function of the OPF is the minimization of fuel cost in five scenarios. The IEEE 30-bus system reflects fuel cost minimization in three scenarios (without RES, with RES, and with RES under contingency state), while the IEEE 118-bus system reflects fuel cost minimization in two scenarios (without RES and with RES). The achieved results of various scenarios using the suggested MRao-2 technique are compared with those obtained using five recent techniques: Atom Search Optimization (ASO), Turbulent Flow of Water-based Optimization (TFWO), Marine Predators Algorithm (MPA), Rao-1, Rao-3 algorithms, as well as the conventional Rao-2 algorithm. Those comparisons confirm the superiority of the MRao-2 technique over those other algorithms in solving the OPF problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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29 pages, 3934 KiB  
Article
Parameter Estimation of Induction Machine Single-Cage and Double-Cage Models Using a Hybrid Simulated Annealing–Evaporation Rate Water Cycle Algorithm
Mathematics 2020, 8(6), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8061024 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
This paper presents the usage of the hybrid simulated annealing—evaporation rate water cycle algorithm (SA-ERWCA) for induction machine equivalent circuit parameter estimation. The proposed algorithm is applied to nameplate data, measured data found in the literature, and data measured experimentally on a laboratory [...] Read more.
This paper presents the usage of the hybrid simulated annealing—evaporation rate water cycle algorithm (SA-ERWCA) for induction machine equivalent circuit parameter estimation. The proposed algorithm is applied to nameplate data, measured data found in the literature, and data measured experimentally on a laboratory three-phase induction machine operating as an induction motor and as an induction generator. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to both single-cage and double-cage equivalent circuit models. The accuracy and applicability of the proposed SA-ERWCA are intensively investigated, comparing the machine output characteristics determined by using SA-ERWCA parameters with corresponding characteristics obtained by using parameters determined using known methods from the literature. Also, the comparison of the SA-ERWCA with classic ERWCA and other algorithms used in the literature for induction machine parameter estimation is presented. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is a very effective and accurate method for induction machine parameter estimation. Furthermore, it is shown that the SA-ERWCA has the best convergence characteristics compared to other algorithms for induction machine parameter estimation in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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Review

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16 pages, 9130 KiB  
Review
Enhancing Gain for UWB Antennas Using FSS: A Systematic Review
Mathematics 2021, 9(24), 3301; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9243301 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 5731
Abstract
This review paper combs through reports that have enhanced antenna gain for ultra-wideband (UWB) frequencies using frequency-selective surface (FSS) techniques. The FSS techniques found across the research landscape were mapped onto a taxonomy in order to determine the most effective method for improving [...] Read more.
This review paper combs through reports that have enhanced antenna gain for ultra-wideband (UWB) frequencies using frequency-selective surface (FSS) techniques. The FSS techniques found across the research landscape were mapped onto a taxonomy in order to determine the most effective method for improving antenna gain. Additionally, this study looked into the motivation behind using FSS as a reflector in UWB frequencies to obtain directional radiation. The FSS suits multiple applications due to its exceptional ability to minimize power loss in undesired transmission areas in the antenna, as well as to hinder the interference that may occur from undesirable and wasted radiation. An efficient way to obtain constant gain over a wide range of frequencies is also elaborated in this paper. Essentially, this paper offers viable prescription to enhance antenna gain for UWB applications. Methods: A comprehensive study was performed using several imminent keywords, such as “high gain using FSS”, “gain enhancement using FSS”, “high gain UWB antennas”, and “gain enhancement of UWB antennas”, in different modifications to retrieve all related articles from three primary engines: Web of Science (WoS), IEEE Xplore, and Science Direct. Results: The 41 papers identified after a comprehensive literature review were classified into two categories. The FSS single- and multi-layer reflectors were reported in 25 and 16 papers, respectively. New direction: An effective method is proposed for FSS miniaturization and for obtaining constant gain over UWB frequencies while maintaining the return loss at −10 dB. Conclusion: The use of FSS is indeed effective and viable for gain enhancement in UWB antennas. This systematic review unravels a vast range of opportunities for researchers to bridge the identified gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Electromagnetic Devices)
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