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Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 16267

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Bioengineering Institute of Technology, School of Dentistry, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya C/ Immaculada, 22 08017 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: biomaterials; titanium and its alloys; shape memory alloys; dental materials
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Guest Editor
Dept. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica. EEBE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C/ Eduard Marsitany, 16-08019 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: biomaterials; metals; ceramics; microstructure; microscopy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in dental implantology and advances in technology have spearheaded new research into titanium, new metal alloys with low elastic modulus values, new alloys with improved osseointegration or bactericidal capacity, ceramics, composites, and polymers, in addition to surface modifications to increase the long-term success of such materials. In addition, new manufacturing technologies, sintering, lasers, new machining methods, etc., have allowed us to obtain dental implants with better mechanical characteristics, more suitable topographies, improved biological behaviors and with properties that prevent bacterial colonization. Furthermore, such advancements have been crucial in  achieving the design of  materials that are more biomimetic of bone and soft tissues.

Notable examples of recent advances in materials science, in addition to the advent of new materials with improved properties, also include bioactive materials, osteoinductive and osteoconductive materials, as well as biofunctionalized implants with organic molecules, proteins or peptides anchored on the implant surface.

Undoubtedly, the great research being carried out in this field will be fundamental for the advance of implantology. Hence, we intend to report on such research in this Special Issue of Materials.

Prof. Javier Gil
Prof. José Maria Manero
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dental biomaterials
  • dental implant materials
  • biocompatibility
  • prosthodontics
  • alloy
  • ceramics
  • 3D-printing materials
  • mechanical properties

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 5931 KiB  
Article
Development of Ternary Ti-Ag-Cu Alloys with Excellent Mechanical Properties and Antibiofilm Activity
by Genichi Togawa, Masatoshi Takahashi, Hiroyuki Tada and Yukyo Takada
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249011 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Titanium-20 mass% Silver (Ti-20%Ag) alloy can suppress biofilm formation on the surface. Unlike bactericidal agents, it does not kill bacteria; therefore, the healthy oral microflora remains undisturbed. To utilize the unique functions of this alloy and enable its use in the fabrication of [...] Read more.
Titanium-20 mass% Silver (Ti-20%Ag) alloy can suppress biofilm formation on the surface. Unlike bactericidal agents, it does not kill bacteria; therefore, the healthy oral microflora remains undisturbed. To utilize the unique functions of this alloy and enable its use in the fabrication of dental prostheses that require relatively high strength, we added copper (Cu) as an alloying element to improve strength. This study aimed to develop ternary Ti-Ag-Cu alloys with excellent mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity. As a result of investigating the mechanical properties of several experimental alloys, the tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness of Ti-20%Ag-1%Cu and Ti-20%Ag-2%Cu alloys were improved by the solid-solution strengthening or hardening of the αTi phase. In addition, these alloys had the same ability to suppress biofilm formation as the Ti-20Ag alloy. Thus, Ti-20%Ag-1–2%Cu alloys can be used for fabrication of narrow-diameter dental implants and prostheses subjected to extremely high force, and these prostheses are useful in preventing post-treatment oral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials)
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17 pages, 42521 KiB  
Article
Osteogenesis Performance of Boronized Ti6Al4V/HA Composites Prepared by Microwave Sintering: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
by Zhenyu Ding, Qian Peng, Jun Zuo, Yuehong Wang, Hongbo Zhou and Zhangui Tang
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144985 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
The boronized Ti6Al4V/HA composite is deemed to be an important biomaterial because of its potential remarkable mechanical and biological properties. This paper reports the osteogenesis performance of the boronized Ti6Al4V/HA composite, which was prepared by microwave sintering of powders of Ti6Al4V, hydroxyapatite (HA), [...] Read more.
The boronized Ti6Al4V/HA composite is deemed to be an important biomaterial because of its potential remarkable mechanical and biological properties. This paper reports the osteogenesis performance of the boronized Ti6Al4V/HA composite, which was prepared by microwave sintering of powders of Ti6Al4V, hydroxyapatite (HA), and TiB2 in high-purity Ar gas at 1050 °C for 30 min, as dental implant based on both cell experiments in vitro and animal experiments in vivo. The comparison between the boronized Ti6Al4V/HA composite and Ti, Ti6Al4V, and boronized Ti6Al4V in the terms of adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity, and mineralization of MG-63 cells on their surfaces confirmed that the composite exhibited the best inductive osteogenesis potential. It exerted a more significant effect on promoting the early osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts and exhibited the maximum optical density (OD) value in the MTT assay and the highest levels of ALP activity and mineralization ability, primarily ascribed to its bioactive HA component, porous structure, and relatively rough micro-morphology. The in vivo study in rabbits based on the micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, histological and histomorphometric evaluation, and biomechanical testing further confirmed that the boronized Ti6Al4V/HA composite had the highest new bone formation potential and the best osseointegration property after implantation for up to 12 weeks, mainly revealed by the measured values of bone volume fraction, bone implant contact, and maximum push-out force which, for example, reached 48.64%, 61%, and 150.3 ± 6.07 N at the 12th week. Owing to these inspiring features, it can serve as a highly promising dental implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials)
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15 pages, 4542 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Particles and Debris Released after Implantoplasty: A Comparative Study
by Xixi Wu, Changjie Cai, Javier Gil, Elizabeth Jantz, Yacoub Al Sakka, Miguel Padial-Molina and Fernando Suárez-López del Amo
Materials 2022, 15(2), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020602 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Titanium particles embedded on peri-implant tissues are associated with a variety of detrimental effects. Given that the characteristics of these detached fragments (size, concentration, etc.) dictate the potential cytotoxicity and biological repercussions exerted, it is of paramount importance to investigate the properties of [...] Read more.
Titanium particles embedded on peri-implant tissues are associated with a variety of detrimental effects. Given that the characteristics of these detached fragments (size, concentration, etc.) dictate the potential cytotoxicity and biological repercussions exerted, it is of paramount importance to investigate the properties of these debris. This study compares the characteristics of particles released among different implant systems (Group A: Straumann, Group B: BioHorizons and Group C: Zimmer) during implantoplasty. A novel experimental system was utilized for measuring and collecting particles generated from implantoplasty. A scanning mobility particle sizer, aerodynamic particle sizer, nano micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, and scanning electron microscope were used to collect and analyze the particles by size. The chemical composition of the particles was analyzed by highly sensitive microanalysis, microstructures by scanning electron microscope and the mechanical properties by nanoindentation equipment. Particles released by implantoplasty showed bimodal size distributions, with the majority of particles in the ultrafine size range (<100 nm) for all groups. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference among all implant systems in terms of the particle number size distribution (p < 0.0001), with the highest concentration in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. Significant differences among all groups (p < 0.0001) were also observed for the other two metrics, with the highest concentration of particle mass and surface area in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. For coarse particles (>1 µm), no significant difference was detected among groups in terms of particle number or mass, but a significantly smaller surface area was found in Group A as compared to Group B (p = 0.02) and Group C (p = 0.005). The 1 first minute of procedures had a higher number concentration compared to the second and third minutes. SEM-EDS analysis showed different morphologies for various implant systems. These results can be explained by the differences in the chemical composition and microstructures of the different dental implants. Group B is softer than Groups A and C due to the laser treatment in the neck producing an increase of the grain size. The hardest implants were those of Group C due to the cold-strained titanium alloy, and consequently they displayed lower release than Groups A and B. Implantoplasty was associated with debris particle release, with the majority of particles at nanometric dimensions. BioHorizons implants released more particles compared to Straumann and Zimmer. Due to the widespread use of implantoplasty, it is of key importance to understand the characteristics of the generated debris. This is the first study to detect, quantify and analyze the debris/particles released from dental implants during implantoplasty including the full range of particle sizes, including both micro- and nano-scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials)
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19 pages, 4751 KiB  
Article
Citric Acid in the Passivation of Titanium Dental Implants: Corrosion Resistance and Bactericide Behavior
by Pablo Verdeguer, Javier Gil, Miquel Punset, José María Manero, José Nart, Javi Vilarrasa and Elisa Ruperez
Materials 2022, 15(2), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020545 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
The passivation of titanium dental implants is performed in order to clean the surface and obtain a thin layer of protective oxide (TiO2) on the surface of the material in order to improve its behavior against corrosion and prevent the release [...] Read more.
The passivation of titanium dental implants is performed in order to clean the surface and obtain a thin layer of protective oxide (TiO2) on the surface of the material in order to improve its behavior against corrosion and prevent the release of ions into the physiological environment. The most common chemical agent for the passivation process is hydrochloric acid (HCl), and in this work we intend to determine the capacity of citric acid as a passivating and bactericidal agent. Discs of commercially pure titanium (c.p.Ti) grade 4 were used with different treatments: control (Ctr), passivated by HCl, passivated by citric acid at 20% at different immersion times (20, 30, and 40 min) and a higher concentration of citric acid (40%) for 20 min. Physical-chemical characterization of all of the treated surfaces has been carried out by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy, and the ‘Sessile Drop’ technique in order to obtain information about different parameters (topography, elemental composition, roughness, wettability, and surface energy) that are relevant to understand the biological response of the material. In order to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the different treatments under physiological conditions, open circuit potential and potentiodynamic tests have been carried out. Additionally, ion release tests were realized by means of ICP-MS. The antibacterial behavior has been evaluated by performing bacterial adhesion tests, in which two strains have been used: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram–) and Streptococcus sanguinis (Gram+). After the adhesion test, a bacterial viability study has been carried out (‘Life and Death’) and the number of colony-forming units has been calculated with SEM images. The results obtained show that the passivation with citric acid improves the hydrophilic character, corrosion resistance, and presents a bactericide character in comparison with the HCl treatment. The increasing of citric acid concentration improves the bactericide effect but decreases the corrosion resistance parameters. Ion release levels at high citric acid concentrations increase very significantly. The effect of the immersion times studied do not present an effect on the properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials)
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15 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Benefits of Residual Aluminum Oxide for Sand Blasting Titanium Dental Implants: Osseointegration and Bactericidal Effects
by Javier Gil, Román Pérez, Mariano Herrero-Climent, Maria Rizo-Gorrita, Daniel Torres-Lagares and Jose Luis Gutierrez
Materials 2022, 15(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010178 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3950
Abstract
Objectives. The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of residual alumina after sand blasting treatment in titanium dental implants. This paper studied the effect of alumina on physico-chemical surface properties, such as: surface wettability, surface energy. Osseointegration and bacteria adhesion [...] Read more.
Objectives. The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of residual alumina after sand blasting treatment in titanium dental implants. This paper studied the effect of alumina on physico-chemical surface properties, such as: surface wettability, surface energy. Osseointegration and bacteria adhesion were determined in order to determine the effect of the abrasive particles. Materials and Methods. Three surfaces were studied: (1) as-received, (2) rough surface with residual alumina from sand blasting on the surface and (3) with the same roughness but without residual alumina. Roughness was determined by white light interferometer microscopy. Surface wettability was evaluated with a contact angle video-based system and the surface free energy by means of Owens and Wendt equation. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with microanalysis was used to study the morphology and determine the chemical composition of the surfaces. Bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius and Streptococcus sanguinis) were cultured in each surface. In total, 110 dental implants were placed into the bone of eight minipigs in order to compare the osseointegration. The percentage of bone-to-implant contact was determined after 4 and 6 weeks of implantation with histometric analysis. Results. The surfaces with residual alumina presented a lower surface free energy than clean surfaces. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the residual alumina accelerated bone tissue growth at different implantation times, in relation to clean dental implants. In addition, residual alumina showed a bactericidal effect by decreasing the quantity of bacteria adhering to the titanium. Conclusions. It is possible to verify the benefits that the alumina (percentages around 8% in weight) produces on the surface of titanium dental implants. Clinical relevance. Clinicians should be aware of the benefits of sand-blasted alumina due to the physico-chemical surface changes demonstrated in in vivo tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials)
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13 pages, 2868 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Ti6Al4V Particles Obtained by Implantoplasty: An In Vitro Study. Part II
by Jorge Toledano-Serrabona, Maria Ángeles Sánchez-Garcés, Cosme Gay-Escoda, Eduard Valmaseda-Castellón, Octavi Camps-Font, Pablo Verdeguer, Meritxell Molmeneu and Francisco Javier Gil
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216519 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
In the field of implant dentistry there are several mechanisms by which metal particles can be released into the peri-implant tissues, such as implant insertion, corrosion, wear, or surface decontamination techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behavior of [...] Read more.
In the field of implant dentistry there are several mechanisms by which metal particles can be released into the peri-implant tissues, such as implant insertion, corrosion, wear, or surface decontamination techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the corrosion behavior of Ti6Al4V particles released during implantoplasty of dental implants treated due to periimplantitis. A standardized protocol was used to obtain metal particles produced during polishing the surface of Ti6Al4V dental implants. Physicochemical and biological characterization of the particles were described in Part I, while the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior have been studied in this study. Mechanical properties were determined by means of nanoindentation and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical testing in an artificial saliva medium. Corrosion parameters such as critical current density (icr), corrosion potential (ECORR), and passive current density (iCORR) have been determined. The samples for electrochemical behavior were discs of Ti6Al4V as-received and discs with the same mechanical properties and internal stresses than the particles from implantoplasty. The discs were cold-worked at 12.5% in order to achieve the same properties (hardness, strength, plastic strain, and residual stresses). The implantoplasty particles showed a higher hardness, strength, elastic modulus, and lower strain to fracture and a compressive residual stress. Resistance to corrosion of the implantoplasty particles decreased, and surface pitting was observed. This fact is due to the increase of the residual stress on the surfaces which favor the electrochemical reactions. The values of corrosion potential can be achieved in normal conditions and produce corroded debris which could be cytotoxic and cause tattooing in the soft tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials)
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13 pages, 2276 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Ti6Al4V Particles Obtained by Implantoplasty: An In Vitro Study. Part I
by Jorge Toledano-Serrabona, Francisco Javier Gil, Octavi Camps-Font, Eduard Valmaseda-Castellón, Cosme Gay-Escoda and Maria Ángeles Sánchez-Garcés
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216507 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Implantoplasty is a mechanical decontamination technique that consists of polishing the supra-osseous component of the dental implant with peri-implantitis. This technique releases metal particles in the form of metal swarf and dust into the peri-implant environment. In the present in vitro study, the [...] Read more.
Implantoplasty is a mechanical decontamination technique that consists of polishing the supra-osseous component of the dental implant with peri-implantitis. This technique releases metal particles in the form of metal swarf and dust into the peri-implant environment. In the present in vitro study, the following physicochemical characterization tests were carried out: specific surface area, granulometry, contact angle, crystalline structure, morphology, and ion release. Besides, cytotoxicity was in turn evaluated by determining the fibroblastic and osteoblastic cell viability. As a result, the metal debris obtained by implantoplasty presented an equivalent diameter value of 159 µm (range 6–1850 µm) and a specific surface area of 0.3 m2/g on average. The particle had a plate-like shape of different sizes. The release of vanadium ions in Hank’s solution at 37 °C showed no signs of stabilization and was greater than that of titanium and aluminum ions, which means that the alloy suffers from a degradation. The particles exhibited cytotoxic effects upon human osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells in the whole extract. In conclusion, metal debris released by implantoplasty showed different sizes, surface structures and shapes. Vanadium ion levels were higher than that those of the other metal ions, and cell viability assays showed that these particles produce a significant loss of cytocompatibility on osteoblasts and fibroblasts, which means that the main cells of the peri-implant tissues might be injured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Applications of Novel Dental Implant Materials)
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