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Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2023) | Viewed by 29715

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Transportation Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
Interests: bitumen; foamed bitumen; cold recycling asphalt pavements; warm mix asphalt technology; rheology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bitumen is one of the oldest binders used in road construction. This naturally occurring material found in deposits, such as bitumen lakes or bituminous rocks, has been used by humans for thousands of years. The progress of human civilization, advancements in technology, and the development of the automobile industry have increased the demand for better, durable roads. Thus, the production of refined bitumen from heavy crude oil has surpassed the use of natural bitumen. This has led to new solutions in binder design. These include modifications of its properties with the addition of natural bitumen or the use of various chemical compounds, predominantly polymers, for improved viscoelastic performance. Cold in-place recycling represented a step toward the wider use of bitumen emulsion. However, the breakthrough in the development of bitumen technology was the implementation of low-temperature bituminous paving mixtures. Sustainable, eco-friendly warm mix asphalt (WMA) and half-warm mix asphalt (HWMA) technologies use synthetic waxes or surface-active agents (SAA) for lowering bitumen viscosity. Water-foamed bitumen is the most recent innovative technique used in low-temperature mixtures. Systematic bitumen research is crucial for predicting bitumen characteristics and their effect on the performance of paving mixtures in pavement structures. The research, together with new laboratory testing technology and increased diagnostic requirements, will ensure the longer service life of pavements.

Prof. Marek Iwański
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bitumen
  • foamed bitumen
  • asphalt materials
  • rheology
  • performance

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Published Papers (17 papers)

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19 pages, 5755 KiB  
Article
Adhesion Performance of Rubber Modified Asphalt in Chip Seal: A Molecular Dynamic Study
by Meng Wu, Zhanping You and Dongzhao Jin
Materials 2023, 16(18), 6324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16186324 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Chip seals are widely used for asphalt pavement maintenance, yet the understanding of the interaction between asphalt and aggregates embedded in the asphalt layer remains limited. This paper aims to quantify the interaction between asphalt and aggregate at the microscope level to better [...] Read more.
Chip seals are widely used for asphalt pavement maintenance, yet the understanding of the interaction between asphalt and aggregates embedded in the asphalt layer remains limited. This paper aims to quantify the interaction between asphalt and aggregate at the microscope level to better understand their adhesion performance in chip seals. Rubber-modified and neat asphalt models are established and verified based on various parameters, including density, viscosity, solubility, glass-transition temperature (Tg), and cohesive energy density (CED). Subsequently, nanoindentation simulation is employed to analyze the adhesion force and interface stress between aggregates and asphalt, considering different embedded depths and pull-off speeds. The adhesion energy between asphalt and silica is also calculated. The results indicate that rubber-modified asphalt exhibits lower density, CED, solubility parameters, and Tg while having higher viscosity than neat asphalt. The adhesion force and interface stress display a quadratic relationship with embedded depths and pull-off speeds. Furthermore, the bond between rubber-modified asphalt and silica is stronger than that between neat asphalt and silica. These findings advance the comprehension of asphalt–aggregate adhesion in chip seals and offer insights for optimizing chip seal design through molecular simulation, thereby potentially enhancing asphalt pavement performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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16 pages, 6560 KiB  
Article
Stiffness Evaluation of Laboratory and Plant Produced Foamed Bitumen Warm Asphalt Mixtures with Fiber Reinforcement and Bio-Flux Additive
by Marek Iwański, Anna Chomicz-Kowalska, Krzysztof Maciejewski, Karolina Janus, Piotr Radziszewski, Adam Liphardt, Maciej Michalec and Karol Góral
Materials 2023, 16(5), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16051950 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The present paper investigates the viscoelastic stress-strain responses of laboratory and plant produced warm mix asphalt mixtures containing basalt fiber dispersed reinforcement. The investigated processes and mixture components were evaluated for their efficacy in producing highly performing asphalt mixtures with decreased mixing and [...] Read more.
The present paper investigates the viscoelastic stress-strain responses of laboratory and plant produced warm mix asphalt mixtures containing basalt fiber dispersed reinforcement. The investigated processes and mixture components were evaluated for their efficacy in producing highly performing asphalt mixtures with decreased mixing and compaction temperatures. Surface course asphalt concrete (AC-S 11 mm) and high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC 22 mm) conventionally and using a warm mix asphalt technique with foamed bitumen and a bio-derived fluxing additive. The warm mixtures included lowered production temperature (by 10 °C) and lowered compaction temperatures (by 15 °C and 30 °C). The complex stiffness moduli of the mixtures were assessed under cyclic loading tests at combinations of four temperatures and five loading frequencies. It was found that the warm produced mixtures were characterized by lower dynamic moduli than the reference mixtures in the whole spectrum of loading conditions, however, the mixtures compacted at the 30 °C lower temperature performed better than the mixtures compacted at 15 °C lower temperature, specifically when highest testing temperatures are considered. The differences in the performance of plant and laboratory produced mixtures were ascertained to be nonsignificant. It was concluded that the differences in stiffness of hot mix and warm mixtures can be attributed to the inherent properties of foamed bitumen mixtures and that these differences should shrink in time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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14 pages, 3502 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Thermo-Viscous Properties of Bitumen Concerning the Chemical Composition
by Eva Remisova, Dusan Briliak and Michal Holy
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041379 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
The quality of bitumen is standardized by conventional tests. With the development of new techniques, rotational and oscillatory measuring systems are applied to evaluate bitumen under defined geometric, temperature, frequency, stress, and strain conditions that correspond to loads during asphalt production and service. [...] Read more.
The quality of bitumen is standardized by conventional tests. With the development of new techniques, rotational and oscillatory measuring systems are applied to evaluate bitumen under defined geometric, temperature, frequency, stress, and strain conditions that correspond to loads during asphalt production and service. Several studies have focused on determining the effect of composition on bitumen properties at service temperatures. However, there is a lack of information related to the effect of composition on viscosity at higher temperatures, which influences production processes. The different types of bitumen, samples of 50/70, 35/50, 45/80-75, and 25/55-60 bitumen, had different viscosity values in intervals corresponding to a confidence level of 95%. The viscosity–temperature relationship in temperature range of 120 to 180 °C was observed in values of 3.87 and 3.70 for unmodified bitumen and 3.09 and 3.22 for modified bitumen. The effect of differences in SARA fractions content on the variation in viscosity using regression analysis showed the importance of asphaltenes (direct correlation) and aromates (negative correlation) contents for 50/70 bitumen with a coefficient of linear regression above 0.7. In comparison, the strong effect of saturates and asphaltenes (negative correlation) and resins was identified for 45/80-75 bitumen samples with correlation of 0.5 to 0.7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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18 pages, 4696 KiB  
Article
Warm Mix Asphalt Binder Utilizing Water Foaming and Fluxing Using Bio-Derived Agent
by Marek Iwański, Anna Chomicz-Kowalska, Krzysztof Maciejewski, Mateusz M. Iwański, Piotr Radziszewski, Adam Liphardt, Jan B. Król, Michał Sarnowski, Karol J. Kowalski and Piotr Pokorski
Materials 2022, 15(24), 8873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15248873 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
The present paper investigates the effects of simultaneous mechanical foaming using water and fluxing with a bio-derived agent on the properties of three distinct asphalt binders: 50/70 paving-grade bitumen, 45/80–55 polymer-modified bitumen, and 45/80–80 highly modified asphalt binder. The testing involved classical tests [...] Read more.
The present paper investigates the effects of simultaneous mechanical foaming using water and fluxing with a bio-derived agent on the properties of three distinct asphalt binders: 50/70 paving-grade bitumen, 45/80–55 polymer-modified bitumen, and 45/80–80 highly modified asphalt binder. The testing involved classical tests for assessing binder consistency (penetration at 25 °C, ring and ball softening point, Fraass breaking point, and dynamic viscosity) as well as performance tests (high and low Superpave critical temperatures and multiple stress creep recovery). The tests included assessment directly after asphalt binder foaming and were repeated after a 14-day period. It was shown that bitumen foaming had only short-term effects on the asphalt binders, which did not persist in the repeated tests after 14 days. The fluxing agent that was utilized caused significant changes in the consistency of all asphalt binders. The changes in the performance characteristics of the 50/70 and 45/80–55 binders were severe and amounted to a significant decrease in high-temperature performance of these binders. On the other hand, an improvement in all performance characteristics in the case of the 45/80–80 asphalt binder was observed as a result of the applied processes, particularly when measured 14 days after foaming. This study shows that the simultaneous use of foaming and the fluxing additive decreased the dynamic viscosity of the 45/80–80 binder, while improving its properties relating the pavement performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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17 pages, 5941 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Dynamic Stiffness of Poroelastic and Asphalt Concrete Layers under In Situ and Laboratory Conditions
by Krzysztof Robert Czech and Wladyslaw Gardziejczyk
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051821 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Compounds with lower dynamic stiffness are a better solution from the tyre/road noise point of view. The article presents the constructed test stand for the evaluation of dynamic stiffness both in in situ and in laboratory conditions. As a result of the tests, [...] Read more.
Compounds with lower dynamic stiffness are a better solution from the tyre/road noise point of view. The article presents the constructed test stand for the evaluation of dynamic stiffness both in in situ and in laboratory conditions. As a result of the tests, it was found that poroelastic pavements have a much lower dynamic stiffness (from 138.3 to 143.0 dB re. 1 N/m) compared to the asphalt concrete pavement (150.3 dB re. 1 N/m). In the group of poroelastic pavements, lower dynamic stiffness is characteristic for pavements with a binder course of porous asphalt. The results of the research are a contribution to further work on the influence of the dynamic stiffness of the pavements on the tyre/road noise level. The conducted measurements and analysis of the results prove the usefulness of the proposed test stand for determining the dynamic stiffness of bituminous mixtures in laboratory and field conditions. This is confirmed by the coherence between the force and acceleration signals at the level of at least 0.96—which indicates a very good validation of the test results with a random error lower than ±5% with 90% confidence level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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17 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Bitumen Binders Modified with Sulfur/Organic Copolymers
by Jakub Wręczycki, Yuriy Demchuk, Dariusz M. Bieliński, Michael Bratychak, Volodymyr Gunka, Rafał Anyszka and Tomasz Gozdek
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051774 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
With the continuing growth of waste sulfur production from the petroleum industry processes, its utilization for the production of useful, low-cost, and environmentally beneficial materials is of primary interest. Elemental sulfur has a significant and established history in the modification of bitumen binders, [...] Read more.
With the continuing growth of waste sulfur production from the petroleum industry processes, its utilization for the production of useful, low-cost, and environmentally beneficial materials is of primary interest. Elemental sulfur has a significant and established history in the modification of bitumen binders, while the sulfur-containing high-molecular compounds are limited in this field. Herein, we report a novel possibility to utilize the sulfur/organic copolymers obtained via the inverse vulcanization process as modifiers for bitumen binders. Synthesis and thermal characterization (TGA-DSC) of polysulfides derived from elemental sulfur (S8) and unsaturated organic species (dicyclopentadiene, styrene, and limonene) have been carried out. The performance of modified bitumen binders has been studied by several mechanical measurements (softening point, ductility, penetration at 25 °C, frass breaking point, adhesion to glass and gravel) and compared to the unmodified bitumen from the perspective of normalized requirements concerning polymer-modified bitumen. The interaction of bitumen binder with sulfur/organic modifier has been studied by means of FTIR spectroscopy and DSC measurements. The impact of the modification on the performance properties of bitumen has been demonstrated. The bitumen binders modified with sulfur/organic copolymers are in general less sensitive to higher temperatures (higher softening point up to 7 °C), more resistant to permanent deformations (lower penetration depth), and more resistant to aging processes without intrusive deterioration of parameters at lower temperatures. What is more, the modification resulted in significantly higher adhesion of bitumen binders to both glass (from 25% up to 87%) and gravel surfaces in combination with a lower tendency to form permanent deformations (more elastic behavior of the modified materials). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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17 pages, 11547 KiB  
Article
A Study of Adhesion in Foamed WMA Binder-Aggregate Systems Using Boiling Water Stripping Tests
by Anna Chomicz-Kowalska
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216248 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
The paper investigates the phenomena of adhesion in binder-aggregate systems produced to reflect warm-mix asphalt with water-foamed bitumen. The investigated materials included limestone and quartzite aggregates and a total of four asphalt binders: 50/70 and 45/80–55 bituminous binders obtained from two sources. The [...] Read more.
The paper investigates the phenomena of adhesion in binder-aggregate systems produced to reflect warm-mix asphalt with water-foamed bitumen. The investigated materials included limestone and quartzite aggregates and a total of four asphalt binders: 50/70 and 45/80–55 bituminous binders obtained from two sources. The adhesive bonding between the asphalt binders and aggregates was evaluated in boiling water stripping tests, which results were quantified using digital image analysis. The bituminous binders were additionally tested for their dynamic viscosities, and their chemical composition was probed using FTIR spectroscopy. The tests were carried out using traditional liquid and foamed bituminous binders on samples prepared at temperatures characteristic of hot-mix asphalt and warm-mix asphalt production (20 °C decrease). The use of foamed binders yielded higher values of residual asphalt binder coverage of the aggregates. Limestone aggregates provided superior adhesion, with the lowest result amounting to approximately 88%, while with quartzite aggregates, the results ranged from approximately 40% to 87%. The refinery from which the asphalt binders were sourced had a significant influence on the results; however, the additional rheological and chemical analyses were insufficient to explain those differences. It was concluded that the process of asphalt binder foaming, per se, may have a beneficial impact on the resistance of the asphalt binder-aggregate system to the action of water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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16 pages, 6883 KiB  
Article
Effects of Short-Term Ageing Temperature on Conventional and High-Temperature Properties of Paving-Grade Bitumen with Anti-Stripping and WMA Additives
by Krzysztof Maciejewski, Piotr Ramiączek and Eva Remisova
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216229 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
The presented study explores the effects of decreased temperatures utilized in rolling thin-film oven (RTFOT) laboratory short-term ageing of asphalt binders based on 35/50- and 50/70-penetration paving-grade bitumen. Additionally, the effects of three additives used with these binders at different concentrations are evaluated: [...] Read more.
The presented study explores the effects of decreased temperatures utilized in rolling thin-film oven (RTFOT) laboratory short-term ageing of asphalt binders based on 35/50- and 50/70-penetration paving-grade bitumen. Additionally, the effects of three additives used with these binders at different concentrations are evaluated: liquid anti-stripping agent, liquid warm-mix additive, and solid warm-mix additive. The resulting asphalt binders were subjected to basic (penetration at 25 °C, softening point, dynamic viscosity) and functional high-temperature characterization (G*/sin(δ), high critical temperature, non-recoverable creep compliance). It was found that the decreased short-term ageing temperatures may detrimentally impact the high-temperature grade of bituminous binders, but this effect can be mitigated by the use of appropriate additives. What is more, it was found that bituminous binders may respond differently to the aforementioned factors. Based on the results, it is advised that asphalt binders intended for use in warm-mix asphalts should be thoroughly tested to appropriately simulate the mixture production process and its effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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14 pages, 2786 KiB  
Article
Homogeneity and Viscoelastic Behaviour of Bitumen Film in Asphalt Mixtures Containing RAP
by Adam Liphardt, Piotr Radziszewski and Jan Król
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164355 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
This article discusses the phenomenon of fresh and RAP binders miscibility and presents test results of bitumen film properties from specially prepared asphalt mixtures. The miscibility of a fresh binder and a RAP binder still has not been fully recognised. The aim of [...] Read more.
This article discusses the phenomenon of fresh and RAP binders miscibility and presents test results of bitumen film properties from specially prepared asphalt mixtures. The miscibility of a fresh binder and a RAP binder still has not been fully recognised. The aim of this study was to determine the homogeneity level of the bitumen film based on viscoelastic assessment. In addition, an attempt was made to assess the impact of fresh binder on the binders blending degree. The study included assessment of homogeneity of bitumen film comprising various types of bituminous binders. The assessment was conducted on the basis of tests in the dynamic shear rheometer regarding rheological properties of the binders recovered from specific layers of the bitumen film using a staged extraction method. A complex shear modulus as a function of temperature, an elastic recovery R and a non-recoverable creep compliance modulus JNR from MSCR test were determined. The conducted statistical analyses confirmed the significant impact of the type of fresh binder on the blending degree. Regressive dependencies have been set between the differences of the complex shear modulus of the binders subject to mixing and differences of the complex shear modulus of binders from the internal and external layer of the bitumen film comprised of those binders. It was found that there is no full blending of fresh hard bitumen-simulated binder from RAP, which results in non-homogeneity of the bitumen film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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14 pages, 3674 KiB  
Article
Study of High-Temperature Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Used for Bridge Pavement with Concrete Deck
by Piotr Pokorski, Piotr Radziszewski and Michał Sarnowski
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154238 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
The paper presents the issue of resistance to permanent deformations of bridge pavements placed upon concrete bridge decks. In Europe, bridge asphalt pavement usually consists of a wearing course and a protective layer, which are placed over the insulation (waterproofing). Protective layers of [...] Read more.
The paper presents the issue of resistance to permanent deformations of bridge pavements placed upon concrete bridge decks. In Europe, bridge asphalt pavement usually consists of a wearing course and a protective layer, which are placed over the insulation (waterproofing). Protective layers of bridge pavement are commonly constructed using low air void content asphalt mixes as this provides the suitable tightness of such layers. Due to increased binder content, asphalt mixes for bridge pavement may have reduced resistance to permanent deformations. The article presents test results of resistance to permanent deformations of asphalt mixes for the protective layers. In order to determine the composition of mixtures with low air void content and resistance to permanent deformation, an experimental design was applied using a new concept of asphalt mix composition. Twenty-seven different asphalt mixture compositions were analyzed. The mixtures varied in terms of binder content, sand content and grit ratio. Resistance to permanent deformation was tested using the laboratory uniaxial cyclic compression method (dynamic load creep). On the basis of experimental results and statistical analysis, the functions of asphalt mixture permanent deformation resistance were established. This enabled a determination of suitable mixture compositions for protective layers for concrete bridge decks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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13 pages, 3681 KiB  
Article
Mechanism Influencing the Drying Behavior of Bitumen Emulsion
by Chun Li, Jian Ouyang, Fangjie Dou and Jingtao Shi
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143878 - 12 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The drying process of bitumen emulsion largely dominates the strength development of emulsion-based mixtures for pavement structure, thus it can be used to judge the quality of bitumen emulsion. However, the drying behaviour of bitumen emulsions was seldom considered. The emulsion drying and [...] Read more.
The drying process of bitumen emulsion largely dominates the strength development of emulsion-based mixtures for pavement structure, thus it can be used to judge the quality of bitumen emulsion. However, the drying behaviour of bitumen emulsions was seldom considered. The emulsion drying and film formation theory are employed to study the drying process of different bitumen emulsions with a thin layer. Results indicated the drying process of bitumen emulsion can be divided into three stages: (a) an initial high evaporation rate stage; (b) an intermediate stage with a rapidly decreasing evaporation rate; (c) a final stage with a very small evaporation rate. The boundaries among the three stages can be identified by studying the water evaporation rate. Three drying parameters, i.e., the critical volume fractions of bitumen defining the boundaries among the three stages and the maximum packing fraction of bitumen droplets, are proposed to quantitatively characterize the drying behavior of bitumen emulsion. High values of these parameters indicate a bitumen emulsion that has rapid drying behavior. Therefore, these parameters are independent of the emulsifier type, but they are highly dependent on the bitumen’s droplet size. These drying parameters increase with a decrease in bitumen droplet size. Therefore, bitumen emulsion with a smaller size distribution of bitumen droplets can have a more rapid drying behavior, which is recommended in real engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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16 pages, 6229 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Water-Based Foaming Process on the Basic and Rheological Properties of Bitumen 70/100
by Marek Iwański, Anna Chomicz-Kowalska, Grzegorz Mazurek, Przemysław Buczyński, Małgorzata Cholewińska, Mateusz M. Iwański, Krzysztof Maciejewski and Piotr Ramiączek
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112803 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The process of water-based foaming of bitumen produces binders that can be incorporated in cold recycled asphalt mixes and pavement upper structural layers made of half-warm mix asphalt prepared at 100–130 °C. During the foaming process, cold water and air act on hot [...] Read more.
The process of water-based foaming of bitumen produces binders that can be incorporated in cold recycled asphalt mixes and pavement upper structural layers made of half-warm mix asphalt prepared at 100–130 °C. During the foaming process, cold water and air act on hot bitumen (160–170 °C), which results in the explosive vaporization of water leading to changes in the binder structure. The impact of foaming on the properties of bitumen 70/100 was evaluated by investigating the binder characteristics before and after foaming. Determination of two foaming parameters, maximum expansion and half-life, was followed by measurements of penetration at 25 °C, softening point, Fraass breaking point, and dynamic viscosity at 60, 90, and 135 °C. Rheological and low-temperature tests were also performed before and after foaming bitumen 70/100. The Bending Beam Rheometer method was applied to determine the low temperature stiffness modulus. A DHR-2 rheometer was used to determine the dynamic modulus and phase angle of the tested binder. The Black and master curves before and after foaming were plotted in the 2S2P1D model and the model parameters were analysed. Analysis of the test results confirmed the effects of the foaming process on the basic, low-temperature, and rheological characteristics of the bitumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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14 pages, 4728 KiB  
Article
Foaming Performance and FTIR Spectrometric Analysis of Foamed Bituminous Binders Intended for Surface Courses
by Krzysztof Maciejewski and Anna Chomicz-Kowalska
Materials 2021, 14(8), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14082055 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
This study explores the effects of foaming on three selected bituminous binders: 50/70 paving grade bitumen, 45/80-55 polymer modified bitumen and 45/80-80 HiMA binder. The first part of the investigations included the evaluation of the foaming performance in terms of foaming temperature and [...] Read more.
This study explores the effects of foaming on three selected bituminous binders: 50/70 paving grade bitumen, 45/80-55 polymer modified bitumen and 45/80-80 HiMA binder. The first part of the investigations included the evaluation of the foaming performance in terms of foaming temperature and foaming water content with the utilization of desirability functions and based on the equality of maximum expansion ratio and bitumen foam half-life. The second part of the study investigated the effects of foaming on the chemical structure of the binders using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results of the spectroscopic measurements permitted calculation of structural indices specific to functional groups associated with bitumen oxidation, as well as those indicative of elastomeric modification. The results have shown that the different types of bitumen exhibited different foaming characteristics, which was most evident in bitumen foam half-lives, with the HiMA binder performing the best. The spectrometric measurements did not show any significant effects of foaming on the chemical structure of the evaluated binders related to oxidative stress, neither were any major changes in the PmB-specific regions found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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31 pages, 12245 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of F–T Synthetic Wax and Surface-Active Agent Content on the Properties and Foaming Characteristics of Bitumen 50/70
by Mateusz M Iwański
Materials 2021, 14(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020300 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
The level of the properties of bituminous mixtures produced with water foamed bitumen relies on the optimum characteristics of the bitumen. One way to achieve the desired characteristics is to modify the bitumen with chemical additives before it is foamed. Bitumen 50/70 treated [...] Read more.
The level of the properties of bituminous mixtures produced with water foamed bitumen relies on the optimum characteristics of the bitumen. One way to achieve the desired characteristics is to modify the bitumen with chemical additives before it is foamed. Bitumen 50/70 treated with a surface-active agent (SAA) at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% and Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) synthetic wax at 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 3.0% was used in the tests. The effect of the modifiers was investigated by assessing bitumen properties (penetration, softening point, Fraass breaking point and dynamic viscosity at 60 °C, 90 °C and 135 °C) and foam parameters (maximum expansion—ER, half-life—HL). For statistical evaluation of the test results, models of the properties of bitumen 50/70 were developed as a function of the contents of F–T synthetic wax and SAA. It was found that 2.0% F–T wax and 0.6% SAA were optimum contents for achieving the desired standard properties and foam characteristics of the tested binder. The developed models allow determining the composition of the modified binder depending on the required foam characteristics for specific applications in road construction. The recommended composition of the chemical additives used to modify the binder was also established to ensure its optimum properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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17 pages, 4134 KiB  
Article
Effect of Addition of Rubber Granulate and Type of Modified Binder on the Viscoelastic Properties of Stone Mastic Asphalt Reducing Tire/Road Noise (SMA LA)
by Wladyslaw Gardziejczyk, Andrzej Plewa and Raman Pakholak
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163446 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
The use of rubber granulate in the composition of asphalt mixtures, as well as the use of poroelastic layers, is indicated by many research centers as a factor with a positive effect on tire/road noise reduction. Attention is however paid to their lower [...] Read more.
The use of rubber granulate in the composition of asphalt mixtures, as well as the use of poroelastic layers, is indicated by many research centers as a factor with a positive effect on tire/road noise reduction. Attention is however paid to their lower structural durability compared to asphalt concrete (AC) or stone mastic asphalt (SMA). Stone mastic asphalt reducing tire/road noise (SMA LA) layers have also been recently used as low-noise road surfaces. The article presents the test results of viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixtures SMA8 LA, SMA8 LA containing 10%, 20%, and 30% of rubber granulate, with bitumen 50/70, bitumen 50/70 modified with styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) copolymer, crumb rubber, and mixtures with bitumen modified simultaneously with crumb rubber and SBS copolymer. The reference asphalt mixture was the porous asphalt (PA8). The presented results of water damage resistance, degradation resistance in the Cantabro abrasion loss test, stiffness modulus as a function of temperature and hysteresis loop proved that the amount of rubber granulate and the type of binder significantly affect the values of these parameters. Attention was paid to the possibility of using the results of uniaxial cyclic compression tests when determining the proportion of rubber granulate in SMA8 LA mixtures. Tests of hysteresis loops and stiffness modulus confirm much higher elasticity of SMA8 LA mixtures with rubber granulate as compared to mixtures without the addition of granulate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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14 pages, 3208 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Stiffness of Bituminous Mixtures for the Wearing Course of the Road Pavement—A Proposed Method of Measurement
by Krzysztof Robert Czech and Wladyslaw Gardziejczyk
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081973 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
Stiffness is an important mechanical characteristic of asphalt mixtures used in the wearing course. It is one of the determining factors in the generation of tyre/road noise. The dynamic stiffness of the upper layer of the road surface depends on the physical and [...] Read more.
Stiffness is an important mechanical characteristic of asphalt mixtures used in the wearing course. It is one of the determining factors in the generation of tyre/road noise. The dynamic stiffness of the upper layer of the road surface depends on the physical and mechanical properties of the materials it is composed of, and traffic load. Determination of dynamic stiffness, both in laboratory conditions and in situ, requires consideration of many other factors. Tests of dynamic properties of road surfaces in field conditions are most often conducted with the help of modal hammers. Impulse excitation results are usually less accurate than those in the application of modal exciters. The test stand was constructed, comprising a tripod, 32-channel and 24-bit data acquisition system, exciter, signal amplifier, impedance head, single-axis piezoelectric accelerometers and a stinger. The test stand and the proposed method of measuring dynamic stiffness do not require the determination of the resonance frequency of the tested specimen and can be used both on various types of bituminous mixtures of varying shape and dimensions, as well as directly on the upper surface of the wearing course of bituminous pavements. The test results showed that the type of bituminous mixture used in the wearing course significantly affects its dynamic stiffness. The dynamic stiffness level of asphalt concrete, stone mastic asphalt and porous asphalt layers was determined to be similar. The addition of rubber granulates significantly reduced its rigidity, which is very beneficial from the point of view of reducing the tyre/road noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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Review

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16 pages, 8653 KiB  
Review
Determination of Suitable Imaging Techniques for the Investigation of the Bonding Zones of Asphalt Layers
by Moritz Middendorf, Cristin Umbach, Stefan Böhm and Bernhard Middendorf
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247556 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
The material behavior of asphalt depends on its composition of aggregate, bitumen, and air voids. Asphalt pavements consist of multiple layers, making the interaction of the materials at the layer boundary important so that any stresses that occur can be relieved. The material [...] Read more.
The material behavior of asphalt depends on its composition of aggregate, bitumen, and air voids. Asphalt pavements consist of multiple layers, making the interaction of the materials at the layer boundary important so that any stresses that occur can be relieved. The material behavior at the layer boundary is not yet understood in detail, as further methods of analysis are lacking in addition to mechanical methods. For this reason, the layer boundary of asphalt structures was analyzed using imaging methods. The aim of this research was to find an imaging method that allows a detailed analysis of the bonding zone of asphalt layers. Two different imaging techniques were used for this purpose. One is a 2-D imaging technique (asphalt petrology) and the other is a 3-D imaging technique (high-resolution computed tomography). Image analysis is a widely used technique in materials science that allows to analyze the material behavior and their composition. In this research, attention was paid to the analysis of the position of the bitumen emulsion, because the contained bitumen is supposed to bond the layers together. It was found that the application of 2-D imaging (asphalt petrology) lacked the precision for a detailed analysis of the individual materials at the layer boundary. With high-resolution computed tomography, a detailed view is possible to visualize the individual materials at the layer boundary in 3D. However, it is difficult to differentiate the materials because there are no gradations in the gray values due to the identical densities. However, it is possible to differentiate between the bitumen from the asphalt and from the emulsion if a high-density tracer is added to the bitumen emulsion for the CT studies. The results of the investigations are presented in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production, Application and Properties of Bitumen)
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