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Recent Developments in Non-conventional Welding of Materials (Volume II)

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2022) | Viewed by 6733

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. ESAD.CR, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Rua Isidoro Inácio Alves de Carvalho, 2500-321 Caldas da Rainha, Portugal
2. CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: welding technology; processing technology; microstructural and mechanical characterization; friction stir welding; explosion welding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. ISEL, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
2. CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: solid-state welding; friction stir welding; explosion welding; dissimilar materials welding; solid-state processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Welding is one of the technological fields with most impact on many industries, such as automotive, aerospace, energy production, electronics, health sector, etc. The welding technologies are currently used to join the most diverse materials, from metallic alloys to polymers, composites, or even, biological tissues. Despite the relevance and the wide application of the traditional welding technologies, these processes are not a solution to meet the demanding requirements of some industries. This has driven strong research efforts in non-conventional welding processes, such as laser welding, ultrasonic welding, impact welding, friction stir welding, diffusion welding, and many other welding technologies. Important studies have been recently developed all over the world on the application of these processes to the joining of cutting-edge materials and material combinations, enabling the production of joints with improved properties. So, this special issue has the objective of presenting the most recent developments in non-conventional welding of materials. Experimental and numerical modelling/simulation researches on all aspects related to this multidisciplinary subject are welcome. Original research and review papers addressing innovative developments on non-conventional welding processes and process applications are valuable scientific contributions.

We look forward to receiving your contributions to this issue.

Prof. Dr. Rui Manuel Leal
Prof. Dr. Ivan Galvão
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • non-conventional welding
  • laser welding
  • ultrasonic welding
  • impact welding
  • friction stir welding
  • diffusion welding
  • experimental
  • numerical modelling/simulation
  • materials
  • properties

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4086 KiB  
Article
Joining of Polyethylene Using a Non-Conventional Friction Stir Welding Tool
by Miguel A. R. Pereira, Ivan Galvão, José Domingos Costa, Rui M. Leal and Ana M. Amaro
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217639 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to butt-weld 6 mm-thick polyethylene (PE) plates by friction stir welding (FSW) using a non-conventional stationary shoulder tool. The welds were performed with an unheated shoulder and with a shoulder temperature of 85 °C. Additionally, rotational [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study was to butt-weld 6 mm-thick polyethylene (PE) plates by friction stir welding (FSW) using a non-conventional stationary shoulder tool. The welds were performed with an unheated shoulder and with a shoulder temperature of 85 °C. Additionally, rotational speeds of 870, 1140 and 1500 rpm; welding speeds of 60 and 120 mm/min; and plunge depths of 5.5 and 5.7 mm were used. The influence of these parameters on morphology, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, elongation at break and fracture modes was evaluated. Shoulder heating proved to be crucial for the optimization of PE joints by FSW, as it clearly improved joint efficiency. Furthermore, shoulder heating promoted the reduction in internal and external defects, such as porosity and surface burning. Defect-free weld seams were obtained with higher rotational speeds and a lower welding speed. A maximum joint efficiency of about 97% was achieved with a shoulder temperature of 85 °C, a rotational speed of 1500 rpm, a welding speed of 60 mm/min and a plunge depth of 5.7 mm. A weld with the average joint efficiency of 92% was produced at 120 mm/min, which based on the literature found is the highest welding speed reported that achieved a joint efficiency above 90%. Full article
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12 pages, 10535 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Weldability at Laser Beam Welding of 22MnB5 by an Entrained Ultrasonic Wave Superposition
by Christian Wolf, Stephan Völkers, Igor Kryukov, Markus Graß, Niklas Sommer, Stefan Böhm, Maxim Wunder, Nadine Köhler and Peter Mäckel
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144800 - 09 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
In this paper, the potential of directional ultrasonic wave superposition by moving sound generators for laser beam welding of high-strength steel alloys 1.5528 (22MnB5) is studied. Steel sheets of identical thickness and in form of tailored blanks were joined in butt joint configuration. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the potential of directional ultrasonic wave superposition by moving sound generators for laser beam welding of high-strength steel alloys 1.5528 (22MnB5) is studied. Steel sheets of identical thickness and in form of tailored blanks were joined in butt joint configuration. The influences of the various excitation parameters of the moving sound generators on the ultrasonic coupling and their influence on the distribution of the AlSi coating components within the melting zone and the weld seam characteristics are investigated. Etched cross-sections, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscattering measurements were used as the investigation methods to determine the AlSi distribution in the weld as well as its microstructure. The results presented a series of experiments which show that a suitable superposition of ultrasonic waves by the moving sound generators lead to a more homogeneous distribution of AlSi particles in the melt as well as to a finer microstructure within the weld, which improves the mechanical–technological properties. Full article
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17 pages, 13340 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Residual Stress Relief by Heat Treatments in Austenitic Cladded Layers
by Joana Rebelo Kornmeier, Maria José Marques, Weimin Gan, António Castanhola Batista, Sanjooram Paddea and Altino Loureiro
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041364 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
The effect of the heat treatment on the residual stresses of welded cladded steel samples is analyzed in this study. The residual stresses across the plate’s square sections were determined using complementary methods; applying diffraction with neutron radiation and mechanically using the contour [...] Read more.
The effect of the heat treatment on the residual stresses of welded cladded steel samples is analyzed in this study. The residual stresses across the plate’s square sections were determined using complementary methods; applying diffraction with neutron radiation and mechanically using the contour method. The analysis of the large coarse grain austenitic cladded layers, at the feasibility limits of diffraction methods, was only made possible by applying both methods. The samples are composed of steel plates, coated on one of the faces with stainless steel filler metals, this coating process, usually known as cladding, was carried out by submerged arc welding. After cladding, the samples were submitted to two different heat treatments with dissimilar parameters: one at a temperature of 620 °C maintained for 1 h and, the second at 540 °C, for ten hours. There was some difference in residual stresses measured by the two techniques along the surface of the coating in the as-welded state, although they are similar at the welding interface and in the heat-affected zone. The results also show that there is a residual stress relaxation for both heat-treated samples. The heat treatment carried out at a higher temperature showed sometimes more than 50% reduction in the initial residual stress values and has the advantage of being less time consuming, giving it an industrial advantage and making it more viable economically. Full article
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21 pages, 8415 KiB  
Article
Influence of Tool Geometry and Process Parameters on Torque, Temperature, and Quality of Friction Stir Welds in Dissimilar Al Alloys
by Neves Manuel, Daniel Beltrão, Ivan Galvão, Rui M. Leal, José D. Costa and Altino Loureiro
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206020 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
In the current investigation, the influence of the tool geometry, the position of the materials in the joint, the welding speed on the temperature and torque developed, and on the quality of the welds in dissimilar and tri-dissimilar T joints were analysed. The [...] Read more.
In the current investigation, the influence of the tool geometry, the position of the materials in the joint, the welding speed on the temperature and torque developed, and on the quality of the welds in dissimilar and tri-dissimilar T joints were analysed. The aluminium alloys used were AA2017-T4, AA6082-T6, and AA5083-H111 and the friction stir welds were performed with identical shoulder tools, but with either a pin with simple geometry or a pin with progressive geometry. Progressive pin tools proved to be a viable alternative in the production of dissimilar and tri-dissimilar welds, as they provide a larger tool/material friction area and a larger volume of dragged material, which promotes an increase in the heat generated and a good mixing of the materials in the stir zone, although they require a higher torque. Placing a stronger material on the advancing side also results in a higher temperature in the stir zone but requires higher torque too. The combination of these factors showed that tools with a progressive pin provide sound dissimilar and tri-dissimilar welds, unlike single-pin tools. The increase in the welding speed causes the formation of defects in the stir zone, even in tri-dissimilar welds carried out with a tool with a progressive pin, which impairs the fatigue strength of the welds. Full article
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