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Characterisation and Modelling of Manufacturing–Microstructure–Property–Mechanism Relationship for Advanced and Emerging Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 25162

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Special Issue Editors

School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: advanced manufacturing; friction and wear; severe plastic deformation; microstructure/texture characterisation; advanced modelling; deformation mechanism; mechanics of materials; residual stress analysis; X-ray/neutron/synchrotron diffraction; advanced and emerging materials; high-entropy alloys; corrosion and erosion of materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmissions, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
Interests: gear anti-fatigue design and manufacturing; surface treatment techniques; micro-nano gear transmission; microstructure characterisation; grain refinement; mechanical and fatigue properties; mesoscopic mechanics modelling; fatigue foundation database and software development; machine learning; crystal plasticity
State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Interests: computational material science; atomistic simulation; molecular dynamic modelling; dislocation and twinning; deformation mechanism; mechanical properties; advanced materials; manufacturing techniques
Institute for Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8574, Japan
Interests: severe plastic deformation; microstructure/texture characterization; finite element method; crystal plasticity; machine learning; processing–structure–property (PSP) relation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is proposed to cover the recent developments and future opportunities in the design, manufacturing, characterisation and application of the advanced and emerging metallic materials with novel microstructure and properties that have been developed in various fields of science and industry, such as nano/ultrafine-grained materials, heterogeneous-structured materials, high-entropy alloys, or complex concentrated alloys and two-dimensional materials. In addition to the advanced experimental characterisation, the modelling and simulation of microstructure and texture evolution, phase transformation and mechanical response in a process (e.g., additive manufacturing, severe plastic deformation as well as thermo-mechanical processing) is also highly beneficial to obtain a fundamental understanding of the manufacturing–microstructure–property–mechanism relationships of these materials. Additionally, machine learning and deep learning approaches can significantly help to predict novel materials and optimise their properties.

In this regard, original research papers, short communications, and review articles on the following topics are welcome in this Special Issue (not an exhaustive list): novel material and structure design, advanced manufacturing and fabrication, microstructural characterisation and phase constitution analysis, mechanical performance and plastic deformation mechanisms, processing and property optimisation.

Dr. Lihong Su
Prof. Dr. Peitang Wei
Dr. Xing Zhao
Dr. Hui Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • manufacturing and processing
  • advanced materials
  • novel microstructure
  • mechanical and fatigue properties
  • deformation mechanism
  • dislocation and twinning
  • phase transformation
  • crystal plasticity
  • atomistic modelling
  • numerical simulation
  • machine learning

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Characterization and Modelling of Manufacturing–Microstructure–Property–Mechanism Relationship for Advanced and Emerging Materials
by Lihong Su, Peitang Wei, Xing Zhao and Hui Wang
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072737 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 827
Abstract
Depending on the state of its raw materials, final products, and processes, materials manufacturing can be classified into either top-down manufacturing and bottom-up manufacturing, or subtractive manufacturing (SM) and additive manufacturing (AM) [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

15 pages, 6957 KiB  
Article
Effect of Y2O3 Addition on Microstructure and Properties of Laser Cladded Al-Si Coatings on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy
by Xiaofeng Wan, Chuang Tian, Yi Li, Jingling Zhou, Shuangqing Qian, Lihong Su and Li Wang
Materials 2023, 16(1), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010338 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
The effect of Y2O3 addition on the microstructure and properties of the laser cladded Al-Si alloy coating on the surface of AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that the Al-Si + Y2O [...] Read more.
The effect of Y2O3 addition on the microstructure and properties of the laser cladded Al-Si alloy coating on the surface of AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that the Al-Si + Y2O3 cladding layers contained α-Mg, Mg2Si, Al4MgY and a small amount of Al12Mg17 phases. The coarse dendrites, reticulated eutectic structures and massive phases in the coatings tended to be refined and gradually uniformly distributed with the increased amount of Y2O3. The introduction of Y2O3 into the cladding layer favored the improvement of microhardness and wear resistance due to the grain refinement strengthening and dispersion strengthening. The addition of Y2O3 also promoted the reduction of localized corrosion sites and made the corrosion surface smoother, implying that the corrosion resistance of the Y2O3-modified coatings was better than that of the unmodified cladding layer. Full article
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22 pages, 11730 KiB  
Article
Understanding Effects of Ultrasonic Vibration on Microstructure Evolution in Hot Forming Process via Cellular Automata Method
by Yutong Zhang, Weihua Zhou, Jinyuan Tang and Yuhui He
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207359 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Compared with traditional forming technology, ultrasonic vibration-assisted plastic forming technology can improve the forming conditions and obtain better surface quality of the workpiece. However, the mechanism and theory of ultrasonic action have not formed a unified understanding. In this paper, ultrasonic-assisted thermal forming [...] Read more.
Compared with traditional forming technology, ultrasonic vibration-assisted plastic forming technology can improve the forming conditions and obtain better surface quality of the workpiece. However, the mechanism and theory of ultrasonic action have not formed a unified understanding. In this paper, ultrasonic-assisted thermal forming technology is taken as the research object. Through experimental research combined with cellular automata methods, based on the dislocation density model, nucleation and growth model, and dynamic recrystallization growth rule, a theoretical model for microstructure simulation of the ultrasonic-assisted thermal forming process was established. By introducing the ultrasonic energy field into the thermal forming process and correcting thermal activation energy and dynamic recovery coefficient, the reasons for flow stress reduction of 9310 steel and the influence of temperature, strain rate, and vibration amplitude on recrystallization were analyzed from the microscopic scale. The results show that the introduction of ultrasonic vibration reduces the dislocation activation energy, promotes dynamic recrystallization behavior, and finally leads to the reduction of flow stress. With an increase in vibration amplitude, the average grain size decreases faster, the recrystallization volume fraction increases faster, the stress decreases larger, and the ultrasonic softening phenomenon becomes more obvious. Decreasing the strain rate will promote the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization, the volume fraction and average grain size of dynamic recrystallization will increase, and the true stress will decrease. Full article
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25 pages, 10870 KiB  
Article
A Novel Friction Stir Deposition Technique to Refill Keyhole of Friction Stir Spot Welded AA6082-T6 Dissimilar Joints of Different Sheet Thicknesses
by Mohamed M. Z. Ahmed, Mohamed M. El-Sayed Seleman, Essam Ahmed, Hagar A. Reyad, Naser A. Alsaleh and Ibrahim Albaijan
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196799 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Joining dissimilar sheet thicknesses of AA6082-T6 alloys by friction stir spot welding (FSSW) provides many advantages in automotive and aerospace applications. The formed keyhole at the end of the FSSW process is one of the typical features after the welding process, which owns [...] Read more.
Joining dissimilar sheet thicknesses of AA6082-T6 alloys by friction stir spot welding (FSSW) provides many advantages in automotive and aerospace applications. The formed keyhole at the end of the FSSW process is one of the typical features after the welding process, which owns the same size as the rotating pin that remains at the joint center. This keyhole destroys the joint continuity and can stimulate serious stress concentration when the FSSW joint bears an external force. To solve this issue, a novel refilling technique was developed for the FSSW keyholes using a friction stir deposition (FSD) technique. The FSSW joints of AA6082-T6 sheets were welded at various rotation speeds from 400 to 1000 rpm and a constant dwell time of 3 s, where a 2 mm sheet thickness was an upper sheet, and a 1 mm sheet thickness was a lower sheet. All the keyhole refilling processes were achieved using a specially designed AA2011-T6 consumable rod to be used for friction stir deposition of continuous layers at a constant deposition parameter of 400 rpm consumable rod rotation speed and a 1 mm/min feed rate. The heat input energy for both the FSSW and refilled FSSW lap joints was calculated. In addition, the FSSW and the FSD temperatures were measured. Macrostructure, microstructure, and mechanical properties in terms of hardness and tensile shear maximum load were evaluated for both the friction stir spot welded (FSSWed) and the refilled FSSW lap joints. The obtained results showed that the keyhole could be successfully refilled with defect-free continuous multilayers after the refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) process. All the RFSSW lap joints showed higher tensile shear loads than that given by the FSSW (before refill) lap joints. The RFSSW joint (welded at 600 rpm/3 s and refilled at 400 rpm/1 mm/min) showed a higher tensile shear load of 5400 N ± 100 compared with that recorded by the unrefilled joint (4300 N ± 80). The fracture location and fracture surface of the FSSW and RFSSW were examined and discussed. Full article
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14 pages, 8454 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen-Induced Dislocation Nucleation and Plastic Deformation of 001 and 11¯0 Grain Boundaries in Nickel
by Jiaqing Li, Ziyue Wu, Lin Teng, Guanyu Deng, Rui Wang, Cheng Lu, Weidong Li, Xin Huang and Yu Liu
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186503 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
The grain boundary (GB) plays a crucial role in dominating hydrogen-induced plastic deformation and intergranular failure in polycrystal metals. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study the effects of hydrogen segregation on dislocation plasticity of a series of symmetrical [...] Read more.
The grain boundary (GB) plays a crucial role in dominating hydrogen-induced plastic deformation and intergranular failure in polycrystal metals. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study the effects of hydrogen segregation on dislocation plasticity of a series of symmetrical tilt grain boundaries (STGBs) with various hydrogen concentrations. Our study shows that hydrogen both enhances and reduces dislocation nucleation events from STGBs, depending on different GB structures. Specifically, for 001 STGBs, hydrogen does not affect the mode of heterogeneous dislocation nucleation (HDN), but facilitates nucleation events as a consequence of hydrogen disordering the GB structure. Conversely, hydrogen retards dislocation nucleation due to the fact that hydrogen segregation disrupts the transformation of boundary structure such as Σ9 (2 2 1¯) 11¯0 STGB. These results are helpful for deepening our understanding of GB-mediated hydrogen embrittlement (HE) mechanisms. Full article
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14 pages, 11712 KiB  
Article
Effect of Multiple Annular Plates on Vibration Characteristics of Laminated Submarine-like Structures
by Zhengxiong Chen, Rui Zhong, Shuangwei Hu, Bin Qin and Xing Zhao
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186357 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
A numerical model for the prediction of vibration behaviors of a laminated submarine structure consisting of spherical, cylindrical, and cone shells with multiple built-in annular plates is reported in this article. With the aid of the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) concerning plates [...] Read more.
A numerical model for the prediction of vibration behaviors of a laminated submarine structure consisting of spherical, cylindrical, and cone shells with multiple built-in annular plates is reported in this article. With the aid of the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) concerning plates and shells, the energy expressions of each substructure are derived. The displacement functions in the energy functionals are expanded by the employment of Legendre orthogonal polynomials and circumferential Fourier series. Then, the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure is performed to obtain the eigenfrequency and the corresponding eigenmode of the submarine model. The correctness of the structural model is examined by comparing the results with existing papers and the finite element method, and the maximum deviation is not more than 2.07%. Additionally, the influence of the plate’s thickness, position, inner diameter, as well as the laying angle on the intrinsic vibration characteristics of laminated submarine-like structure is determined. The results reveal that rational geometry design and assemblage benefit the vibration performance of the combination. Increasing the thickness of all the annular plates, decreasing the inner radius, and regulating the laminated scheme, make remarkable influence on structural free vibration, with the maximum relative changing rate of frequency exceeding 97%, 16%, and 23%, respectively. Full article
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20 pages, 4686 KiB  
Article
Meshless Chebyshev RPIM Solution for Free Vibration of Rotating Cross-Ply Laminated Combined Cylindrical-Conical Shells in Thermal Environment
by Zhen Li, Shuangwei Hu, Rui Zhong, Bin Qin and Xing Zhao
Materials 2022, 15(17), 6177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176177 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
This paper provides a numerical solution to the vibration of a rotating cross-ply laminated combined conical-cylindrical shell in the thermal environment. Its numerical discrete solution method uses the meshless method. The combined shell assumed the temperature independence of material property is divided to [...] Read more.
This paper provides a numerical solution to the vibration of a rotating cross-ply laminated combined conical-cylindrical shell in the thermal environment. Its numerical discrete solution method uses the meshless method. The combined shell assumed the temperature independence of material property is divided to the fundamental conical and cylindrical shell substructures, and the theoretical formulation for each substructure is derived based on the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and Hamilton’s principle. The effects of the initial hoop tension and temperature change are considered through the kinetic energy reflecting the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces and additional strain energy by the nonlinear part of the Green–Lagrange strains. The substructures are then assembled according to the continuity conditions. The boundary and continuity conditions are simulated by introducing artificial virtual spring technology. The displacement component in the theoretical formulation is approximated using a meshless Chebyshev-RPIM shape function. The reliability of the method is verified by comparing with mature and reliable results. The free vibration characteristics of the rotating combined conical-cylindrical shell structure under various sizes, speeds and temperatures are given by numerical examples. Full article
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19 pages, 6800 KiB  
Article
A Measurement Solution of Face Gears with 3D Optical Scanning
by Xinxin Lu, Xing Zhao, Bo Hu, Yuansheng Zhou, Zhezhen Cao and Jinyuan Tang
Materials 2022, 15(17), 6069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176069 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Gears are usually measured by the contact metrology method in gear measuring centers or coordinate measuring machines. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) optical scanning, a non-contact metrology method, has been applied in the industry as an advanced measurement technology mainly due to its high efficiency. [...] Read more.
Gears are usually measured by the contact metrology method in gear measuring centers or coordinate measuring machines. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) optical scanning, a non-contact metrology method, has been applied in the industry as an advanced measurement technology mainly due to its high efficiency. However, its applications to gears with complicated geometry, such as face gears, are still limited due to its relatively low accuracy and the void of related measurement solutions. In this work, an accurate measurement solution with 3D optical scanning is proposed for the tooth surface deviations of orthogonal face gears. First, point cloud collection is carried out by the 3D scanner. Furthermore, the measurement solution is implemented with a three-stage algorithm by aligning point clouds with the design model. Subsequently, 3D modeling is studied by numbering the points and reconstructing the real tooth surfaces. An example with a measurement experiment and loaded tooth contact analysis is given to show the validity of the proposed method. Full article
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24 pages, 4679 KiB  
Article
Rough Surface Characterization Parameter Set and Redundant Parameter Set for Surface Modeling and Performance Research
by Duo Yang, Jinyuan Tang, Fujia Xia and Wei Zhou
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175971 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Among the 26 roughness parameters described in ISO 25178 standard, the parameters used to characterize surface performance in characterization parameter set (CPS) lack scientificity and unity, resulting in application confusion. The current CPS comes from empirical selection or small sample experiments, [...] Read more.
Among the 26 roughness parameters described in ISO 25178 standard, the parameters used to characterize surface performance in characterization parameter set (CPS) lack scientificity and unity, resulting in application confusion. The current CPS comes from empirical selection or small sample experiments, thus featuring low generality. A new method for constructing CPS in rough surfaces is proposed to solve the above issues. Based on a data mining method, statistical theory, and roughness parameters definitions, the 26 roughness parameters are divided into CPS and redundant parameter sets (RPS) with the help of reconstructed surfaces and machining experiments, and the mapping relationships between CPS and RPS are established. The research shows that RPS accounts for 50%, and CPS, of great significance for surface performance, and has the ability to fully cover surface topography information. The birth of CPS provides an accurate parameter set for the subsequent study of different surface performance, and it provides more effective parameters for evaluating the workpiece surface performance from the same batch. Full article
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21 pages, 9748 KiB  
Article
Investigation of a Novel Hydrogen Depressurization Structure Constituted by an Orifice Plate with Tesla-Type Channels
by Bei Li, Yu Liu, Jiaqing Li, Bin Liu, Xingxing Wang and Guanyu Deng
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144918 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
A hydrogen depressurization system is required to supply the hydrogen to the fuel cell stack from the storage. In this study, a Tesla-type depressurization construction is proposed. Parallel Tesla-type channels are integrated with the traditional orifice plate structure. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) [...] Read more.
A hydrogen depressurization system is required to supply the hydrogen to the fuel cell stack from the storage. In this study, a Tesla-type depressurization construction is proposed. Parallel Tesla-type channels are integrated with the traditional orifice plate structure. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is applied to simulate high-pressure hydrogen flow through the proposed structure, using a commercial software package, ANSYS-Fluent (version 19.2, ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe, Canonsburg, PA, USA). The Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) is incorporated into the CFD model to provide an accurate thermophysical property estimation. The construction is optimized by the parametric analysis. The results show that the pressure reduction performance is improved greatly without a significant increase in size. The flow impeding effect of the Tesla-type orifice structure is primarily responsible for the pressure reduction improvement. To enhance the flow impeding effect, modifications are introduced to the Tesla-type channel and the pressure reduction performance has been further improved. Compared to a standard orifice plate, the Tesla-type orifice structure can improve the pressure reduction by 237%. Under low inlet mass flow rates, introduction of a secondary Tesla-type orifice construction can achieve better performance of pressure reduction. Additionally, increasing parallel Tesla-type channels can effectively reduce the maximum Mach number. To further improve the pressure reduction performance, a second set of Tesla-type channels can be introduced to form a two-stage Tesla-type orifice structure. The study provides a feasible structure design to achieve high-efficiency hydrogen depressurization in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). Full article
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14 pages, 5586 KiB  
Article
Wear Characteristics of Mg Alloy AZ91 Reinforced with Oriented Short Carbon Fibers
by Sabbah Ataya, Mohamed M. El-Sayed Seleman, Fahamsyah H. Latief, Mohamed M. Z. Ahmed, Khalil Hajlaoui, Ahmed M. Soliman, Naser A. Alsaleh and Mohamed I. A. Habba
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144841 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Light-weight metal matrix composites, especially magnesium-based composites, have recently become more widespread for high-efficiency applications, including aerospace, automobile, defense, and telecommunication industries. The squeeze cast AZ91 base material (AZ91-BM) and its composites having 23 vol.% short carbon fibers were fabricated and investigated. The [...] Read more.
Light-weight metal matrix composites, especially magnesium-based composites, have recently become more widespread for high-efficiency applications, including aerospace, automobile, defense, and telecommunication industries. The squeeze cast AZ91 base material (AZ91-BM) and its composites having 23 vol.% short carbon fibers were fabricated and investigated. The composite specimens were machined normal to the reinforced plane (Composite-N) and parallel to the reinforced plane (Composite-P). All the as-casted materials were subjected to different tests, such as hardness, compression, and wear testing, evaluating the mechanical properties. Dry wear tests were performed using a pin-on-disk machine at room temperature under different applied wear loads (1–5 N) and different sliding distances (0.4461×1043.12×104 m). The microstructures and worn surfaces of the fabricated AZ91-BM and the two composite specimens were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) advanced analysis system. The wear debris was collected and investigated also under the SEM. The results showed significant improvement in hardness, compressive strength, and wear resistance of the composite specimens (Composite-N and Composite-P) over the AZ91-BM. The compressive strength and wear resistance are more fibers orientation sensitive than the hardness results. When the fiber orientation is parallel to the sliding direction (Composite-N), the weight loss is somewhat lower than that of the fiber orientation perpendicular to the sliding direction (Composite-P) at a constant wear load of 2 N and the sliding distances of 0.4461×104, 1.34×104 , and 2.23×104 m. In contrast, the weight loss of Composite-P is lower than Composite-N, especially at the highest sliding distance of 3.12×104 m due to the continuous feeding of graphite lubricant film and the higher compressive strength. Plastic deformation, oxidation, and abrasive wear are the dominant wear mechanisms of AZ91-BM; in contrast, abrasive and delamination wear are mainly the wear mechanisms of the two composites under the applied testing conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 8634 KiB  
Article
Study on the Hydrogen Embrittlement of Nanograined Materials with Different Grain Sizes by Atomistic Simulation
by Jiaqing Li, Ziyue Wu, Fang Wang, Liang Zhang, Chilou Zhou, Cheng Lu, Lin Teng and Qifeng Lin
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134589 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Although hydrogen embrittlement (HE) behavior has been extensively studied in bulk materials, little is known about H-related deformation and the fracture of nanograined materials. In this study, H segregation and HE mechanisms of nanograined Fe with different grain sizes are unveiled, following the [...] Read more.
Although hydrogen embrittlement (HE) behavior has been extensively studied in bulk materials, little is known about H-related deformation and the fracture of nanograined materials. In this study, H segregation and HE mechanisms of nanograined Fe with different grain sizes are unveiled, following the employment of classical molecular dynamics simulations. The H segregation ratio increased, but the local H concentration at the grain boundaries (GBs) decreased with decreases in the grain size at a given bulk H concentration. The results demonstrate that H atoms increased the yield stress of nanograined models irrespective of the grain size. Furthermore, it is revealed that brittle fractures were inhibited, and the resistance to HE increased as the grain size decreased, due to the fact that the small-grain models had a lower local H concentration at the GBs and an enhanced GB-mediated intergranular deformation. These results are a clear indication of the utility of grain refinement to resist H-induced brittle failure. Full article
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18 pages, 6318 KiB  
Article
Vibration Characteristics of a Laminated Composite Double-Cylindrical Shell System Coupled with a Variable Number of Annular Plates
by Ying Zhang, Dongyan Shi and Dongze He
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124246 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
A vibration characteristic analysis model of a laminated composite double cylindrical shell system (LCDCSS) coupled with several annular plates under general boundary conditions is established. Artificial springs are used to simulate the coupling relationship between substructures to ensure the continuity of displacement both [...] Read more.
A vibration characteristic analysis model of a laminated composite double cylindrical shell system (LCDCSS) coupled with several annular plates under general boundary conditions is established. Artificial springs are used to simulate the coupling relationship between substructures to ensure the continuity of displacement both at ends of the shells and coupling boundaries. The variable number of annular plates can be distributed unevenly and coupled elastically. Displacement functions of LCDCSS are expressed with improved Fourier series. Based on the principle of energy, obtain the unknown coefficients of the displacement components by using the Rayleigh–Ritz method. The convergence and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by comparing with the results with literature and FEM, and then carried out parametric investigation to study the free and steady-state response vibration characteristics of LCDCSS. Rapid prediction of free vibration and response vibration of a double-layer cylindrical shell system with various structures and scales is realized by exploiting the model, and some new results of double-layer cylindrical shell system are explored, which can provide reference for further research. Full article
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14 pages, 3159 KiB  
Article
Algorithmic-Aided Approach for the Design and Evaluation of Curvilinear Steel Bar Structures of Unit Roofs
by Jolanta Dzwierzynska and Patrycja Lechwar
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103656 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Rationalization in structural design in the field of steel structures mostly consists inreducing structural material. The aim of this work was to develop an algorithmic-aided, original and practical approach to shaping curvilinear steel bar structures of modular roofs, enabling their optimization. The first [...] Read more.
Rationalization in structural design in the field of steel structures mostly consists inreducing structural material. The aim of this work was to develop an algorithmic-aided, original and practical approach to shaping curvilinear steel bar structures of modular roofs, enabling their optimization. The first stage of shaping consists in creating algorithms that define the structures of shelters made of four roof units. Algorithmic definitions of the structures made it possible to obtain many variants of the roof structures with the adopted preliminary criteria. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the individual variants, the genetic optimizations of the structures’ forms were carried out. Assuming that the structures were loaded with self-weights, the cross-sections of the structures’ members were optimized with the permissible deflections, while the structures’ weights were the optimization criteria. This allowed us to eliminate the design variants unfavorable in terms of shape and weight. In contrast, the structures with the most advantageous properties were then optimized for weight under snow and wind loads. The research allowed us to notice how the shapes of the structures influenced their efficiency. The dual approach proposed for shaping, which takes advantage of the generative design and consistent flow of information during shaping, allowed us to achieve better solutions compared to the traditional approach. Full article
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16 pages, 4883 KiB  
Article
Influence of Mechanical Deformations on the Characteristic Impedance of Sewed Textile Signal Lines
by Paweł Kubiak and Jacek Leśnikowski
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031149 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1178
Abstract
The following article describes a new type of textile signal line that can be used in smart clothing. The article presents the structure of this line and the materials used for its construction. The article also presents the results of research on the [...] Read more.
The following article describes a new type of textile signal line that can be used in smart clothing. The article presents the structure of this line and the materials used for its construction. The article also presents the results of research on the influence of the line tensile force on the value of its characteristic impedance. The above tests were carried out on lines where the electrically conductive paths do not have the form of straight lines, as is often the case in smart clothing. The article also presents a preliminary statistical analysis, the aim of which was to find those characteristics of the substrate of the line that affect changes in the characteristic impedance during stretching. Full article
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12 pages, 5105 KiB  
Article
Effect of Material Anisotropy on the Mechanical Response of Automotive Steel under High Strain Rates
by Sheng Yin, Yi Xue, Haotian Cui, Xinhua Pei, Chundong Hu, Yangxin Wang and Qingchao Tian
Materials 2022, 15(2), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020669 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
A constitutive model for automobile steel with high elongation needs to be established to predict the dynamic deformation behavior under hydroforming applications. In order to clarify the confusing discrepancy in the essential parameters of the classical Cowper-Symonds (C-S) model, a series of automobile [...] Read more.
A constitutive model for automobile steel with high elongation needs to be established to predict the dynamic deformation behavior under hydroforming applications. In order to clarify the confusing discrepancy in the essential parameters of the classical Cowper-Symonds (C-S) model, a series of automobile structural steels have been employed to investigate the strain rate response by conducting tensile dynamic deformation. Metallographic microscopy and orientation distribution functions were used to characterize the microstructure and texture components of the steels. The microstructure observation discloses that the matrix of all steels is mainly of ferrite and the texture constituent provides a framework for steel to withstand external deformation. The C-S model can be applied to simulate the dynamic deformation with satisfied expectations. It is concluded that the essential parameters D and p in the model show a specific relationship with the steel grade, and the parameter D is proportional to the steel grade and related to material anisotropy, while the parameter p is inversely proportional to the steel grade and has close links with the grain boundary characteristics. Full article
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17 pages, 7255 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of TIG and ATIG Welded 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel with Multi-Components Flux Optimization Using Mixing Design Method and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
by Abdeljlil Chihaoui Hedhibi, Kamel Touileb, Rachid Djoudjou, Abousoufiane Ouis, Hussein Alrobei and Mohamed M. Z. Ahmed
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237139 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
In this study, the effects of pseudo-ternary oxides on mechanical properties and microstructure of 316L stainless steel tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activating tungsten inert gas (ATIG) welded joints were investigated. The novelty in this work is introducing a metaheuristic technique called the [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of pseudo-ternary oxides on mechanical properties and microstructure of 316L stainless steel tungsten inert gas (TIG) and activating tungsten inert gas (ATIG) welded joints were investigated. The novelty in this work is introducing a metaheuristic technique called the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method to develop a mathematical model of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in terms of proportions of oxides flux. A constrained optimization algorithm available in Matlab 2020 optimization toolbox is used to find the optimal percentages of the selected powders that provide the maximum UTS. The study indicates that the optimal composition of flux was: 32% Cr2O3, 43% ZrO2, 8% Si2O, and 17% CaF2. The UTS was 571 MPa for conventional TIG weld and rose to 600 MPa for the optimal ATIG flux. The obtained result of hardness for the optimal ATIG was 176 HV against 175 HV for conventional TIG weld. The energy absorbed in the weld zone during the impact test was 267 J/cm2 for the optimal ATIG weld and slightly higher than that of conventional TIG weld 256 J/cm2. Fracture surface examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows ductile fracture for ATIG weld with small and multiple dimples in comparison for TIG weld. Moreover, the depth of optimized flux is greater than that of TIG weld by two times. The ratio D/W was improved by 3.13 times. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis shows traces of the sulfur element in the TIG weld zone. Full article
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