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Precision and Ultra-Precision Subtractive and Additive Manufacturing Processes of Alloys and Steels, 2nd Edition

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 10972

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Interests: additive manufacturing; precision machining; surface integrity
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of precision and ultra-precision manufacturing processes results from a growing demand for reduced mass and dimensions of manufactured products of the highest surface quality and dimensional accuracy, while reducing production costs. Today, the main application area of these techniques involves the production of elements made of titanium alloys and stainless steels, intended for the biomedical industry, such as bone and joint implants and parts for the neurovascular system. These technologies are also used in the production of microelectrodes, as well as microforms from hardened alloy steels and elements of bio-microelectromechanical systems (bio-MEMS). The extreme requirement towards a surface quality constitutes the fundamental objective of precision and ultra-precision manufacturing processes. Therefore, the recognition of a specific physical phenomenon occurring during these techniques, as well as the selection of input parameters enabling simultaneous improvement of a machined surface quality, together with a process stability and tool life, are of high scientific importance.

This Special Issue provides an excellent opportunity for researchers who are studying and working in the area of precision and ultraprecision manufacturing techniques.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit original research papers, short communications or state-of-the-art reviews which are within the scope of this Special Issue. Contributions can range from novel approaches in precision and ultraprecision manufacturing, the analysis and modeling of process mechanics, and measurements of physical phenomena during manufacturing processes to evaluation of surface integrity.

Prof. Dr. Stanislaw Legutko
Prof. Dr. Szymon Wojciechowski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • precision and ultraprecision manufacturing
  • machining
  • additive manufacturing
  • mechanics
  • surface integrity

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

27 pages, 9299 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approaches to 3D Printing of PA12 Forearm Orthoses: A Comprehensive Analysis of Mechanical Properties and Production Efficiency
by Andrzej Zakręcki, Jacek Cieślik, Anna Bazan and Paweł Turek
Materials 2024, 17(3), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030663 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 906
Abstract
This research paper aims to explore the mechanical characteristics of polyamide PA12 (PA12) as a 3D material printed utilizing Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and HP MultiJet Fusion (HP MJF) technologies in order to design and manufacture forearm orthoses. The study assessed the flowability [...] Read more.
This research paper aims to explore the mechanical characteristics of polyamide PA12 (PA12) as a 3D material printed utilizing Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and HP MultiJet Fusion (HP MJF) technologies in order to design and manufacture forearm orthoses. The study assessed the flowability of the materials used and compared the mechanical performance of PA12 with each other using tensile, flexure, and impact tests in five different fabrication orientations: X, Y, Z, tilted 45° XZ, and tilted 45° YZ. The results of the study provide, firstly—the data for testing the quality of the applied polyamide powder blend and, secondly—the data for the design of the orthosis geometry from the aspect of its strength parameters and the safety of construction. The mechanical parameters of SLS specimens had less variation than MJF specimens in a given orientation. The difference in tensile strength between the 3D printing technologies tested was 1.8%, and flexural strength was 4.7%. A process analysis of the forearm orthoses revealed that the HP MJF 5200 system had a higher weekly production capacity than the EOS P396 in a production variance based on obtaining maximum strength parameters and a variance based on maximizing economic efficiency. The results suggest that medical device manufacturers can use additive manufacturing technologies to produce prototypes and small-batch parts for medical applications. This paper pioneers using 3D printing technology with Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) methods in designing and manufacturing forearm orthoses as a low- to medium-volume product. The applied solution addresses the problem of medical device manufacturers with regard to the analysis of production costs and mechanical properties when using 3D printing for certified medical devices. Full article
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13 pages, 6490 KiB  
Article
Microhardness and Microstructure Analysis of the LPBF Additively Manufactured 18Ni300
by Pablo M. Cerezo, Jose A. Aguilera, Antonio Garcia-Gonzalez and Pablo Lopez-Crespo
Materials 2024, 17(3), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030661 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
This research focuses on analysing the 18Ni300 maraging steel produced through laser powder bed fusion. Specifically, it aims to examine the phase components using X-ray diffraction, the microstructure through scanning electron microscopy, and the hardness of the different structures present in the manufactured [...] Read more.
This research focuses on analysing the 18Ni300 maraging steel produced through laser powder bed fusion. Specifically, it aims to examine the phase components using X-ray diffraction, the microstructure through scanning electron microscopy, and the hardness of the different structures present in the manufactured material. The primary goal is to meticulously analyse the material and its microstructures. By doing so, a correlation between the hardness and each structure type, be it cellular or columnar, can be established. This will allow us to pinpoint any defects in the material before any surface chemical treatment is carried out and facilitate a thorough examination of its microstructure. A consistent pattern emerges across the samples through systematic measurement of microhardness distribution in various locations and detailed examination of the structure. The findings of the study reveal that the hardness of cellular and columnar structures exhibits a significant variation based on the location of the measurement about cell boundaries. The hardness value is notably higher in the combination of cellular and multiple layers, as the data indicate. Full article
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29 pages, 18262 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Surface Topography and Deformation of Vertical Thin-Wall Milled Samples from the Nickel Alloy Inconel 625
by Szymon Kurpiel, Krzysztof Zagórski, Jacek Cieślik, Krzysztof Skrzypkowski and Amandyk Tuleshov
Materials 2024, 17(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020295 - 07 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
During the production of components, manufacturers of structures are obliged to meet certain requirements and ensure appropriate quality characteristics. It is especially important during the manufacturing of thin-walled structures, which are subject to many errors during machining due to the reduced rigidity of [...] Read more.
During the production of components, manufacturers of structures are obliged to meet certain requirements and ensure appropriate quality characteristics. It is especially important during the manufacturing of thin-walled structures, which are subject to many errors during machining due to the reduced rigidity of the products, including the deformation of thin walls, which may be the result of the vibration of the system. The appearance of vibrations reduces the quality of the machined surface affecting the increase in the values of surface topography parameters—waviness and roughness. Thin-wall structures—titanium or nickel alloy, among others—play a key role in the aerospace industry, which constantly strives to reduce the weight of the entire structure while meeting requirements. The present work focuses on the evaluation of the parameters of surface topography, dimensional and shape accuracy during the milling of nickel alloy Inconel 625 samples containing a thin wall in a vertical orientation. The experiment was conducted under controlled cutting conditions using a constant material removal rate. As part of the surface topography section, the distribution of waviness, Wa and Wz, and roughness, Ra and Rz, was determined in selected measurement areas in the direction parallel to the direction of the feed motion. Dimensional deviations, measured with a 3D optical scanner, were determined in selected cross sections in the direction perpendicular and parallel to the bottom of the sample presenting the deflection of the thin-walled structure. The results provide information that the used parameter sets affect the measured quantities to varying degrees. Full article
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17 pages, 14251 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Depth and Width of Cuts after Controlled-Depth Abrasive Water Jet Machining Using Low Pressure
by Frantisek Botko, Dominika Botkova, Matus Gelatko, Radoslav Vandzura and Dagmar Klichova
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247532 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The presented paper is focused on the evaluation of material removal during machining via an abrasive water jet with a controlled depth of cut. In the introductory parts of the work, a theoretical analysis of water jet technology and an analysis of the [...] Read more.
The presented paper is focused on the evaluation of material removal during machining via an abrasive water jet with a controlled depth of cut. In the introductory parts of the work, a theoretical analysis of water jet technology and an analysis of the current state of the problem are presented. The experimental part of the work is devoted to testing the effects of technological parameters on material removal from the point of view of the maximum erosion depth and volume loss of material during machining with a low water pressure of 50 MPa. The tested material was a Ti 6Al 4V titanium alloy. The experiments were carried out by changing the traverse speed of the cutting head, the mass flow of the abrasive and the angle of inclination of the cutting head, according to the DoE 33 experiment plan. The obtained values were evaluated using the method of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Furthermore, the values of the width of the erosion track and the maximum and minimum erosion effects for both tested materials were evaluated. Full article
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15 pages, 6501 KiB  
Article
Spark Plasma Sintering of Fine-Grained WC-Co Composites
by Joanna Wachowicz, Tomasz Dembiczak, Joanna Fik, Zbigniew Bałaga, Robert Kruzel, Nataša Náprstková and Sylvia Kuśmierczak
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247526 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Cemented carbides WC-Co are one of the basic tool materials. They constitute over half of the currently used tools intended for machining. The main advantages of WC-Co cemented carbides are high hardness and abrasion resistance. The properties of WC-Co sinters depend mainly on [...] Read more.
Cemented carbides WC-Co are one of the basic tool materials. They constitute over half of the currently used tools intended for machining. The main advantages of WC-Co cemented carbides are high hardness and abrasion resistance. The properties of WC-Co sinters depend mainly on the content of the binding phase, the sintering method and the grain size of the powder from which the sinters were made. The aim of this study was to produce fine-grained WC-Co composites using SPS (spark plasma sintering) technology, as well as examine the effect of the applied technology on the basic properties of WC-Co sinters: microstructure, hardness, phase composition, compaction degree and tribological properties. In the processes carried out, no additives affecting the reduction in grain growth were used. Sintering was conducted at a temperature of 1200 °C with a holding time of 10 min. The process occurred under a load of 100 MPa. Finally, the samples were cooled in a vacuum of 10−6 mbar. We measured the hardness using a Vickers hardness tester. We took hardness measurements along the diameter of the sintered samples. In order to ascertain the fracture toughness (KIC), we measured the radial crack length around the Vickers indentation and applied Shetty’s formula. The tribological tests were carried out with a tribotester using the T-01 ball-on-disc method. The obtained data enabled the characterization of the wear process of the tested materials. Full article
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25 pages, 24252 KiB  
Article
Dimensional Deviations of Horizontal Thin Wall of Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V Determined by Optical and Contact Methods
by Szymon Kurpiel, Krzysztof Zagórski, Jacek Cieślik, Krzysztof Skrzypkowski, Sarken Kapayeva and Maral Torekhanova
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237272 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Thin-walled structures are used in many industries. The need to use such elements is dictated by the desire to reduce the weight of the finished product, as well as to reduce its cost. The most common method of machining such elements is the [...] Read more.
Thin-walled structures are used in many industries. The need to use such elements is dictated by the desire to reduce the weight of the finished product, as well as to reduce its cost. The most common method of machining such elements is the use of milling, which makes it possible to make a product of almost any shape. However, several undesirable phenomena occur during the milling of thin-walled structures. The main phenomenon is a deformation of the thin wall resulting from its reduced stiffness. Therefore, it is necessary to control the dimensional and shape accuracy of finished products, which is carried out using various measuring instruments. The development of newer measuring methods such as optical methods is being observed. One of the newer measuring machines is the 3D optical scanner. In the present experiment, thin-walled samples in horizontal orientation of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy were machined under controlled cutting conditions. During machining, the cutting speed and feed rate were assumed constant, while the input factors were the tool and cutting strategy. This paper presents graphs of deviations in the determined cross-section planes of thin-walled structures using a 3D optical scanner and a coordinate measuring machine. A correlation was made between the results obtained from the measurement by the optical method and those determined by the contact method. A maximum discrepancy of about 8% was observed between the methods used. Full article
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18 pages, 12030 KiB  
Article
Surface Topography Description after Turning Inconel 718 with a Conventional, Wiper and Special Insert Made by the SPS Technique
by Piotr Szablewski, Stanisław Legutko, Adrian Mróz, Dariusz Garbiec, Rafał Czajka, Krzysztof Smak and Bartłomiej Krawczyk
Materials 2023, 16(3), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16030949 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of surface morphology obtained after machining Inconel 718 by the conventional insert, by Wiper insert and by using the cutting insert made by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The shape of the special insert was obtained by employing Wire [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison of surface morphology obtained after machining Inconel 718 by the conventional insert, by Wiper insert and by using the cutting insert made by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The shape of the special insert was obtained by employing Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM). The paper focuses on the description of surface topography after turning in dry and wet conditions. The performed investigation included longitudinal turning tests of Inconel 718 performed in a range of variable feeds. Surface topography measurements have been performed with the application of Nanoscan 855. The performed analysis includes a parametric evaluation of the obtained surfaces. With the Wiper insert, the Sa surface roughness parameter was obtained below 0.6 µm in the whole range of used feed rates. The surface roughness parameter Sa measured on the surface after machining by special insert depends on the cutting conditions (wet and dry machining). After, the dry machining parameter Sa, similar to the Wiper insert, was below 0.6 µm in the whole range of used feed rates. Unfortunately, cutting Inconel 718 using special insert with feed rate f = 0.25 mm/rev and cooling generated a surface with Sa parameter over 2 times higher than for the same feed rate without cooling, while this parameter, after turning by conventional insert, increases over 4 times using feed rate f = 0.25 mm/rev compared to feed rate f = 0.05 mm/rev during machining with cooling. This ratio is lower for conventional insert in dry machining because of sticking, which arises at the smallest feed rate according to previous research. Full article
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18 pages, 13152 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Influence of Anti-Wear Coatings on the Surface Quality and Dimensional Accuracy during Finish Turning of the Inconel 718 Alloy
by Krzysztof Smak, Piotr Szablewski, Stanisław Legutko, Bartłomiej Krawczyk and Edward Miko
Materials 2023, 16(2), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020715 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1116
Abstract
This piece of work deals with the influence assessment of the kind of coating of the cutting inserts and their wear on the dimensional accuracy and the top layer microstructure and roughness of the surface machined with constant cutting parameters vc = [...] Read more.
This piece of work deals with the influence assessment of the kind of coating of the cutting inserts and their wear on the dimensional accuracy and the top layer microstructure and roughness of the surface machined with constant cutting parameters vc = 85 m/min, f = 0.14 mm/obr and ap = 0.2 mm. The tests were performed on shafts made of Inconel 718 material under the conditions of finish turning, requiring a tool life of more than 20 min. The cutting inserts of identical geometry made of fine-grained carbide covered with coatings were applied by the PVD and CVD method. The values of the obtained diameter dimensions were assessed in reference to the assumed ones, as well as the values of the surface roughness and stereometry and the microstructure of the top layer. The nature and mechanisms of edge wear and its value expressed by the VBC parameter were also assessed. It was determined in the tests that the machined surface quality defined by the Ra and Sa roughness parameters and the dimensional accuracy were influenced not only by the coating microhardness but also by the method of applying the given coating. The lowest values of the tested roughness parameters were observed for the surface machined with an edge, with the S205 coating applied by the CVD method, which was characterized by the lowest microhardness. The edge with this coating also showed the lowest wear, defined by the VBC parameter, which translated into dimensional accuracy. Furthermore, the edge with the S205 coating also provided the best results with regard to the surface layer microstructure. The least favorable results, both in terms of dimensional accuracy and surface roughness, were obtained for the surface machined with a 1115-PVD-coated edge. The highest wear value was also recorded for this edge. Full article
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13 pages, 4109 KiB  
Article
Surface Topography Description of Threads Made with Turning on Inconel 718 Shafts
by Bartłomiej Krawczyk, Piotr Szablewski, Michał Mendak, Bartosz Gapiński, Krzysztof Smak, Stanisław Legutko, Michał Wieczorowski and Edward Miko
Materials 2023, 16(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010080 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
The technology of producing threads, especially in materials that are difficult to cut, is a rare subject of research and scientific publications. The requirements for the production of these elements apply not only to the geometry, but also to the quality of the [...] Read more.
The technology of producing threads, especially in materials that are difficult to cut, is a rare subject of research and scientific publications. The requirements for the production of these elements apply not only to the geometry, but also to the quality of the surface obtained. This is particularly important in the aviation industry, where the durability of the threaded connection affects passenger safety. Due to the design of the thread, the quality of its surface is assessed visually in industrial practice. The authors of this study decided to examine the surface topography of external threads made by turning on Inconel 718 shafts in order to confirm the visual evaluation, as well as to investigate the influence of such factors as cutting speed, turning direction and type of profile. Three types of contours were cut for the research: triangular, trapezoidal symmetrical and trapezoidal asymmetrical. Turning of each was carried out twice at cutting speeds vc = 17 m/min and vc = 30 m/min. On each of the threads, the side surface of the profile made in the direction of the insert feed and the opposite surface were examined. The surface texture parameters Sa, Sq, Sp, Sv, Sz, Ssk and Sku were determined and compared. It was noticed that the thread surfaces show a tendency to irregular roughness, which was confirmed by the analysis of the Sku and Ssk coefficients. The sides of the contours made in the direction of the insert feed are characterized by a higher roughness in relation to the opposite sides, which may result from high cutting forces and difficulties with chip evacuation. With the cutting speed being considered, lower values of Sa and Sq were obtained for vc = 17 m/min, which differed from the visual assessment, proving its high subjectivity. Full article
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24 pages, 7716 KiB  
Article
Influence of Machining Parameters on Cutting and Chip-Formation Process during Cortical Bone Orthogonal Machining
by Paweł Zawadzki, Rafał Talar, Adam Patalas and Stanisław Legutko
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186414 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Cortical bone machining is commonly used in craniofacial surgery. The shaping of bone surfaces requires a precise determination of the process’s complexity due to the cutting tool’s defined or undefined geometry. Therefore, research was carried out to assess the impact of the rake [...] Read more.
Cortical bone machining is commonly used in craniofacial surgery. The shaping of bone surfaces requires a precise determination of the process’s complexity due to the cutting tool’s defined or undefined geometry. Therefore, research was carried out to assess the impact of the rake angle (γ), clearance angle and depth of cut (d) on the cortical bone machining process. Analysis was carried out based on the orthogonal cutting in three directions. The cutting tool shape was simplified, and the cutting forces and the chip-formation process were monitored. The highest values of the resultant cutting force and shear force were recorded for γ < 0. The specific cutting force decreases with the increase of d. Cutting in the transverse direction is characterized by the highest values of resultant cutting force and shear force. The coefficient of friction depends primarily on the d and takes a constant value or increases with the increase of γ. The tests showed that the chips are formed in the entire range of d ≥ 0.5 µm and create regular shapes for d ≥ 10 µm. The research novelty confirms that even negative cutting angles guarantee controlled cutting and can find wider application in surgical procedures. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 3764 KiB  
Review
Powder Bed Fusion 3D Printing in Precision Manufacturing for Biomedical Applications: A Comprehensive Review
by Rajan John Nekin Joshua, Sakthivel Aravind Raj, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Andrzej Łukaszewicz, Jerzy Józwik, Zbigniew Oksiuta, Krzysztof Dziedzic, Arkadiusz Tofil and Farah Syazwani Shahar
Materials 2024, 17(3), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030769 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Precision manufacturing requirements are the key to ensuring the quality and reliability of biomedical implants. The powder bed fusion (PBF) technique offers a promising solution, enabling the creation of complex, patient-specific implants with a high degree of precision. This technology is revolutionizing the [...] Read more.
Precision manufacturing requirements are the key to ensuring the quality and reliability of biomedical implants. The powder bed fusion (PBF) technique offers a promising solution, enabling the creation of complex, patient-specific implants with a high degree of precision. This technology is revolutionizing the biomedical industry, paving the way for a new era of personalized medicine. This review explores and details powder bed fusion 3D printing and its application in the biomedical field. It begins with an introduction to the powder bed fusion 3D-printing technology and its various classifications. Later, it analyzes the numerous fields in which powder bed fusion 3D printing has been successfully deployed where precision components are required, including the fabrication of personalized implants and scaffolds for tissue engineering. This review also discusses the potential advantages and limitations for using the powder bed fusion 3D-printing technology in terms of precision, customization, and cost effectiveness. In addition, it highlights the current challenges and prospects of the powder bed fusion 3D-printing technology. This work offers valuable insights for researchers engaged in the field, aiming to contribute to the advancement of the powder bed fusion 3D-printing technology in the context of precision manufacturing for biomedical applications. Full article
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