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Use of Modern Materials in Technological Processes Accompanied by Frictional Heating

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Simulation and Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 20460

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Special Issue Editors

Department of Mechanics and Applied Computer Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology (BUT), 45C Wiejska Street, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: processing of materials by friction; frictional heating process simulation; temperature fields and thermal stress state due to friction; thermal splitting, systems of heat dynamics of friction and wear at braking; selection of friction materials for braking couple
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Mechanics and Applied Computer Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology (BUT), 45C Wiejska Street, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
Interests: analytical and numerical non-linear models of frictional heating; friction materials in aircraft and trail braking systems; Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC); contact conductivity and convective cooling at friction heating; Carbon-Carbon (C/C) composite materials; temperature mode of clutches
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The phenomenon of friction is widely used in grinding, welding, cutting, and other technological processes. Thermal phenomena accompanying friction have a decisive influence both on the course of these processes and on the quality of the final result. Due to the extensive use in the industry of alloys based on magnesium, titanium, and aluminum, as well as new marks of steel and other materials sensitive to thermal effects, the study of thermal processes at friction becomes extremely important. In particular, it is necessary to note use of friction at braking. The frictional materials used in brake units should provide the necessary value and stability of coefficient of friction. The problem is that in heavy braking modes, the coefficient of friction, as well as the material properties, become thermally sensitive. In this case, one of the ways to improve the frictional properties is the thermal barrier coating (TBC) method.

The physical and mechanical state of the surface layers of rubbing elements is determined not only by the contact temperature, which can be measured experimentally, but by the entire space–time temperature field. In particular, gradients of temperature and rate of change of temperature field have the major value. These factors have unambiguous functional relationships with the kinematic and dynamic parameters of the friction mode, material properties, cooling intensity, and many other parameters. There is a need for a comprehensive study, using all methods available, to investigate the temperature field and the stress state initiated by it. Reliable results can be obtained only with a reasonable combination of theory and experiment.

Prof. Aleksander Yevtushenko
Prof. Michal Kuciej
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • frictional heating
  • braking, grinding, welding, cutting, drilling, etc.
  • temperature and thermal stresses
  • experimental methods and simulations
  • materials selection
  • thermal barrier coating

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2490 KiB  
Article
Temperature during Repetitive Short-Term Operation of a Brake with Functionally Graded Friction Element
Materials 2023, 16(2), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020881 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
The object of study is the temperature of a braking system, operating in repetitive short-term (RST) mode. One element of the considered friction pair is made of a functionally gradient material (FGM), and the other of a homogeneous material. To determine the temperature [...] Read more.
The object of study is the temperature of a braking system, operating in repetitive short-term (RST) mode. One element of the considered friction pair is made of a functionally gradient material (FGM), and the other of a homogeneous material. To determine the temperature on the friction surfaces of both elements, the previously obtained, exact solution of the boundary value problem of heat conduction was adopted, with account of the heat generation due to the friction. A calculation scheme was proposed that takes into consideration thermal sensitivity of materials and variations of the friction coefficient under the influence of temperature. Calculations were performed for two-component FGM (ZrO2–Ti-6Al-4V) in combination with gray cast iron (ChNMKh). It was found that for selected friction pair materials, consideration of their thermal sensitivity reduces the time of braking and the value of temperature achieved on the friction surfaces. At the same time, the whole process was characterized by a good stability of braking with a slight decrease in efficiency in each subsequent cycle. Full article
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12 pages, 5825 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Transverse Functional Gradient of the Thin Interfacial Inclusion Material on the Stress Distribution of the Bimaterial under Longitudinal Shear
Materials 2022, 15(23), 8591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15238591 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 892
Abstract
The effect of a functional gradient in the cross-section material (FGM) of a thin ribbon-like interfacial deformable inclusion on the stress–strain state of a piecewise homogeneous linear–elastic matrix under longitudinal shear conditions is considered. Based on the equations of elasticity theory, a mathematical [...] Read more.
The effect of a functional gradient in the cross-section material (FGM) of a thin ribbon-like interfacial deformable inclusion on the stress–strain state of a piecewise homogeneous linear–elastic matrix under longitudinal shear conditions is considered. Based on the equations of elasticity theory, a mathematical model of such an FGM inclusion is constructed. An analytic–numerical analysis of the stress fields for some typical cases of the continuous functional gradient dependence of the mechanical properties of the inclusion material is performed. It is proposed to apply the constructed solutions to select the functional gradient properties of the inclusion material to optimize the stress–strain state in its vicinity under the given stresses. The derived equations are suitable with minor modifications for the description of micro-, meso- and nanoscale inclusions. Moreover, the conclusions and calculation results are easily transferable to similar problems of thermal conductivity and thermoelasticity with possible frictional heat dissipation. Full article
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17 pages, 6822 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Additive of Ceramic and Intermetallic Powders on the Friction Properties and Temperature of the Wet Clutch Disc
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155384 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The basic function of friction clutches is to transfer the torque in the conditions of its smooth engagement without vibrations. Hard working conditions under high thermal and mechanical loads, leading to high temperature in the contact area, intense wear, and instability of the [...] Read more.
The basic function of friction clutches is to transfer the torque in the conditions of its smooth engagement without vibrations. Hard working conditions under high thermal and mechanical loads, leading to high temperature in the contact area, intense wear, and instability of the coefficient of friction impose restrictive criteria in the design of friction materials. In this paper, the results of experimental research of the effect of ceramic and intermetallic additives to the copper-based material of the friction disc of the clutch on the thermophysical and frictional properties were presented. Next, these properties were incorporated in the proposed contact 3D numerical model of the clutch to carry out computer simulations of the heating process and subsequent cooling. Based on the obtained experimental data and transient temperature changes of the friction and steel discs, the relations between the powder additives, thermophysical properties of the five friction materials, and coefficients of friction, wear, and temperature reached were discussed. Among these, it was found that when working with the lubrication, the largest values of the coefficient of friction 0.068 and wear 13.5μmkm1 were reached when using the 3 wt.% SiC additive. Full article
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15 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
The Heat Partition Ratio during Braking in a Functionally Graded Friction Couple
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134623 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
The theoretical scheme for determining the heat partition ratio (HPR) in a friction couple made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was proposed. As a result, the formula for the calculation of the HPR was found, which depends on the thermal properties and the [...] Read more.
The theoretical scheme for determining the heat partition ratio (HPR) in a friction couple made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was proposed. As a result, the formula for the calculation of the HPR was found, which depends on the thermal properties and the parameters of the material’s gradient. In specific cases of these parameters, the known formulas for estimating the HPR for homogeneous materials were obtained. Calculations were carried out for the friction couple consisting of the following two-component FGMs: Al2O3–Cu (first body) and ZrO2–Ti–6Al–4V (second body), under the conditions corresponding to a single braking with a constant deceleration. It was established that the vast majority (almost 90%) of heat that was generated by friction was absorbed by the first body in the selected couple. The possibilities of using the obtained results were discussed herein. Full article
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18 pages, 3018 KiB  
Article
Temperature in the Friction Couple Consisting of Functionally Graded and Homogeneous Materials
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103600 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
An analytical model was developed to determine the temperature of friction coupling, in which one element was made of a functionally graded material (FGM) and the other was homogeneous. First, for such a system, the boundary–value problem of heat conduction was formulated with [...] Read more.
An analytical model was developed to determine the temperature of friction coupling, in which one element was made of a functionally graded material (FGM) and the other was homogeneous. First, for such a system, the boundary–value problem of heat conduction was formulated with consideration of the heat generation due to friction. Then, using the Laplace integral transform, an exact solution to this problem was obtained for uniform sliding, and braking with constant deceleration. A numerical analysis was performed for the selected friction pair consisting of the FGM (zircon dioxide + titanium alloy) and cast iron. It was established that the use of elements made of a FGM consisting of ZrO2 and Ti-6Al-4V can significantly reduce the maximum temperature achieved in the friction system. Full article
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15 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Influence of Thermal Sensitivity of Functionally Graded Materials on Temperature during Braking
Materials 2022, 15(3), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030963 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
The model of the frictional heating process during single braking to determine the temperature of the functionally graded friction elements with an account of the thermal sensitivity of materials was proposed. The basis of this model is the exact solution of the one-dimensional [...] Read more.
The model of the frictional heating process during single braking to determine the temperature of the functionally graded friction elements with an account of the thermal sensitivity of materials was proposed. The basis of this model is the exact solution of the one-dimensional thermal problem of friction during braking with constant deceleration. The formulas approximating the experimental data of the temperature dependencies of properties of the functionally graded materials (FGMs) were involved in the model to improve the accuracy of the achieved results. A comparative analysis was performed for data obtained for temperature-dependent FGMs and the corresponding data, calculated without consideration of thermal sensitivity. The results revealed that the assumption of thermal stability of FGMs during braking may cause a significant overestimation of temperature of the friction pair elements. Full article
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17 pages, 8074 KiB  
Article
An Effect of a Carbon-Containing Additive in the Structure of a Friction Material on Temperature of the Wet Clutch Disc
Materials 2022, 15(2), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020464 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
This paper consists of two parts. The first one contains a description and methodology of the composite material used as friction material in clutches. Four variants of such material, differing in the type of carbon additive (the elemental graphite, pencil graphite and foundry [...] Read more.
This paper consists of two parts. The first one contains a description and methodology of the composite material used as friction material in clutches. Four variants of such material, differing in the type of carbon additive (the elemental graphite, pencil graphite and foundry coke powder of various fractions) were considered. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity as well as the specific heat all materials were determined experimentally. On the inertial IM-58 stand, a simulation of the braking process of the friction pair consisting of a steel disc with friction material and a counterpart in the form of a homogeneous steel disc was carried out. On this basis, averaged coefficients of friction, unchanging in the entire sliding process, were found for the four friction pairs. The experimental data obtained in the first stage were used in the second stage to develop two (2D and 3D) numerical models of the friction heating process of the friction pairs under consideration. For four variants of the friction material, a comparative spatial-temporal temperature analysis was performed using both models. It was found that a simplified axisymmetric (2D) model can be used to estimate the maximum temperature with high accuracy. The lowest maximum temperature (115.6 °C) obtained for the same total friction work was achieved on the friction surface of the material with the addition of GP-1. Full article
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21 pages, 7393 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Temperature Fields in Railway Solid and Ventilated Brake Discs
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247804 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
A new approach to numerical simulation using the finite element method (FEM) for the rotational motion of discs for railway vehicle disc brake systems was proposed. For this purpose, spatial models of transient heating due to the friction of such systems with solid [...] Read more.
A new approach to numerical simulation using the finite element method (FEM) for the rotational motion of discs for railway vehicle disc brake systems was proposed. For this purpose, spatial models of transient heating due to the friction of such systems with solid and ventilated discs were developed. The performed calculations and the results obtained allowed justification of the possibility of simplifying the shape of the ventilated brake disc through elimination of ventilation channels. This contributes to a significant reduction in computational time, without compromising the accuracy of the results. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions in the ventilated and the solid disc of the same mass were analyzed. The share of energy dissipated due to convection and thermal radiation to the environment in relation to the total work done during a single braking was investigated. The maximum temperature values found as a result of computer simulations were consistent with the corresponding experimental results. Full article
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14 pages, 2390 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Functionally Graded Materials on Temperature during Frictional Heating at Single Braking
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216241 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
A mathematical model for evaluation of the temperature mode of the disc–pad system during single braking is proposed. The model is based on the thermal problem of friction formulated for two semi-infinite bodies, compressed with pressure increasing over time while reducing the sliding [...] Read more.
A mathematical model for evaluation of the temperature mode of the disc–pad system during single braking is proposed. The model is based on the thermal problem of friction formulated for two semi-infinite bodies, compressed with pressure increasing over time while reducing the sliding velocity from the initial value to zero at the stop. The exact solution to this problem was obtained by means of Duhamel’s theorem. Validation of the solution was performed by achieving in special cases parameters of known solution to this problem with constant pressure and velocity (under uniform sliding). The results of the numerical calculations are presented for a selected friction pair, made of functionally graded materials with titanium alloy (disc) and aluminum alloy (pad) cores coated with ceramics graded toward friction surfaces. For the established values of the parameters such as the rise time in pressure and the FGM gradients, the ability to quickly obtain spatiotemporal temperature distributions in the disc and pad was presented. The influence of the variability of these parameters on the maximum temperature of the brake system was also investigated. Full article
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12 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
Effect of Frictional Slipping on the Strength of Ribbon-Reinforced Composite
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174928 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
A numerical–analytical approach to the problem of determining the stress–strain state of bimaterial structures with interphase ribbon-like deformable inhomogeneities under combined force and dislocation loading has been proposed. The possibility of delamination along a part of the interface between the inclusion and the [...] Read more.
A numerical–analytical approach to the problem of determining the stress–strain state of bimaterial structures with interphase ribbon-like deformable inhomogeneities under combined force and dislocation loading has been proposed. The possibility of delamination along a part of the interface between the inclusion and the matrix, where sliding with dry friction occurs, is envisaged. A structurally modular method of jump functions is constructed to solve the problems arising when nonlinear geometrical or physical properties of a thin inclusion are taken into account. A complete system of equations is constructed to determine the unknowns of the problem. The condition for the appearance of slip zones at the inclusion–matrix interface is formulated. A convergent iterative algorithm for analytical and numerical determination of the friction-slip zones is developed. The influence of loading parameters and the friction coefficient on the development of these zones is investigated. Full article
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16 pages, 2044 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Functionally Graded Materials on Temperature during Frictional Heating: Under Uniform Sliding
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154285 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
The mathematical model of heating process for a friction system made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was proposed. For this purpose, the boundary-value problem of heat conduction was formulated for two semi-spaces under uniform sliding taking into consideration heating due to friction. Assuming [...] Read more.
The mathematical model of heating process for a friction system made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was proposed. For this purpose, the boundary-value problem of heat conduction was formulated for two semi-spaces under uniform sliding taking into consideration heating due to friction. Assuming an exponential change in thermal conductivities of the materials, the exact, as well as asymptotic (for small values of time), solutions to this problem were obtained. A numerical analysis was performed for two elements made of ZrO2–Ti-6Al-4V and Al3O2–TiC composites. The influence of the gradient parameters of both materials on the evolution and spatial distributions of the temperature were investigated. The temperatures of the elements made of FGMs were compared with the temperatures found for the homogeneous ceramic materials. Full article
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12 pages, 610 KiB  
Article
Inverse Thermoelastic Analysis of a Cylindrical Tribo-Couple
Materials 2021, 14(10), 2657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14102657 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Within the framework of the one-dimensional model for a tribo-couple consisting of two elastic cylinders accounting for the frictional heat generation on the interface due to the roughness of the contacting dissimilar materials, a problem on the identification of the unknown temperature on [...] Read more.
Within the framework of the one-dimensional model for a tribo-couple consisting of two elastic cylinders accounting for the frictional heat generation on the interface due to the roughness of the contacting dissimilar materials, a problem on the identification of the unknown temperature on one of the limiting surfaces of either inner or outer cylindrical layers is formulated and reduced to an inverse thermoelasticity problem via the use of the circumferential strain given on the other surface. To solve the latter problem, a semi-analytical algorithm is suggested, and its stability with respect to the small errors in the input data is analyzed. The efficiency of the proposed solution algorithm is validated numerically by comparing its results with the solution of a corresponding direct problem. The temperature and thermal stresses in the tribo-couple are analyzed. Full article
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19 pages, 3649 KiB  
Article
Analytical Determination of the Brake Temperature Mode during Repetitive Short-Term Braking
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081912 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
An algorithm to determine the maximum temperature of brake systems during repetitive short-term (RST) braking mode has been proposed. For this purpose, the intermittent mode of braking was given in the form of a few cyclic stages consisting of subsequent braking and acceleration [...] Read more.
An algorithm to determine the maximum temperature of brake systems during repetitive short-term (RST) braking mode has been proposed. For this purpose, the intermittent mode of braking was given in the form of a few cyclic stages consisting of subsequent braking and acceleration processes. Based on the Chichinadze’s hypothesis of temperature summation, the evolutions of the maximum temperature during each cycle were calculated as the sum of the mean temperature on the nominal contact surface of the friction pair elements and temperature attained on the real contact areas (flash temperature). In order to find the first component, the analytical solution to the one-dimensional thermal problem of friction for two semi-spaces taking into account frictional heat generation was adapted. To find the flash temperature, the solution to the problem for the semi-infinite rod sliding with variable velocity against a smooth surface was used. In both solutions, the temperature-dependent coefficient of friction and thermal sensitivity of materials were taken into account. Numerical calculations were carried out for disc and drum brake systems. The obtained temporal variations of sliding velocity, friction power and temperature were investigated on each stage of braking. It was found that the obtained results agree well with the corresponding data established by finite element and finite-difference methods. Full article
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21 pages, 6651 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of 3D and 2D FE Frictional Heating Models for Long and Variable Applications of Railway Tread Brake
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214846 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
The article proposes two 3D and 2D numerical FE models of frictional heating for the estimation of temperature distributions in railway tread brake in 1xBg configuration during repeated long-term braking. The results of computations were compared with the time courses of temperature measured [...] Read more.
The article proposes two 3D and 2D numerical FE models of frictional heating for the estimation of temperature distributions in railway tread brake in 1xBg configuration during repeated long-term braking. The results of computations were compared with the time courses of temperature measured using thermocouples throughout the duration of the tests on a full-scale dynamometer for two different brake shoe materials in combination with a steel wheel. The resulting temperature distributions calculated using the proposed models agreed well with the experimental measurements, and the maximum difference in temperature values does not exceed 20%. It has been proven that 2D FE model can be as efficient as 3D model to estimate the temperature distribution during long-term and variable braking in the considered friction node. The differences in the calculation of the temperature values using these models did not exceed 3%, and the calculation time for the 2D model, compared to the 3D model, was shorter approximately 85 times for the braking cycle lasting 5032 s, and approximately 45 times for the braking cycle lasting 3297 s. Full article
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