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New Advances in High-Performance Steel and Composite Structures under Extreme Loads

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 15699

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 40004, China
Interests: cold-formed steel structures; smart materials in seismic engineering; wind and power structures; seismic resilience; high strength steel
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 40004, China
Interests: steel and composite structures; connection design; reused and reclaimed steel; fracture
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: composite structures with novel materials; FRP-enabled hybrid structures; seismic performance of structures; impact resistance of structures; novel materials consisting of solid wastes

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Guest Editor
School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Interests: steel structure; cold-formed steel; stainless steel; structural stability; fire; composite steel–concrete structure; steel bridge
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Novel high-performance steel and composite structures prompted by demands for higher resistance and constructional industrialisation have blazed new trails in modern civil engineering, and such systems are being actively pursued by both academia and engineering communities. However, the structural design of high-performance steel and composite structures under extreme loads (e.g., earthquakes and impact blasting) needs to undergo significant changes due to the mechanical behaviour variation of the materials utilised in structures. There is an increasing recognition that the influence of the mechanical properties of high-performance steel and composite structures should be scientifically evaluated to guarantee the structural safety when subjected to various extreme loads. The interpretation of interaction between the material behaviour and structural response is the cornerstone of a full-fledged design philosophy for the novel systems.

This Special Issue intends to provide an overview of the latest progress in theoretical and experimental research on the behaviour of novel high-performance steel and composite structures under extreme loads, thereby facilitating engineering applications of such systems.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • Behaviour and constitutive modelling of high-performance steel and composite materials;
  • Novel structural members incorporating high-performance steel and composite materials;
  • Behaviour of substructures under extreme loading scenarios;
  • Structural behaviour under extreme loads;
  • Performance-based design methodologies.

Prof. Dr. Ke Ke
Prof. Dr. Fei Xu
Dr. Bing Zhang
Dr. Hai-Ting Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • high-performance materials
  • steel structures
  • composite structures
  • extreme loads
  • structural behaviour
  • performance-based design

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 7253 KiB  
Article
Time-Dependent Seismic Reliability of Coastal Bridge Piers Subjected to Nonuniform Corrosion
by Wenting Yuan, Xiangtong Wu, Yuren Wang, Zhenliang Liu and Peng Zhou
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031029 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Coastal bridge piers suffer random performance deterioration owing to the presence of complex nonuniform corrosion characteristics and material uncertainties. Some of these piers will also be threatened by random earthquakes during a long-term service period, and therefore, structural safety needs to be probabilistically [...] Read more.
Coastal bridge piers suffer random performance deterioration owing to the presence of complex nonuniform corrosion characteristics and material uncertainties. Some of these piers will also be threatened by random earthquakes during a long-term service period, and therefore, structural safety needs to be probabilistically assessed by the seismic reliability method. To deal with this problem, we present a method to calculate the time-dependent reliability of the coastal bridge pier, comprehensively considering the randomness of a seismic event, nonuniform corrosion, and material uncertainty. First, the time-dependent M–N interaction diagrams are established by using the Monte Carlo simulation method. On the basis of the interaction diagrams, the moment resistance reduction function and time-dependent moment resistance distribution are determined. Subsequently, the moment demand under the seismic load is determined using the Poisson model and the response acceleration spectrum. Then, the formulas to calculate the time-dependent reliability of a nonuniform corroded pier are derived on the basis of the theorem of total probability. The proposed method is illustrated with a case study of a coastal bridge pier. It was found that the increase in corrosion damage would obviously increase time-dependent reliability. Furthermore, the increase in submerged zone height delayed the year when the failure section shifts from the pier bottom to the bottom of the splash and tidal zone, and it reduces the failure probability of the coastal pier. The research results presented herein show that the nonuniform corrosion manifestations influence the failure mode–related time-dependent seismic reliability of the coastal bridge pier. Full article
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19 pages, 9374 KiB  
Article
Cyclic Behavior of Gabled Frames with Web-Tapered Columns and Rafters
by Haisheng Yang, Mingzhou Su, Yong Xiao and Dan Gan
Materials 2023, 16(1), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010307 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Cyclic loading tests were conducted on three 1/2-scale, half-bay steel gabled frames (SGFs) to investigate their seismic performance. The three specimens with reduced joint stiffness were designed based on the prototype drawing shown in China design guideline 02SG518—1: specimen SV1 with a reduced [...] Read more.
Cyclic loading tests were conducted on three 1/2-scale, half-bay steel gabled frames (SGFs) to investigate their seismic performance. The three specimens with reduced joint stiffness were designed based on the prototype drawing shown in China design guideline 02SG518—1: specimen SV1 with a reduced thickness of the joint end-plate and bolt diameter, specimen SV2 with a reduced number of bolts, and specimen SV3 with a reduced bolt diameter. The load capacity, rotational stiffness, rotational capacity, and ultimate failure mode of specimens SV1, SV2, and SV3 were investigated. The experimental results showed that specimen SV1 failed due to the local buckling of the lower flange of the rafter, and specimens SV2 and SV3 due to the local buckling of upper flange of the rafter. The joint zone of all specimens kept well, indicating that the prototype joint had a large margin of safety. The hysteresis curves of all specimens were not full, and the ductility and energy dissipation capacity were limited. The end-plate thickness, bolt diameter, and steel grade affected the hysteresis performance of the SGF little. A refined finite element model was established, and the predicted results compared well with the test results. The test and analysis results demonstrated that there was slight utilization and distribution of post-buckling strength. Full article
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18 pages, 6004 KiB  
Article
Seismic Response Analysis of Steel–Concrete Composite Frame Structures with URSP Connectors
by Linli Duan, Xin Nie, Han Su and Jike Tan
Materials 2022, 15(23), 8655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15238655 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
The uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connector is a new type of connector used in steel–concrete composite structures that has been proven to improve the structural performance of negative moment regions. Since this connector changes the interface restraint between the slab and steel beam, [...] Read more.
The uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connector is a new type of connector used in steel–concrete composite structures that has been proven to improve the structural performance of negative moment regions. Since this connector changes the interface restraint between the slab and steel beam, there is an imperative to study the seismic performance of steel–concrete composite frame systems with this new type of connector. In this study, the dynamic behavior of composite frame structures with URSP connectors under seismic loads was numerically investigated. First, a beam–shell mixed model was used and complex interfaces of different connectors were considered while establishing a numerical model to conduct elasto–plastic time history analysis under various seismic loads. This numerical model was validated with the frame sub-assemblage experimental results of quasi-static cyclic tests. Second, the model analysis results of structures with URSP connectors were obtained and compared with those of traditional structures. Third, dynamic response results including roof displacement, inter-story displacement, and the distribution and failure modes of plastic hinges were analyzed and compared. The comparisons indicated that the arrangement of full-span URSP connectors had a non-negligible influence on the dynamic behavior of the systems. The arrangement increased the maximum inter-story displacement by 31.5% and induced adverse effects in certain cases, which is not suggested in the application of URSP connectors. The partial arrangement of URSP connectors had little influence on the dynamic behavior of the systems, and the frame systems still showed a good seismic performance, which was the same as the traditional composite structural system. These findings may promote the application of URSP connectors in composite structures. Full article
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13 pages, 2378 KiB  
Article
Constitutive Model for Equivalent Stress-Plastic Strain Curves Including Full-Range Strain Hardening Behavior of High-Strength Steel at Elevated Temperatures
by Xiang Zeng, Wanbo Wu, Juan Zou and Mohamed Elchalakani
Materials 2022, 15(22), 8075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15228075 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1874
Abstract
High-strength steel has been increasingly applied to engineering structures and inevitably faces fire risks. The equivalent stress-plastic strain (σeqεeqp) curves of steel at elevated temperatures are indispensable if a refined finite element model is used to investigate [...] Read more.
High-strength steel has been increasingly applied to engineering structures and inevitably faces fire risks. The equivalent stress-plastic strain (σeqεeqp) curves of steel at elevated temperatures are indispensable if a refined finite element model is used to investigate the response of steel members and structures under fire. If the tensile deformation of steel is considerable, the σeqεeqp curves at elevated temperatures are required to consider the strain-hardening behavior during the post-necking phase. However, there is little research on the topic. Based on the engineering stress-strain curves of Q890 high-strength steel in a uniaxial tension experiment at elevated temperatures, the σeqεeqp curves before necking are determined using theoretical formulations. An inverse method based on finite element analysis is used to determine the σeqεeqp curves during the post-necking phase. The characteristics of σeqεeqp curves, including the full-range strain hardening behavior at different temperatures, are discussed. An equivalent stress-plastic strain model of Q890 steel at elevated temperature is proposed, which is consistent with the σeqεeqp curves. The constitutive model is further verified by comparing the finite element analysis and test results. Full article
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19 pages, 11586 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Rolled Thin-Walled Steel Plates (TWSPs) Used for W-Beam Guardrails under Low and Medium Strain Rates
by Fangfang Liu, Xiaowei Cheng, Yi Li, Manjuan Yang and Yujing Zhou
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196504 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Accurately considering the dynamic mechanical properties of rolled thin-walled steel plates (TWSPs) under low and medium strain rates is the basis of numerical simulations of W-beam guardrails subjected to vehicle impact. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on specimens extracted from different locations (flat [...] Read more.
Accurately considering the dynamic mechanical properties of rolled thin-walled steel plates (TWSPs) under low and medium strain rates is the basis of numerical simulations of W-beam guardrails subjected to vehicle impact. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on specimens extracted from different locations (flat TWSPs without cold rolling treatment, and the cross-sectional centers and slopes of rolled TWSPs) and under different strain rates (ε˙ = 0.00025, 0.01, and 50 s−1). Based on experimental and numerical results, the cross-sectional center of a rolled TWSP is recommended as the representative sampling location for uniaxial tensile tests. Additional uniaxial tensile tests with wider strain rates of 10, 100, and 200 s−1 were also conducted on specimens at the recommended sampling location (cross-sectional center) of rolled TWSPs. It was found that the Cowper–Symonds model with parameters of C = 40 s−1 and p = 5 recommend by Symonds significantly overestimated the strain rate effects of the rolled TWSP material in the low and medium strain-rate region. The model with calibrated parameters of C = 4814 s−1 and p = 2.9 was recommended for considering the influences of strain rate effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of rolled TWSP at low to medium strain rates. Full article
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17 pages, 4032 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Foamed Concrete Modified with Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles
by Md Azree Othuman Mydin, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Othman Mohamed and Marti Widya Sari
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175911 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
The advancement in sustainable construction has stimulated wide-ranging investigation of construction materials and practices globally. With exceptional thermal properties, fire resistance performance, excellent strength, and outstanding durability, concrete is the utmost extensively utilized construction material around the world. Taking into consideration the quantity [...] Read more.
The advancement in sustainable construction has stimulated wide-ranging investigation of construction materials and practices globally. With exceptional thermal properties, fire resistance performance, excellent strength, and outstanding durability, concrete is the utmost extensively utilized construction material around the world. Taking into consideration the quantity of concrete necessary for numerous constructions works, improving concrete sustainability would be an extremely attractive potential. Lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) is tremendously permeable, and its mechanical properties weaken with a growth in the volume of voids. Air-void segregation from solid cement phases by means of aging, drainage, and merging of voids can trigger and reduce the stability and consistency of the emitted pores, making the LFC less reliable for main utilization in load-bearing components and structural elements. In turn, to augment LFC mechanical properties, the LFC cementitious matrix can be adjusted by adding various nanoparticles. The influence of magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) in LFC was not examined in the past; hence, there is some vagueness considering the mechanism to which level the MNP can affect the LFC mechanical properties. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influences of MNP on the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural LFC of 1000 kg/m3 density. Six MNP weight fractions of 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, 0.30%, and 0.35% were considered. The parameters accessed were compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths. The correlation between strength parameters was established as well. The results indicated that a 0.25% weight fraction of MNP gave the best performance in terms of compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strengths. The presence of MNP in the LFC matrix enhances the viscosity and yield stress of the mixture as well as an augmented utilization of LFC cementitious binder content, which can sustain the integrity of the wet networks hence preventing further amalgamation and aging of the voids. Full article
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22 pages, 11565 KiB  
Article
Time-Dependent Seismic Performance of Coastal Bridges Reinforced with Hybrid FRP and Steel Bars
by Wei Yuan, Zhong-Kui Cai, Xiaolan Pan and Jun Lin
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155293 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
To increase the durability and seismic resilience of coastal bridges, a hybrid reinforced concrete (HRC) bridge that incorporates both glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars and steel bars is proposed. The time-dependent seismic performance of the HRC bridge is comprehensively investigated at three levels, [...] Read more.
To increase the durability and seismic resilience of coastal bridges, a hybrid reinforced concrete (HRC) bridge that incorporates both glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars and steel bars is proposed. The time-dependent seismic performance of the HRC bridge is comprehensively investigated at three levels, namely the material, bridge column and bridge structure levels. First, the decrease of tensile strength of GFRP bars over time is analyzed based on the Arrhenius theory, and corrosion initiation time and performance deterioration of steel bars are determined by Fick’s second law and an empirical formula. Second, an efficient finite element modeling method for aging HRC bridge columns is proposed. Simulation of the compression/tension behavior and the fracture failure of the GFRP bar is described. Hysteretic analysis is further conducted to investigate the time-dependent energy dissipation, ductility, residual displacement, bearing capacity and post-yield stiffness ratio. Meanwhile, comparisons of HRC bridge columns to reinforced concrete (RC) references are provided. Third, the seismic demand and damage evolution of deteriorated HRC bridge structures are investigated through dynamic time-history analysis. The results indicate that the corrosion-resistant GFRP bars contribute to improving the bearing capacity and to reducing the residual displacement of the HRC bridge. With an increase in service time, the seismic damage to the bridge column, abutment and expansion bearing increases, but the damage to fixed bearing decreases. Research results presented herein show that the HRC bridge is a promising alternative structure scheme in the marine environment. Full article
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18 pages, 7951 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study and Theoretical Analysis on the Compression–Shear Multiaxial Mechanical Properties of Recycled Concrete
by Yongping Zhang, Shuai Peng, Xiaoqing Du, Zhenpeng Yu, Jie Wu, Xinghua Xie and Yanli Hu
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144810 - 10 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Recycled concrete, which is formed by replacing coarse aggregates in ordinary concrete with recycled aggregates (RA), is of great significance for the secondary utilization of waste building resources. In civil engineering, concrete structures are sometimes subjected to a compression–shear multiaxial stress state. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Recycled concrete, which is formed by replacing coarse aggregates in ordinary concrete with recycled aggregates (RA), is of great significance for the secondary utilization of waste building resources. In civil engineering, concrete structures are sometimes subjected to a compression–shear multiaxial stress state. Therefore, research on the compression–shear multiaxial mechanical properties of recycled concrete plays an important role in engineering practice. To explore the effect of RA replacement rate on the compression–shear properties of recycled concrete, an experimental study was carried out using a compression–shear testing machine and considering five RA replacement rates and five axial compression ratios. Consequently, the failure modes and mechanical property parameters under different working conditions were obtained and were used to analyze the effects of RA replacement rate and axial compression ratio on the shear stress of recycled concrete. Eventually, the following conclusions were reached: With the growth of axial compression ratio, the shear cracks exhibit a developing trend along the oblique direction, and the friction traces on the shear surface are gradually deepened. As the replacement rate increases, the number of shear cracks is gradually increased, accompanied by increasing broken fragments falling off from the shear interface. Since the action of the axial compression ratio can effectively improve the mechanical bite force and friction on the shear interface of recycled concrete, as the axial compression ratio increases, the shear stress is gradually increased. On the other hand, due to the initial damage of RA and its weak adhesion with cement mortar, the shear stress is gradually reduced with the increase of RA replacement rate. Meanwhile, the increase in shear stress shows a gradually decreasing trend with the growth of axial compression ratio. Specifically, for the RA replacement rates of 0% and 100%, the shear stress increased by 4.06 times and 3.21 times, respectively, under the influence of the axial compression ratio. Under different axial compression ratios, the shear stress was reduced by 43~46%, due to the increase of RA replacement rate. In addition, based on the octahedral stress space and the principal stress space, a compression–shear multiaxial failure criterion and shear stress calculation model for recycled concrete were proposed, by considering the effect of the RA replacement rate. The outcomes of this research are of great significance for engineering applications and the development of recycled concrete. Full article
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21 pages, 7125 KiB  
Article
Research on Dynamic Compressive Performance and Failure Mechanism Analysis of Concrete after High Temperature and Rapid Cooling
by Shuai Peng, Zhenpeng Yu, Qi Zhao, Xiaoqing Du, Xinghua Xie, Bo Chen and Yongping Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134642 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
To investigate the dynamic compressive properties of concrete after high temperature and rapid cooling, an experimental study was carried out by considering five temperatures and four strain rates. The coupling effect of high temperature and strain rate on concrete damage morphology and mechanical [...] Read more.
To investigate the dynamic compressive properties of concrete after high temperature and rapid cooling, an experimental study was carried out by considering five temperatures and four strain rates. The coupling effect of high temperature and strain rate on concrete damage morphology and mechanical parameters was comparatively analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows: the compressive damage morphology of concrete is affected by strain rate development trends of significant variability under different temperature conditions. As the strain rate increases, the compressive stress and elastic modulus of concrete are gradually increased. As the temperature increases, the increase in compressive stress is gradually reduced by the strain rate. For the temperatures of 20 °C and 800 °C, the increase in compressive stress by the strain rate is 38.69% and 7.78%, respectively. Meanwhile, SEM and CT scanning technology were applied to examine the mechanism of the effect of high temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of concrete from the microscopic perspective, and the corresponding constitutive model was proposed. Full article
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