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Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 10284

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China
Interests: welded joints; fatigue strength; welds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, China
Interests: fusion welding; metal additive manufacturing; laser cladding; improvement of microstructures; corrosion performance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive manufacturing technology, as an emerging technology, is widely employed to build metallic and non-metallic materials, which is useful to enhance manufacturing development. Therefore, advances in additive manufacturing continue to be a hot topic, and it is necessary to carry out research on the characteristics of and innovations in additive manufacturing.

The scope of this Special Issue entitled Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation includes the following areas:

  1. Improved microstructure of the AM component in all processing steps with the final analysis of its microstructure and properties, including the powder/wire composition, deposition process, and so on.
  2. Mechanical properties of the AM component, including fatigue performance, wear performance and so on.

     ……

We encourage the submission of both research papers and review articles.

Prof. Dr. Xiaohui Zhao
Dr. Chao Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • microstructure
  • mechanical properties
  • fatigue
  • wear

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 5931 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Microstructure and Phase Composition of Amorphous–Nanocrystalline Fe-Based Composite Material Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion in Argon and Helium Atmosphere
by Danil Erutin, Anatoliy Popovich and Vadim Sufiiarov
Materials 2024, 17(10), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17102343 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is a prospective and promising technique of additive manufacturing of which there is a growing interest for the development and production of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses and amorphous–nanocrystalline composites. Many factors affect the quality and properties of the [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is a prospective and promising technique of additive manufacturing of which there is a growing interest for the development and production of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses and amorphous–nanocrystalline composites. Many factors affect the quality and properties of the resulting material, and these factors are being actively investigated by many researchers, however, the factor of the inert gas atmosphere used in the process remains virtually unexplored for Fe-based metallic glasses and composites at this time. Here, we present the results of producing amorphous–nanocrystalline composites from amorphous Fe-based powder via LPBF using argon and helium atmospheres. The analysis of the microstructures and phase compositions demonstrated that using helium as an inert gas in the LPBF resulted in a nearly three-fold increase in the amorphization degree of the material. Additionally, it had a beneficial impact on phase composition and structure in a heat-affected zone. The received results may help to develop approaches to control and improve the structural-phase state of amorphous–nanocrystalline compositional materials obtained via LPBF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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12 pages, 5814 KiB  
Article
Improvement in Microstructure and Properties of 304 Steel Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing by the Micro-Control Deposition Trajectory
by Huijing Zhang, Weihang Liu, Xiaohui Zhao, Xinlong Zhang and Chao Chen
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051170 - 2 Mar 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
In this study, the GMAW welding torch was controlled by a stepping motor to achieve a periodic swing. By controlling the swing speed, a micro-variable deposition path was obtained, which was called the micro-control deposition trajectory. The influence of the micro-control deposition trajectory [...] Read more.
In this study, the GMAW welding torch was controlled by a stepping motor to achieve a periodic swing. By controlling the swing speed, a micro-variable deposition path was obtained, which was called the micro-control deposition trajectory. The influence of the micro-control deposition trajectory on the arc characteristics, microstructure, and mechanical properties of 304 steel wire arc additive manufacturing was studied. The results showed that the micro-control deposition process was affected by the swing arc and the deposition trajectory and that the arc force was dispersed over the whole deposition layer, which effectively reduced the welding heat input. However, the arc centrifugal force increased with the increase in the swing speed, which easily caused instability of the arc and large spatter. Compared with common thin-walled deposition, the deposition width of micro-control thin-walled deposition components was increased. In addition, the swinging arc had a certain stirring effect on the molten pool, which was conducive to the escape of the molten pool gas and refinement of the microstructure. Below, the interface of the deposition layer, the microstructure of the common thin-walled deposition components, and the micro-control thin-walled deposition components were composed of lathy ferrite and austenite. Compared with the common deposition, when the swing speed increased to 800 °/s, the microstructure consisted of vermicular ferrite and austenite. The tensile strength and elongation of the micro-control thin-walled deposition components are higher than those of the common thin-walled deposition components. The tensile fracture mechanism of the common thin-walled deposition components and the micro-control thin-walled deposition components was the ductile fracture mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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16 pages, 7609 KiB  
Article
Pathways toward the Use of Non-Destructive Micromagnetic Analysis for Porosity Assessment and Process Parameter Optimization in Additive Manufacturing of 42CrMo4 (AISI 4140)
by Anna Engelhardt, Thomas Wegener and Thomas Niendorf
Materials 2024, 17(5), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17050971 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) is a widely applied additive manufacturing technique. Thus, PBF-LB/M represents a potential candidate for the processing of quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels such as 42CrMo4 (AISI 4140), as these steels are often considered as the material [...] Read more.
Laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M) is a widely applied additive manufacturing technique. Thus, PBF-LB/M represents a potential candidate for the processing of quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels such as 42CrMo4 (AISI 4140), as these steels are often considered as the material of choice for complex components, e.g., in the toolmaking industry. However, due to the presence of process-induced defects, achieving a high quality of the resulting parts remains challenging in PBF-LB/M. Therefore, an extensive quality inspection, e.g., using process monitoring systems or downstream by destructive or non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, is essential. Since conventionally used downstream methods, e.g., X-ray computed tomography, are time-consuming and cost-intensive, micromagnetic NDT measurements represent an alternative for ferromagnetic materials such as 42CrMo4. In this context, 42CrMo4 samples were manufactured by PBF-LB/M with different process parameters and analyzed using a widely established micromagnetic measurement system in order to investigate potential relations between micromagnetic properties and porosity. Using multiple regression modeling, relations between the PBF-LB/M process parameters and six selected micromagnetic variables and relations between the process parameters and the porosity were assessed. The results presented reveal first insights into the use of micromagnetic NDT measurements for porosity assessment and process parameter optimization in PBF-LB/M-processed components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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17 pages, 19318 KiB  
Article
Effect of Process Parameters on Microstructure and Properties of Laser Cladding Ni60+30%WC Coating on Q235 Steel
by Shanshan Wang, Wenqing Shi, Cai Cheng, Feilong Liang and Kaiyue Li
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227070 - 7 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
A Ni60+30%WC composite coating was prepared on the surface of Q235 steel by utilizing a high cooling rate, small thermal deformation of the substrate material, and the good metallurgical bonding characteristics of laser cladding technology. This paper focuses on the study of the [...] Read more.
A Ni60+30%WC composite coating was prepared on the surface of Q235 steel by utilizing a high cooling rate, small thermal deformation of the substrate material, and the good metallurgical bonding characteristics of laser cladding technology. This paper focuses on the study of the composite coatings prepared under different process parameters in order to select the optimal process parameters and provide theoretical guidance for future practical applications. The macroscopic morphology and microstructure of t he composite coatings were investigated with the help of an optical microscope (OM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The elemental distribution of the composite coatings was examined using an X-ray diffractometer. The microhardness and wear resistance of the composite coatings were tested using a microhardness tester, a friction tester, and a three-dimensional (3D) profilometer. The results of all the samples showed that the Ni60+30%WC composite coatings prepared at a laser power of 1600 W and a scanning speed of 10 mm/s were well formed, with a dense microstructure, and the microhardness is more than four times higher than the base material, the wear amount is less than 50% of the base material, and the wear resistance has been significantly improved. Therefore, the experimental results for the laser power of 1600 W and scanning speed of 10 mm/s are the optimal process parameters for the preparation of Ni60+30%WC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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14 pages, 10812 KiB  
Article
Frictional Wear and Thermal Fatigue Properties of Die Steel after Ultrasound-Assisted Alloying
by Chunhua Hu, Yihao Wei, Xinghao Ji and Yu Liu
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216975 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 711
Abstract
The surface layer of 8407 die steel was strengthened using the combination of ultrasonic surface rolling and high-energy ion implanting in the present work. The strengthened layer was then characterized via microstructure observation, composition analysis, and hardness test. After that, the frictional wear [...] Read more.
The surface layer of 8407 die steel was strengthened using the combination of ultrasonic surface rolling and high-energy ion implanting in the present work. The strengthened layer was then characterized via microstructure observation, composition analysis, and hardness test. After that, the frictional wear and thermal fatigue properties of high-energy ion implanting specimens and composite-reinforced specimens were compared. Results show that the pretreatment of specimens with ultrasonic surface rolling causes grain refinement in the material surface, which promotes the strengthening effect of high-energy ion implanting. The wear volume of composite-reinforced specimens at medium and high frequencies is reduced by about 20%, and the wear resistance of these specimens is significantly improved with a lower friction coefficient and wear volume at moderate and high frequencies in alternating load friction experiments. Meanwhile, the thermal fatigue crack depth of composite-reinforced specimens is reduced by about 47.5%, which effectively prevents the growth of thermal cracks in the surface, thus improving the curing ability of the implanted elements. Therefore, composite strengthening of the mold steel surface is conducive to improving the cycle life, ensuring accuracy, effectively hindering the expansion of thermal cracks, and saving the cost of production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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14 pages, 7555 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel/6082 Aluminum Alloy Heterogeneous Laser Welded Joint
by Lei Kang, Xin Li, Jing Chen, Yu Zhang and Ting Wang
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216958 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
The microstructures and mechanical properties of laser penetration welded joints of overlap steel-on-aluminum were investigated. The structure of the intermetallic compound layer without interlayer consists of FeAl and FeAl3 phases. After the Ni-foil was added, the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer [...] Read more.
The microstructures and mechanical properties of laser penetration welded joints of overlap steel-on-aluminum were investigated. The structure of the intermetallic compound layer without interlayer consists of FeAl and FeAl3 phases. After the Ni-foil was added, the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer and the content of the brittle and hard Al-Fe phase decreased significantly, and some new phases of Al0.9Ni1.1 and FeNi were formed. It was found that the Ni interlayer enhanced the tensile property of the joint by about 40% and decreased the microhardness of the intermetallic compounds, which is attributed to the improvement of the toughness of the welded joint made by the Ni interlayer. It is an effective way to improve the mechanical properties of the laser welding joint by adding a nickel interlayer to improve the metallurgical reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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10 pages, 7919 KiB  
Article
Effect of Process Parameters on the Formability, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Q355B Steel
by Liping Zhang, Genchen Peng, Jinze Chi, Jiang Bi, Xiaoming Yuan, Wen Li and Lijie Zhang
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124253 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Thick plate steel structure is widely used in the construction machinery, pressure vessels, ships, and other manufacturing fields. To obtain an acceptable welding quality and efficiency, thick plate steel is always joined by laser-arc hybrid welding technology. In this paper, Q355B steel with [...] Read more.
Thick plate steel structure is widely used in the construction machinery, pressure vessels, ships, and other manufacturing fields. To obtain an acceptable welding quality and efficiency, thick plate steel is always joined by laser-arc hybrid welding technology. In this paper, Q355B steel with a thickness of 20 mm was taken as the research object, and the process of narrow-groove laser-arc hybrid welding was studied. The results showed that the laser-arc hybrid welding method could realize one-backing and two-filling welding with the single-groove angles of 8–12°. At different plate gaps of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm, the shapes of weld seams were satisfied with no undercut, blowhole, or other defects. The average tensile strength of welded joints was 486~493 MPa, and the fracture position was in the base metal area. Due to the high cooling rate, a large amount of lath martensite formed in heat-affected zone (HAZ) and this zone exhibited higher hardness values. The impact roughness of the welded joint was almost 66–74 J, with different groove angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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Review

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45 pages, 17862 KiB  
Review
3D Printing Technologies for Fabrication of Magnetic Materials Based on Metal–Polymer Composites: A Review
by Alina Mazeeva, Dmitriy Masaylo, Nikolay Razumov, Gleb Konov and Anatoliy Popovich
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216928 - 28 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is a very rapidly developing industrial field. It opens many possibilities for the fast fabrication of complex-shaped products and devices, including functional materials and smart structures. This paper presents an overview of polymer 3D printing technologies currently used to produce magnetic [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is a very rapidly developing industrial field. It opens many possibilities for the fast fabrication of complex-shaped products and devices, including functional materials and smart structures. This paper presents an overview of polymer 3D printing technologies currently used to produce magnetic materials and devices based on them. Technologies such as filament-fused modeling (FDM), direct ink writing (DIW), stereolithography (SLA), and binder jetting (BJ) are discussed. Their technological features, such as the optimal concentration of the filler, the shape and size of the filler particles, printing modes, etc., are considered to obtain bulk products with a high degree of detail and with a high level of magnetic properties. The polymer 3D technologies are compared with conventional technologies for manufacturing polymer-bonded magnets and with metal 3D technologies. This paper shows prospective areas of application of 3D polymer technologies for fabricating the magnetic elements of complex shapes, such as shim elements with an optimized shape and topology; advanced transformer cores; sensors; and, in particular, the fabrication of soft robots with a fast response to magnetic stimuli and composites based on smart fillers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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41 pages, 20627 KiB  
Review
A Review of Computational Approaches to the Microstructure-Informed Mechanical Modelling of Metals Produced by Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing
by Olga Zinovieva, Varvara Romanova, Ekaterina Dymnich, Aleksandr Zinoviev and Ruslan Balokhonov
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196459 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
In the rapidly evolving field of additive manufacturing (AM), the predictability of part properties is still challenging due to the inherent multiphysics complexity of the technology. This results in time-consuming and costly experimental guess-and-check approaches for manufacturing each individual design. Through synthesising advancements [...] Read more.
In the rapidly evolving field of additive manufacturing (AM), the predictability of part properties is still challenging due to the inherent multiphysics complexity of the technology. This results in time-consuming and costly experimental guess-and-check approaches for manufacturing each individual design. Through synthesising advancements in the field, this review argues that numerical modelling is instrumental in mitigating these challenges by working in tandem with experimental studies. Unique hierarchical microstructures induced by extreme AM process conditions– including melt pool patterns, grains, cellular–dendritic substructures, and precipitates—affect the final part properties. Therefore, the development of microstructure-informed mechanical models becomes vital. Our review of numerical studies explores various modelling approaches that consider the microstructural features explicitly and offers insights into multiscale stress–strain analysis across diverse materials fabricated by powder bed fusion AM. The literature indicates a growing consensus on the key role of multiscale integrated process–structure–property–performance (PSPP) modelling in capturing the complexity of AM-produced materials. Current models, though increasingly sophisticated, still tend to relate only two elements of the PSPP chain while often focusing on a single scale. This emphasises the need for integrated PSPP approaches validated by a solid experimental base. The PSPP paradigm for AM, while promising as a concept, is still in its infantry, confronting multifaceted challenges that require in-depth, multidisciplinary expertise. These challenges range from accounting for multiphysics phenomena (e.g., advanced laser–material interaction) and their interplay (thermo-mechanical and microstructural evolution for simulating Type II residual stresses), accurately defined assumptions (e.g., flat molten surface during AM or purely epitaxial solidification), and correctly estimated boundary conditions for each element of the PSPP chain up to the need to balance the model’s complexity and detalisation in terms of both multiphysics and discretisation with efficient multitrack and multilayer simulations. Efforts in bridging these gaps would not only improve predictability but also expedite the development and certification of new AM materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing: Characteristics and Innovation)
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