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Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2022) | Viewed by 25543

Special Issue Editors

National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Măgurele, Romania
Interests: laser processing; nuclear physics and relativity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Magurele, Romania
Interests: pulsed laser deposition; modification and characterization of nanostructured thin coatings; matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE); laser surface studies and processing; biomaterials thin layers; tissue engineering; biomimetic metallic implants; optoelectronics and sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laser-Surface-Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125 Magurele, Romania
Interests: experimental optics; spectroscopy; lasers and plasma; surface studies and processing with lasers; laser interactions; lasers and plasma physics; nanostructured thin-film technology (PLD, MAPLE, and combinatorial); surface physics and engineering; biophysics and biomedicine; nano-biotechnologies; gas- and biosensors; plasma and laser theory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We propose a Special Issue on materials’ thermal behavior under laser and/or electron beam irradiation, with a special emphasis on applications, mathematical models, and the impact on social and engineering fields.

These combined topics have generated a huge output in different fields, such as industry, medicine, military defense, energetic sector, fundamental and applied research, which together represent our everyday life. The related studies and developments cover such different disciplines as theoretical, experimental, and computational physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics.

The emerging applications include wastewater and flue gas treatment, and plastics’ degradation, but the list is wide open.

The connection between laser and electron beam processing can be naturally done via physical models which describe both kinds of irradiation in a similar way (as, e.g., in the case of additive manufacturing or preparation of metallic and other nanoparticles).

Two centuries on since the discovery of the first heat equation by Fourier, the subject continues to be of vivid interest. New models describing laser–matter thermal phenomena have been developed, such as: i) micro/nanoscale heat transfer during ultrashort laser irradiation of materials, ii) ultrafast melting and re-solidification, iii) two temperature models with extensions, or iv) non-Fourier models with consideration of relaxation times, as well as, possibly, vaporization and plasma generation. 

Materials to be considered with this Special Issue extend from metals to ceramics and biomaterials, either from an experimental or analytical/numerical simulations approach. Relevant examples of laser versus e-beam irradiation such as polymers, biopolymers, elastomers, hydrogels, starch, food, and so on and similar ones are very much welcomed.

We therefore have the honor to invite anyone interested in contributing to this Special Issue. Original full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcomed.

Dr. Mihai Oane
Prof. Dr. Ion N. Mihailescu
Dr. Carmen Ristoscu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • materials thermal behavior
  • laser versus e-beam irradiation
  • experiment and applications
  • mathematical
  • computational physics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 2241 KiB  
Article
Correlations on the Structure and Properties of Collagen Hydrogels Produced by E-Beam Crosslinking
by Maria Demeter, Ion Călina, Anca Scărișoreanu, Marin Micutz and Mădălina Albu Kaya
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217663 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
In this study, a collagen hydrogel using collagen exclusively produced in Romania, was obtained by electron beam (e-beam) crosslinking. The purpose of our study is to obtain new experimental data on the crosslinking of collagen and to predict as faithfully as possible, its [...] Read more.
In this study, a collagen hydrogel using collagen exclusively produced in Romania, was obtained by electron beam (e-beam) crosslinking. The purpose of our study is to obtain new experimental data on the crosslinking of collagen and to predict as faithfully as possible, its behavior at high irradiation doses and energies. To pursue this, the correlations between macromolecular structure and properties of collagen hydrogels were determined by rheological analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The gel fraction, swelling degree, and network parameters of the collagen hydrogels were also investigated at different irradiation doses. Through experimental exploration, we concluded that irradiation with e-beam up to 25 kGy induces crosslinking processes in collagen structure without producing advanced degradation processes. E-beam technology is a great method to develop new materials for medical applications without adding other chemical reagents harmful to human health. The future aim is to develop new wound dressings for rapid healing based on collagen, through irradiation technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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13 pages, 13106 KiB  
Article
Laser Ablation on Isostatic Graphite—A New Way to Create Exfoliated Graphite
by Maria Isabel Sierra-Trillo, Ralf Thomann, Ingo Krossing, Ralf Hanselmann, Rolf Mülhaupt and Yi Thomann
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165474 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
In search of a new way to fabricate graphene-like materials, isostatic graphite targets were ablated using high peak power with a nanosecond-pulsed infrared laser. We conducted dry ablations in an argon atmosphere and liquid-phase ablations in the presence of a liquid medium (water [...] Read more.
In search of a new way to fabricate graphene-like materials, isostatic graphite targets were ablated using high peak power with a nanosecond-pulsed infrared laser. We conducted dry ablations in an argon atmosphere and liquid-phase ablations in the presence of a liquid medium (water or toluene). After the dry ablation, the SEM images of the target showed carbon in the form of a volcano-like grain structure, which seemed to be the result of liquid carbon ejected from the ablation center. No graphite exfoliation could be achieved using dry ablation. When using liquid phase ablation with water or toluene as a liquid medium, no traces of the formation of liquid carbon were found, but cleaner and deeper craters were observed. In particular, when using toluene as a liquid medium, typical graphite exfoliation was found. We believe that due to the extremely high pressure and high temperature induced by the laser pulses, toluene was able to intercalate into the graphite layers. Between the laser pulses, the intercalated toluene was able to flash evaporate and blow-up the graphite, which resulted in exfoliated graphite. Exfoliated graphite was found on the ablated graphite surface, as well as in the toluene medium. The ablation experiments with toluene undertaken in this study demonstrated an effective method of producing micrometer-sized graphene material. When using water as a liquid medium, no massive graphite exfoliation was observed. This meant that under the used laser conditions, toluene was a better intercalant for graphite exfoliation than water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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8 pages, 2284 KiB  
Article
One-Temperature Analytical Model for Femto-/Atto-Second Laser–Metals Drilling: A Novel Approach
by Cristian N. Mihailescu, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Natalia Mihailescu and Mihai Oane
Materials 2022, 15(14), 5010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145010 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Recently, ultrafast lasers have been developed and potentially become a point of interest worldwide, as their interaction with matter is yet unknown and can be mediated by new physical mechanisms. Real-time experimentation requires enormous costs, and there is therefore a need to develop [...] Read more.
Recently, ultrafast lasers have been developed and potentially become a point of interest worldwide, as their interaction with matter is yet unknown and can be mediated by new physical mechanisms. Real-time experimentation requires enormous costs, and there is therefore a need to develop computational models for this domain. By keeping in view this idea, a non-Fourier heat equation has solved the case of ultrafast laser–material interaction. Initial and boundary conditions were considered, and a one-dimensional mathematical model was presented. The simulations were compared with the experimental results for ultrashort laser–metallic sample interaction, and a close correlation was proven. It was found that the coupling of electron–phonon becomes “zero” due to short laser–material interaction time. The propagation of thermal waves was identified due to non-Fourier heat implementation. When the pulse duration increases, the variation in the thermal distribution becomes trivial due to an inverse correlation between the pulse duration and total energy within the pulse. When the laser–material interaction time decreases from fs to as, the generation of thermal waves increases and the powerful laser intensity acts as a shock wave during laser–material interaction, which causes a higher intensity of the thermal wave. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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16 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Water-Soluble Starch-Based Copolymers Synthesized by Electron Beam Irradiation: Physicochemical and Functional Characterization
by Monica R. Nemțanu, Mirela Brașoveanu, Elena Pincu and Viorica Meltzer
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031061 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Modification of natural polymers for applications in the treatment of waste and surface waters is a continuous concern of researchers and technologists in close relation to the advantages they provide as related to classical polymeric flocculants. In this work, copolymers of starch-graft-polyacrylamide (St- [...] Read more.
Modification of natural polymers for applications in the treatment of waste and surface waters is a continuous concern of researchers and technologists in close relation to the advantages they provide as related to classical polymeric flocculants. In this work, copolymers of starch-graft-polyacrylamide (St-g-PAM) were synthesized by electron beam irradiation used as the free radical initiator by applying different irradiation doses and dose rates. St-g-PAM loaded with ex situ prepared silver nanoparticles was also synthesized by using an accelerated electron beam. The graft copolymers were characterized by chemical analysis, rheology, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the level of grafting (monomer conversion coefficient and residual monomer concentration), intrinsic viscosity and thermal behavior (thermodynamic parameters) were influenced by the irradiation dose, dose rate and presence of silver nanoparticles. The flocculation performances of the synthesized copolymers were also tested on water from the meat industry in experiments at the laboratory level. In the coagulation–flocculation process, the copolymer aqueous solutions showed good efficiency to improve different water quality indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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12 pages, 5663 KiB  
Article
Irradiation of W and K-Doped W Laminates without or with Cu, V, Ti Interlayers under a Pulsed 6 MeV Electron Beam
by D. Ticoș, M. Galaţanu, A. Galaţanu, M. Dumitru, M. L. Mitu, N. Udrea, A. Scurtu and C. M. Ticoș
Materials 2022, 15(3), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030956 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Small multilayered laminated samples consisting of stacks of W (or K-doped W) foils without an interlayer or with interlayers from Cu, V, and Ti were exposed to a pulsed electron beam with an energy of 6 MeV in several irradiation sessions. All samples [...] Read more.
Small multilayered laminated samples consisting of stacks of W (or K-doped W) foils without an interlayer or with interlayers from Cu, V, and Ti were exposed to a pulsed electron beam with an energy of 6 MeV in several irradiation sessions. All samples maintained their macroscopic integrity, suggesting that the W-metal laminate concept is compatible with high heat flux applications. The surface of the samples was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after each irradiation session. The experimental results indicate that electron beam irradiation induces obvious modifications on the surface of the samples. Morphological changes such as the appearance of nanodroplets, nanostructures, and melting and cracking, depending on the sample type and the electron beam fluence, are observed. The irradiation is carried out in a vacuum at a pressure of 2 to 4 × 10−2 torr, without active cooling for the samples. The structures observed on the surface of the samples are likely due to electron beam heating and vaporization followed by vapor condensation in the volume adjacent to the surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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18 pages, 2926 KiB  
Article
Water Absorption Kinetics in Composites Degraded by the Radiation Technique
by Elena Manaila, Gabriela Craciun, Daniel Ighigeanu and Maria Daniela Stelescu
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4659; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164659 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Rubber-based wastes represent challenges facing the global community. Human health protection and preservation of environmental quality are strong reasons to find more efficient methods to induce degradation of latex/rubber products in order to replace devulcanization, incineration, or simply storage, and electron beam irradiation [...] Read more.
Rubber-based wastes represent challenges facing the global community. Human health protection and preservation of environmental quality are strong reasons to find more efficient methods to induce degradation of latex/rubber products in order to replace devulcanization, incineration, or simply storage, and electron beam irradiation is a promising method that can be can be taken into account. Polymeric composites based on natural rubber and plasticized starch in amounts of 10 to 50 phr, obtained by benzoyl peroxide cross-linking, were subjected to 5.5 MeV electron beam irradiation in order to induce degradation, in the dose range of 150 to 450 kGy. A qualitative study was conducted on the kinetics of water absorption in these composites in order to appreciate their degradation degree. The percentages of equilibrium sorption and mass loss after equilibrium sorption were found to be dependent on irradiation dose and amount of plasticized starch. The mechanism of water transport in composites was studied not only through the specific absorption and diffusion parameters but also by the evaluation of the diffusion, intrinsic diffusion, permeation, and absorption coefficients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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11 pages, 4488 KiB  
Article
Thermal Nonlinear Klein–Gordon Equation for Nano-/Micro-Sized Metallic Particle–Attosecond Laser Pulse Interaction
by Mihai Oane, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Andrei C. Popescu, Alexandra Bănică, Carmen Ristoscu and Ion N. Mihăilescu
Materials 2021, 14(4), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14040857 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
In this study, a rigorous analytical solution to the thermal nonlinear Klein–Gordon equation in the Kozłowski version is provided. The Klein–Gordon heat equation is solved via the Zhukovsky “state-of-the-art” mathematical techniques. Our study can be regarded as an initial approximation of attosecond laser–particle [...] Read more.
In this study, a rigorous analytical solution to the thermal nonlinear Klein–Gordon equation in the Kozłowski version is provided. The Klein–Gordon heat equation is solved via the Zhukovsky “state-of-the-art” mathematical techniques. Our study can be regarded as an initial approximation of attosecond laser–particle interaction when the prevalent phenomenon is photon–electron interaction. The electrons interact with the laser beam, which means that the nucleus does not play a significant role in temperature distribution. The particle is supposed to be homogenous with respect to thermophysical properties. This theoretical approach could prove useful for the study of metallic nano-/micro-particles interacting with attosecond laser pulses. Specific applications for Au “nano” particles with a 50 nm radius and “micro” particles with 110, 130, 150, and 1000 nm radii under 100 attosecond laser pulse irradiation are considered. First, the cross-section is supposed to be proportional to the area of the particle, which is assumed to be a perfect sphere of radius R or a rotation ellipsoid. Second, the absorption coefficient is calculated using a semiclassical approach, taking into account the number of atoms per unit volume, the classical electron radius, the laser wavelength, and the atomic scattering factor (10 in case of Au), which cover all the basic aspects for the interaction between the attosecond laser and a nanoparticle. The model is applicable within the 100–2000 nm range. The main conclusion of the model is that for a range inferior to 1000 nm, a competition between ballistic and thermal phenomena occurs. For values in excess of 1000 nm, our study suggests that the thermal phenomena are dominant. Contrastingly, during the irradiation with fs pulses, this value is of the order of 100 nm. This theoretical model’s predictions could be soon confirmed with the new EU-ELI facilities in progress, which will generate pulses of 100 as at a 30 nm wavelength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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Review

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33 pages, 4171 KiB  
Review
A State-of-the-Art Review on Integral Transform Technique in Laser–Material Interaction: Fourier and Non-Fourier Heat Equations
by Mihai Oane, Muhammad Arif Mahmood and Andrei C. Popescu
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164733 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2791
Abstract
Heat equations can estimate the thermal distribution and phase transformation in real-time based on the operating conditions and material properties. Such wonderful features have enabled heat equations in various fields, including laser and electron beam processing. The integral transform technique (ITT) is a [...] Read more.
Heat equations can estimate the thermal distribution and phase transformation in real-time based on the operating conditions and material properties. Such wonderful features have enabled heat equations in various fields, including laser and electron beam processing. The integral transform technique (ITT) is a powerful general-purpose semi-analytical/numerical method that transforms partial differential equations into a coupled system of ordinary differential equations. Under this category, Fourier and non-Fourier heat equations can be implemented on both equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermo-dynamical processes, including a wide range of processes such as the Two-Temperature Model, ultra-fast laser irradiation, and biological processes. This review article focuses on heat equation models, including Fourier and non-Fourier heat equations. A comparison between Fourier and non-Fourier heat equations and their generalized solutions have been discussed. Various components of heat equations and their implementation in multiple processes have been illustrated. Besides, literature has been collected based on ITT implementation in various materials. Furthermore, a future outlook has been provided for Fourier and non-Fourier heat equations. It was found that the Fourier heat equation is simple to use but involves infinite speed heat propagation in comparison to the non-Fourier heat equation and can be linked with the Two-Temperature Model in a natural way. On the other hand, the non-Fourier heat equation is complex and involves various unknowns compared to the Fourier heat equation. Fourier and Non-Fourier heat equations have proved their reliability in the case of laser–metallic materials, electron beam–biological and –inorganic materials, laser–semiconducting materials, and laser–graphene material interactions. It has been identified that the material properties, electron–phonon relaxation time, and Eigen Values play an essential role in defining the precise results of Fourier and non-Fourier heat equations. In the case of laser–graphene interaction, a restriction has been identified from ITT. When computations are carried out for attosecond pulse durations, the laser wavelength approaches the nucleus-first electron separation distance, resulting in meaningless results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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27 pages, 5819 KiB  
Review
Artificial Neural Network Algorithms for 3D Printing
by Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Anita Ioana Visan, Carmen Ristoscu and Ion N. Mihailescu
Materials 2021, 14(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010163 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 8248
Abstract
Additive manufacturing with an emphasis on 3D printing has recently become popular due to its exceptional advantages over conventional manufacturing processes. However, 3D printing process parameters are challenging to optimize, as they influence the properties and usage time of printed parts. Therefore, it [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing with an emphasis on 3D printing has recently become popular due to its exceptional advantages over conventional manufacturing processes. However, 3D printing process parameters are challenging to optimize, as they influence the properties and usage time of printed parts. Therefore, it is a complex task to develop a correlation between process parameters and printed parts’ properties via traditional optimization methods. A machine-learning technique was recently validated to carry out intricate pattern identification and develop a deterministic relationship, eliminating the need to develop and solve physical models. In machine learning, artificial neural network (ANN) is the most widely utilized model, owing to its capability to solve large datasets and strong computational supremacy. This study compiles the advancement of ANN in several aspects of 3D printing. Challenges while applying ANN in 3D printing and their potential solutions are indicated. Finally, upcoming trends for the application of ANN in 3D printing are projected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Thermal Behavior during Laser or Electron Beam Irradiation)
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