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Recent Trends in Roughness Measurement and Data Analysis of Machined Surfaces

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 14463

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Manufacturing Process and Production Engineering, The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszow University of Technology, Powstancow Warszawy 8 Street, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: surface topography; measurement; measurement errors; measurement noise; data analysis; data processing errors; surface treatment; machining; manufacturing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are many issues surrounding the processes of measurement and received data assessments of surface quality. Surface roughness characterisation plays a significant role in the consideration of many ‘engineering-surface’ properties. Measurement and data analysis of the geometric features of machined elements, including roughness consideration, are particularly important while defining the functional performance of surfaces. This issue can be classified as necessary when the process of control in manufacturing is provided. Calculation of the values of surface roughness parameters and, respectively, accurate characterisation of surface properties is crucial in materials manufacturing and many other areas of mechanical engineering.

Recent advantages in surface roughness characterisation techniques require guidance for regular users. Moreover, advantages in software and various data analysis procedures must be proposed appropriately. Therefore, mindful users should be aware that roughness evaluation can be affected by various errors, including data processing issues. Many of the recent studies contain sophisticated algorithms and approaches that must be applied in a certain way.

This Special Issue, titled ‘Recent trends in roughness measurement and data analysis of machined surfaces’, aims to collect current high-quality results considering errors in measurement and data analysis of surface roughness and, simultaneously, widely review results that focus on the functional properties of machined elements. Simulation, modelling and experimental methods are welcome.

Research areas may include (but are not limited to):

  • Recent developments in surface roughness measurement.
  • Presentation of advanced methods and approaches of surface topography analysis.
  • Theoretical and experimental research, knowledge and new ideas in definition of measurement noise in surface texture analysis.
  • Recent developments in measurement uncertainty characterisation.
  • Characterisation of different surface topographies with a specification of roughness parameters.
  • Experimental and processing high-performance materials with their tribological properties.
  • Understanding surface characterisation with minimisation of errors in surface roughness parameters calculation and data analysis processes.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Przemysław Podulka
Guest Editor

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Keywords

• surface metrology
• roughness measurement
• surface topography characterisation
• functional materials
• measurement noise
• measurement uncertainty
• data analysis errors
• surface topography creation in machining (manufacturing)
• surface topography modification (wear assessment)
• manufacturing metrology
• machined surfaces.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3701 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Relative Displacements and the Minimum Chip Thickness on the Surface Texture in Shoulder Milling
by Lukasz Nowakowski, Slawomir Blasiak and Michal Skrzyniarz
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247661 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 565
Abstract
The formation of surface texture in milling is a complex process affected by numerous factors. This paper focuses on the surface roughness of X37CrMoV51 steel machined by shoulder milling. The aim of the study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the [...] Read more.
The formation of surface texture in milling is a complex process affected by numerous factors. This paper focuses on the surface roughness of X37CrMoV51 steel machined by shoulder milling. The aim of the study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the surface roughness parameter Ra. The proposed model for predicting the surface roughness parameter Ra in shoulder milling takes into account the feed per tooth, fz, the corner radius, rε, and the actual number of inserts involved in the material removal process as well as hmin and D(ξ). The correlation coefficient between the theoretical and experimental data was high (0.96). The milling tests were carried out on a three-axis vertical milling machine using a square shoulder face mill. The geometric analysis of the face mill shows that at a feed rate of 0.04 mm/tooth, cutting was performed by three out of five inserts, and when the feed rate exceeded 0.12 mm/tooth, material was removed by all inserts. The minimum chip thickness parameter and the standard deviation of the relative displacement increased as the feed increased. Over the whole range of feeds per tooth, the displacement increased by 0.63 µm. Higher cutting speeds resulted in lower minimum chip thicknesses and the average standard deviation of the relative displacements for the whole range of cutting speeds was 2 μm. Full article
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17 pages, 68337 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Production of Small Holes and Threads Using Progressive Technologies in Austenite Stainless Steel 1.4301
by Dana Stančeková, Filip Turian, Michal Šajgalík, Mário Drbúl, Nataša Náprstková, Anna Rudawská and Miroslav Špiriak
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196538 - 3 Oct 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
This article focuses on the technologies used by a manufacturing company to produce threads in chrome–nickel steel 1.4301 at specific sheet thicknesses. To enhance production quality, two specific technologies were chosen for hole formation, considering the requirements of the company. Both conventional drilling [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the technologies used by a manufacturing company to produce threads in chrome–nickel steel 1.4301 at specific sheet thicknesses. To enhance production quality, two specific technologies were chosen for hole formation, considering the requirements of the company. Both conventional drilling and nonconventional laser cutting methods were evaluated as potential techniques for hole production. Conventional thread-cutting technology and progressive forming technology were employed to create metric internal threads. The aim of integrating these diverse technologies is to identify the optimal solution for a specific sheet thickness in order to prevent the occurrence of defective threads that could not fulfil the intended purpose. The evaluation of the threads and holes relies on the examination of surface characteristics, such as the quality of the surface, as well as the lack of any signs of damage, cracks, or burrs. Furthermore, residual stresses in the surface layer were monitored because these stresses have the potential to cause cracking. Additionally, extensive monitoring was performed to guarantee that the form and size of the manufactured threads were correct to ensure smooth assembly and optimal functionality. Full article
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24 pages, 36019 KiB  
Article
Tribological Performance of Anti-Wear Coatings on Tools for Forming Aluminium Alloy Sheets Used for Producing Pull-Off Caps
by Kamil Czapla, Krzysztof Żaba, Marcin Kot, Ilona Nejman, Marcin Madej and Tomasz Trzepieciński
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196465 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Ensuring adequate reliability of the production process of packaging closures has made it necessary to study the effect of annealing and varnishing variants on the strength and structural properties of the stock material. As a test material, EN AW-5052-H28 aluminium alloy sheets with [...] Read more.
Ensuring adequate reliability of the production process of packaging closures has made it necessary to study the effect of annealing and varnishing variants on the strength and structural properties of the stock material. As a test material, EN AW-5052-H28 aluminium alloy sheets with a thickness of 0.21 mm were used. The surface treatment of the test material involved varnishing the sheet metal surface using various varnishes and soaking the sheet metal. The coefficient of friction and the abrasion resistance of the coatings were determined using the T-21 ball-and-disc tribotester. The tested sheets were subjected to tribological analysis by the T-05 roller-block tribotester using countersamples made of Caldie and Sverker 21 tool steels. The results of the tests showed differences in mechanical and structural properties depending on the method of sample preparation. Based on the test results, significant differences in the adhesion of anti-wear coatings were found. The results revealed that the most favourable friction conditions are provided by the CrN coating. The (AlTi)N interlayer in the (AlTi)N/(AlCr)N coating adheres to the substrate over the entire tested area and no detachment from its surface was observed, which proves good bonding at the substrate/coating interface. The tested AlTiN/TiAlSiXN coating is characterised by a more homogeneous, compact microstructure compared to the (AlTi)N/(AlCr)N coating. Full article
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19 pages, 16897 KiB  
Article
Cold Drawing of AISI 321 Stainless Steel Thin-Walled Seamless Tubes on a Floating Plug
by Krzysztof Żaba and Tomasz Trzepieciński
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5684; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165684 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 854
Abstract
The paper presents the results of an analysis of the process of drawing AISI 321 stainless steel thin-walled seamless tubes on a floating plug. The influence of the geometry of dies and plugs, drawing velocity, and lubricants on the possibility of carrying out [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of an analysis of the process of drawing AISI 321 stainless steel thin-walled seamless tubes on a floating plug. The influence of the geometry of dies and plugs, drawing velocity, and lubricants on the possibility of carrying out the pipe drawing process without a loss of strength of the lubricating film and, consequently, disturbance of the forming process and tube cracking, and also on the temperature in the drawing process, the mechanical properties of the tubes drawn, and the microhardness and roughness of the inner and outer surface of the tubes was investigated. The parameters of the drawing tools used were as follows: angle of drawing dies α = 16° and floating plugs with angles of inclination of the conical part of the plug β = 11.5°, 13°, and 14°. The drawing dies and floating plugs were made of G10 sintered carbide. Drawing speed was varied over the range 1 to 10 m/min. The study used several lubricants. Tubes with dimensions (outer diameter D0, wall thickness g0 before drawing process) D0 = 19 mm, g0 = 1.2 mm and D0 = 18 mm, g0 = 1.2 mm were drawn to produce tubes with dimensions (outer diameter Dk, wall thickness gk after drawing process) Dk = 16 mm, gk = 1.06 mm on a drawbench with the same total elongation, while the diameter and wall thickness were changed. During the process, continuous measurements were made of the drawing force and temperature in the deformation zone and on the tube surface. It was found that the drawing process causes a decrease in the roughness parameters Ra and Rz of the inner surface of the tubes. Moreover, after drawing, an increase of 30–70% was observed in the microhardness of the tube material in relation to the microhardness of the charge material. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that the work of frictional forces is the main direction of optimization of tube drawing on a floating plug process of hard-deforming materials. Full article
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14 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
Multiscale Analysis of Functional Surfaces Produced by L-PBF Additive Technology and Titanium Powder Ti6Al4V
by Damian Gogolewski, Paweł Zmarzły and Tomasz Kozior
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083167 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
The article discusses experimental studies assessing the possibility of mapping surfaces with a characteristic distribution of irregularities. Tests involved surfaces produced using the L-PBF additive technology, using titanium-powder-based material (Ti6Al4V). An evaluation of the resulting surface texture was extended to cover the application [...] Read more.
The article discusses experimental studies assessing the possibility of mapping surfaces with a characteristic distribution of irregularities. Tests involved surfaces produced using the L-PBF additive technology, using titanium-powder-based material (Ti6Al4V). An evaluation of the resulting surface texture was extended to cover the application of a modern, multiscale analysis, i.e., wavelet transformation. The conducted analysis that involved using selected mother wavelet enabled production process errors and involved determining the size of resulting surface irregularities. The tests provide guidelines and enable a better understanding of the possibility of producing fully functional elements on surfaces, where morphological surface features are distributed in a characteristic way. Conducted statistical studies showed the advantages and disadvantages of the applied solution. Full article
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18 pages, 5671 KiB  
Article
Friction Behaviour of 6082-T6 Aluminium Alloy Sheets in a Strip Draw Tribological Test
by Tomasz Trzepieciński, Ján Slota, Ľuboš Kaščák, Ivan Gajdoš and Marek Vojtko
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062338 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
Aluminium alloy sheets cause many problems in sheet metal forming processes owing to their tendency to gall the surface of the tool. The paper presents a method for the determination of the kinematic friction coefficient of friction pairs. The determination of coefficient of [...] Read more.
Aluminium alloy sheets cause many problems in sheet metal forming processes owing to their tendency to gall the surface of the tool. The paper presents a method for the determination of the kinematic friction coefficient of friction pairs. The determination of coefficient of friction (COF) in sheet metal forming requires specialised devices that ‘simulate’ friction conditions in specific areas of the formed sheet. In this article, the friction behaviour of aluminium alloy sheets was determined using the strip drawing test. The 1-mm-thick 6082 aluminium alloy sheets in T6 temper were used as test material. Different values for nominal pressures (4.38, 6.53, 8.13, 9.47, 10.63, and 11.69 MPa) and different sliding speeds (10 and 20 mm/min.) were considered. The change of friction conditions was also realised with several typical oils (hydraulic oil LHL 32, machine oil LAN 46 and engine oil SAE 5W-40 C3) commonly used in sheet metal forming operations. Friction tests were conducted at room temperature (24 °C). The main tribological mechanisms accompanying friction (adhesion, flattening, ploughing) were identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The influence of the parameters of the friction process on the value of the COF was determined using artificial neural networks. The lowest value of the COF was recorded when lubricating the sheet metal surface with SAE 5W40 C3 engine oil, which is characterised as the most viscous of all tested lubricants. In dry friction conditions, a decreasing trend of the COF with increasing contact pressure was observed. In the whole range of applied contact pressures (4.38–11.69 MPa), the value of the COF during lubrication with SAE 5W40 C3 engine oil was between 0.14 and 0.17 for a sliding speed of 10 mm/min and between 0.13 and 0.16 for a sliding speed of 20 mm/min. The value of the COF during dry friction was between 0.23 and 0.28 for a sliding speed of 10 mm/min and between 0.22 and 0.26 for a sliding speed of 20 mm/min. SEM micrographs revealed that the main friction mechanism of 6082-T6 aluminium alloys sheet in contact with cold-work tool steel flattens surface asperities. The sensitivity analysis of the input parameters on the value of COF revealed that oil viscosity has the greatest impact on the value of the COF, followed by contact pressure and sliding speed. Full article
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24 pages, 20932 KiB  
Article
Reduction in Errors in Roughness Evaluation with an Accurate Definition of the S-L Surface
by Przemysław Podulka, Wojciech Macek, Ricardo Branco and Reza Masoudi Nejad
Materials 2023, 16(5), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16051865 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Characterization of surface topography, roughly divided into measurement and data analysis, can be valuable in the process of validation of the tribological performance of machined parts. Surface topography, especially the roughness, can respond straightly to the machining process and, in some cases, is [...] Read more.
Characterization of surface topography, roughly divided into measurement and data analysis, can be valuable in the process of validation of the tribological performance of machined parts. Surface topography, especially the roughness, can respond straightly to the machining process and, in some cases, is defined as a fingerprint of the manufacturing. When considering the high precision of surface topography studies, the definition of both S-surface and L-surface can drive many errors that influence the analysis of the accuracy of the manufacturing process. Even if precise measuring equipment (device and method) is provided but received data are processed erroneously, the precision is still lost. From that matter, the precise definition of the S-L surface can be valuable in the roughness evaluation allowing a reduction in the rejection of properly made parts. In this paper, it was proposed how to select an appropriate procedure for the removal of the L- and S- components from the raw measured data. Various types of surface topographies were considered, e.g., plateau-honed (some with burnished oil pockets), turned, milled, ground, laser-textured, ceramic, composite, and, generally, isotropic. They were measured with different (stylus and optical) methods, respectively, and parameters from the ISO 25178 standard were also taken into consideration. It was found that commonly used and available commercial software methods can be valuable and especially helpful in the precise definition of the S-L surface; respectively, its usage requires an appropriate response (knowledge) from the users. Full article
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12 pages, 6018 KiB  
Article
Possibilities of a Hybrid Method for a Time-Scale-Frequency Analysis in the Aspect of Identifying Surface Topography Irregularities
by Damian Gogolewski, Paweł Zmarzły, Tomasz Kozior and Thomas G. Mathia
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031228 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The article presents research results related to assessing the possibilities of applying modern filtration methods to diagnosing measurement signals. The Fourier transformation does not always provide full information about the signal. It is, therefore, appropriate to complement the methodology with a modern multiscale [...] Read more.
The article presents research results related to assessing the possibilities of applying modern filtration methods to diagnosing measurement signals. The Fourier transformation does not always provide full information about the signal. It is, therefore, appropriate to complement the methodology with a modern multiscale method: the wavelet transformation. A hybrid combination of two algorithms results in revealing additional signal components, which are invisible in the spectrum in the case of using only the harmonic analysis. The tests performed using both simulated signals and the measured roundness profiles of rollers in rolling bearings proved the advantages of using a complex approach. A combination of the Fourier and wavelet transformations resulted in the possibility to identify the components of the signal, which directly translates into better diagnostics. The tests fill a research gap in terms of complex diagnostics and assessment of profiles, which is very important from the standpoint of the precision industry. Full article
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16 pages, 7472 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Non-Measured Points on the Accuracy of the Surface Topography Assessment of Elements 3D Printed Using Selected Additive Technologies
by Paweł Zmarzły, Tomasz Kozior and Damian Gogolewski
Materials 2023, 16(1), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010460 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
The paper presents the results of research aimed at evaluating the surface topography including the analysis of the number of unmeasured points of the samples 3D printed using four additive technologies (i.e., PolyJet Matrix, fused deposition modeling, selective laser sintering, and selective laser [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of research aimed at evaluating the surface topography including the analysis of the number of unmeasured points of the samples 3D printed using four additive technologies (i.e., PolyJet Matrix, fused deposition modeling, selective laser sintering, and selective laser melting). The samples were made in three variants of location on the printing platform of 3D printers. Measurements of the samples’ surface topography were carried out using a Talysurf CCI Lite optical profilometer and a Talysurf PGI 1230 contact profilometer. The percentage of non-measured points for each sample and the parameters of the surface topography were determined. Then, the non-measured points were complemented and the topography parameters for the corrected surface were recalculated. In addition, to perform comparative measurements, each surface was measured using a contact profilometer Talysurf PGI 1230. Preliminary results of the research showed that the measurement of the surface topography of the samples made using selective laser sintering technology with the Taysurf CCI optical measuring system is very unreliable, as the number of non-measured points for the analyzed samples was higher than 98%. The highest accuracy of optical measurement was obtained for PJM technology and three variants of location on the printing platform of the 3D printer. Full article
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18 pages, 5883 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Surface Roughness and Surface Uniformity of a Hybrid Sandwich Structure after Machining
by Elżbieta Doluk, Anna Rudawska and Izabela Miturska-Barańska
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207299 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax as well as surface topography Sa, Sz, Sp and Sv of the two-layer sandwich structure composed of an AW-2024 T3 aluminum alloy (Al) and a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) were measured to determine an impact [...] Read more.
The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax as well as surface topography Sa, Sz, Sp and Sv of the two-layer sandwich structure composed of an AW-2024 T3 aluminum alloy (Al) and a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) were measured to determine an impact of the machining configuration (arrangement of the materials forming a sandwich structure) and the type of tool (presence of the tool coating) on the quality of the surface obtained through circumferential milling. The measurements revealed that milling produced different values of surface roughness for the aluminum alloy and the CFRP composite with values of 2D and 3D surface roughness being higher for the composite layer. The highest value of Ra of 1.10 µm was obtained for the surface of the CFRP composite using the CFRP/Al configuration and a TiAlN-coated tool. The highest values of the Rz (6.51 µm) and Rmax (8.85 µm) surface roughness parameters were also obtained for the composite layer using the same machining configuration and type of tool. Full article
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21 pages, 12198 KiB  
Article
Thresholding Methods for Reduction in Data Processing Errors in the Laser-Textured Surface Topography Measurements
by Przemysław Podulka
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155137 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
There are many factors influencing the accuracy of surface topography measurement results: one of them is the vibrations caused by the high-frequency noise occurrence. It is extremely difficult to extract results defined as noise from the real measured data, especially the application of [...] Read more.
There are many factors influencing the accuracy of surface topography measurement results: one of them is the vibrations caused by the high-frequency noise occurrence. It is extremely difficult to extract results defined as noise from the real measured data, especially the application of various methods requiring skilled users and, additionally, the improper use of software may cause errors in the data processing. Accordingly, various thresholding methods for the minimization of errors in the raw surface topography data processing were proposed and compared with commonly used (available in the commercial software) techniques. Applied procedures were used for the minimization of errors in the surface topography parameters (from ISO 25178 standard) calculation after the removal and reduction, respectively, of the high-frequency noise (S-filter). Methods were applied for analysis of the laser-textured surfaces with a comparison of many regular methods, proposed previously in the commercial measuring equipment. It was found that the application of commonly used algorithms can be suitable for the processing of the measured data when selected procedures are provided. Moreover, errors in both the measurement process and the data processing can be reduced when thresholding methods support regular algorithms and procedures. From applied, commonly used methods (regular Gaussian regression filter, robust Gaussian regression filter, spline filter and fast Fourier transform filter), the most encouraging results were obtained for high-frequency noise reduction in laser-textured details when the fast Fourier transform filter was supported by a thresholding approach. Full article
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