materials-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2024) | Viewed by 20164

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bioengineering Institute of Technology, Medicine and Health Sciences Faculty, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, C/ Josep Trueta, s/n, 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: biomaterials; titanium and its alloys; shape memory alloys; dental materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since it launched in 2008, Materials has provided readers with high-quality content edited by active researchers in materials science for 15 years through a model of sustainable open access and outstanding editorial service. Today, the published papers receive more than 1,500,000 views per month, with readers from more than 150 countries and regions.

On the occasion of the fifteenth anniversary of Materials, the Biomaterials section presents a new Special Issue dedicated to new biomaterials, new biomedical applications of materials used in the human body, and new shaping and characterization techniques. The Biomaterials section is proud to contribute to this anniversary, and, remembering the path taken by Materials, we now look to the future.

Topics of interest for this Special Issue include new metal alloys with improved properties for specific applications such as low-modulus titanium alloys, new superelastic and shape-memory materials, biodegradable metals; new ceramics with osteoinductive and bactericidal properties, zirconia-based ceramics with improved toughness, ceramic materials with improved aesthetic properties for the dental sector; new biofunctionalized and degradable bacteriostatic polymers with improved mechanical properties; composite materials with nanomaterial reinforcement particles which are biodegradable, with optimized orientation of the reinforcement fibers; new material forming methods, improved laser technologies, protrusion systems, directional solidification, 3D printing and bioprinters. Also new detection and analysis techniques to determine the properties of biomaterials - advances in XPS, nanoCT, high-resolution electron microscopy, and complex microscopy systems with the possibility of mechanical testing with nanometer resolution are also of interest.

On this anniversary, our contribution as the Biomaterials section is to look to the future and make our section in Materials an instrument of progress and new knowledge for our readers in order to support the transfer of knowledge and put it at the service of society for the improved quality of life of patients.

Prof. Dr. Javier Gil
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • new metals and alloys
  • ceramics
  • polymers and composites
  • new fabrication techniques
  • new characterization techniques in biomaterials

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

14 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
A Bioactive Degradable Composite Bone Cement Based on Calcium Sulfate and Magnesium Polyphosphate
by Suping Peng, Xinyue Yang, Wangcai Zou, Xiaolu Chen, Hao Deng, Qiyi Zhang and Yonggang Yan
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081861 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Calcium sulfate bone cement (CSC) is extensively used as a bone repair material due to its ability to self-solidify, degradability, and osteogenic ability. However, the fast degradation, low mechanical strength, and insufficient biological activity limit its application. This study used magnesium polyphosphate (MPP) [...] Read more.
Calcium sulfate bone cement (CSC) is extensively used as a bone repair material due to its ability to self-solidify, degradability, and osteogenic ability. However, the fast degradation, low mechanical strength, and insufficient biological activity limit its application. This study used magnesium polyphosphate (MPP) and constructed a composite bone cement composed of calcium sulfate (CS), MPP, tricalcium silicate (C3S), and plasticizer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The optimized CS/MPP/C3S composite bone cement has a suitable setting time of approximately 15.0 min, a compressive strength of 26.6 MPa, and an injectability of about 93%. The CS/MPP/C3S composite bone cement has excellent biocompatibility and osteogenic capabilities; our results showed that cell proliferation is up to 114% compared with the control after 5 days. After 14 days, the expression levels of osteogenic-related genes, including Runx2, BMP2, OCN, OPN, and COL-1, are about 1.8, 2.8, 2.5, 2.2, and 2.2 times higher than those of the control, respectively, while the alkaline phosphatase activity is about 1.7 times higher. Therefore, the CS/MPP/C3S composite bone cement overcomes the limitations of CSC and has more effective potential in bone repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Effects of Superfine Tricalcium Silicate Powder on the Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Its Premixed Cement as a Root Canal Filling Material
by Xin Duan, Yanni Tan, Dechang Zhang and Hong Wu
Materials 2024, 17(2), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020347 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Calcium silicate-based cement is a promising material for filling root canals. However, it has several drawbacks to its clinical application, including difficult operation and low curing strength. In this study, we successfully prepared an ultrafine tricalcium silicate powder and investigated the effects of [...] Read more.
Calcium silicate-based cement is a promising material for filling root canals. However, it has several drawbacks to its clinical application, including difficult operation and low curing strength. In this study, we successfully prepared an ultrafine tricalcium silicate powder and investigated the effects of this ultrafine powder on the performance of the premixed tricalcium silicate cement, including the curing process, setting time, hydration products, microstructure, injectivity, fluidity, and compressive strength. The results demonstrate that the addition of ultrafine tricalcium silicate powder alters the hydration product content and product morphology of the premixed cement. By increasing the content of the ultrafine powder, the injectable property of the cement can be increased to more than 95%, the fluidity can be increased from 18 mm to 35 mm, and the curing time can be shortened from 13 h to 11 h. Notably, the addition of the ultrafine powder greatly enhances the compressive strength of the hardened cement, which increases from 20.6 MPa to 51.0 MPa. These results indicate that altering the particle size distribution of the powder is an effective method for enhancing the physicochemical and mechanical properties of tricalcium silicate cement as a root canal filling material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 14163 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Indirect Bonding Technique on Adhesion of Orthodontic Brackets and Post-Debonding Enamel Integrity—An In Vitro Study
by Agnieszka Nawrocka, Ireneusz Piwonski, Joanna Nowak, Salvatore Sauro, María Angeles García-Esparza, Louis Hardan and Monika Lukomska-Szymanska
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227202 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
The increasing demand for orthodontic treatments due to the high prevalence of malocclusion has inspired clinicians and material scientists to investigate innovative, more effective, and precise bonding methods with reduced chairside time. This study aimed at comparing the shear bond strength (SBS) of [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for orthodontic treatments due to the high prevalence of malocclusion has inspired clinicians and material scientists to investigate innovative, more effective, and precise bonding methods with reduced chairside time. This study aimed at comparing the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to enamel using the indirect bonding technique (IDB). Victory Series metal brackets (Metal-OPC, Metal-APC) and Clarity™ Advanced ceramic brackets (Ceramic-OPC) (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) were bonded indirectly to extracted human premolars through the etch-and-rinse technique. A qualitative assessment of the enamel surface using microscopic methods was performed, and the amount of residual adhesive was reported as per the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Moreover, the bracket surface was evaluated with SEM-EDS. The highest SBS mean values were observed in the Ceramic-OPC group (16.33 ± 2.01 MPa), while the lowest ones were obtained with the Metal-OPC group (11.51 ± 1.40 MPa). The differences between the Metal-AOPC vs. Metal-APC groups (p = 0.0002) and the Metal-OPC vs. Ceramic-OPC groups (p = 0.0000) were statistically significant. Although the Ceramic-OPC brackets bonded indirectly to the enamel surface achieved the highest SBS, the enamel damage was significantly higher compared to that of the other groups. Thus, considering the relatively high bond SBS and favourable debonding pattern, Metal-APC brackets bonded indirectly may represent the best choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4119 KiB  
Article
Silk Fibroin/ZnO Coated TiO2 Nanotubes for Improved Antimicrobial Effect of Ti Dental Implants
by Angela Gabriela Păun, Cristina Dumitriu, Camelia Ungureanu and Simona Popescu
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175855 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
The aim of the present research is to develop a novel hybrid coating for a Ti dental implant that combines nature-inspired biomimetic polymers and TiO2 nanostructures with an entrapped ZnO antimicrobial agent. ZnO was used in other studies to cover the surface [...] Read more.
The aim of the present research is to develop a novel hybrid coating for a Ti dental implant that combines nature-inspired biomimetic polymers and TiO2 nanostructures with an entrapped ZnO antimicrobial agent. ZnO was used in other studies to cover the surface of Ti or Ti–Zr to reduce the need of clinical antibiotics, prevent the onset of peri-implantitis, and increase the success rate of oral clinical implantation. We developed an original coating that represents a promising approach in clinical dentistry. The titanium surface was first anodized to obtain TiO2 nanotubes (NT). Subsequently, on the NT surface, silk fibroin isolated from Bombyx mori cocoons was deposited as nanofibers using the electrospun technique. For an improved antibacterial effect, ZnO nanoparticles were incorporated in this biopolymer using three different methods. The surface properties of the newly created coatings were assessed to establish how they are influenced by the most important features: morphology, wettability, topography. The evaluation of stability by electrochemical methods in simulated physiological solutions was discussed more in detail, considering that it could bring necessary information related to the behavior of the implant material. All samples had improved roughness and hydrophilicity, as well as corrosion stability (with protection efficiency over 80%). The antibacterial test shows that the functional hybrid coating has good antibacterial activity because it can inhibit the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus up to 53% and Enterococcus faecalis up to 55%. All Ti samples with the modified surface have proven superior properties compared with unmodified TiNT, which proved that they have the potential to be used as implant material in dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 5901 KiB  
Article
Effect of Olive Pit Reinforcement in Polylactic Acid Biocomposites on Environmental Degradation
by Sofía Jurado-Contreras, Francisco J. Navas-Martos, José A. Rodríguez-Liébana and M. Dolores La Rubia
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175816 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biomaterial widely used as an alternative to petroleum-based polymeric matrices in plastic components. PLA-based biocomposites reinforced with lignocellulosic waste are currently receiving special attention owing to their mechanical properties, low toxicity, recyclability, and biodegradability. The influence of the [...] Read more.
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biomaterial widely used as an alternative to petroleum-based polymeric matrices in plastic components. PLA-based biocomposites reinforced with lignocellulosic waste are currently receiving special attention owing to their mechanical properties, low toxicity, recyclability, and biodegradability. The influence of the percentage of waste on their properties and resistance to degradation are some of the points of great relevance. Therefore, a series of PLA-based biocomposites containing different percentages of olive pits (5, 15, 25 and 40% wt.) were manufactured and characterized both (a) immediately after manufacture and (b) after one year of storage under environmental conditions. The results obtained were analyzed to evaluate the influence of the incorporation of olive pits on the resistance to degradation (measured through Carbonyl Indices, CI), mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength), structure (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, FT-IR; and, X-ray Diffraction, XRD), morphology (Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM) and water absorption capacity of the manufactured materials. PLA degradation, corroborated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, and XRD, resulted in a decrease in tensile and flexural strengths and an increase in the tensile and flexural moduli. This trend was maintained for the biocomposites, confirming that reinforcement promoted the PLA degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
Analysis of In Vitro Leukocyte Responses to Biomaterials in the Presence of Antimicrobial Porcine Neutrophil Extract (AMPNE)
by Beata Drzewiecka, Agata Przekora, Dominika Dobko, Aleksandra Kozera, Katarzyna Krać, Dominika Nguyen Ngoc, Eric Fernández-De la Cruz and Joanna Wessely-Szponder
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165691 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Implant insertion can evoke excessive inflammation which disrupts the healing process and potentially leads to complications such as implant rejection. Neutrophils and macrophages play a vital role in the early inflammatory phase of tissue repair, necessitating the study of cellular responses in host–implant [...] Read more.
Implant insertion can evoke excessive inflammation which disrupts the healing process and potentially leads to complications such as implant rejection. Neutrophils and macrophages play a vital role in the early inflammatory phase of tissue repair, necessitating the study of cellular responses in host–implant interactions. In order to deepen the knowledge about these interactions, the response of neutrophils and macrophages to contact with selected biomaterials was examined in vitro on the basis of secretory response as well as reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation. Porcine neutrophils exposed to hydroxyapatite (HA) released more enzymes and generated higher levels of ROS/RNS compared to the control group. The addition of AMPNE diminished these responses. Although the results from porcine cells can provide valuable preliminary data, further validation using human cells or clinical studies would be necessary to fully extrapolate the findings to human medicine. Our study revealed that human neutrophils after contact of with HA increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) (10.00 ± 0.08 vs. control group 3.0 ± 0.11 µM, p < 0.05), while HAP or FAP did not elicit a significant response. Human macrophages cultured with HA produced more superoxide and NO, while HAP or FAP had a minimal effect, and curdlan reduced ROS/RNS generation. The addition of AMPNE to cultures with all biomaterials, except curdlan, reduced neutrophil activity, regardless of the peptides’ origin. These results highlight the potential of antimicrobial peptides in modulating excessive biomaterial/host cell reactions involving neutrophils and macrophages, enhancing our understanding of immune reactions, and suggesting that AMPNE could regulate leukocyte response during implantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2591 KiB  
Article
Properties of Superelastic Nickel–Titanium Wires after Clinical Use
by Inés Alcaraz, Javier Moyano, Ariadna Pàmies, Guillem Ruiz, Montserrat Artés, Javier Gil and Andreu Puigdollers
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165604 - 13 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to describe and determine changes in the superelastic properties of NiTi archwires after clinical use and sterilization. Ten archwires from five different manufacturers (GAC, 3M, ODS, GC, FOR) were cut into two segments and evaluated using [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to describe and determine changes in the superelastic properties of NiTi archwires after clinical use and sterilization. Ten archwires from five different manufacturers (GAC, 3M, ODS, GC, FOR) were cut into two segments and evaluated using a three-point bending test in accordance with ISO 14841:2006. The center of each segment was deflected to 3.1 mm and then unloaded to 0 N to obtain a load–deflection curve. Deflection at the end of the plateau and forces at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm on the unloading curve were recorded. Plateau slopes were calculated at 2, 1 and 0.5 mm of deflection. Data obtained were statistically analyzed to determine differences (p < 0.001). Results showed that the degree of superelasticity and exerted forces differed significantly among brand groups. After three months of clinical use, FOR released a greater force for a longer activation period. GC, EURO and FOR archwires seemed to lose their mechanical properties. GC wires released more force than other brand wires after clinical use. Regarding superelasticity after sterilization, GAC, 3M and FOR wires recovered their properties, while EURO archwires lost more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2265 KiB  
Article
Bacterial Adhesion of TESPSA and Citric Acid on Different Titanium Surfaces Substrate Roughness: An In Vitro Study with a Multispecies Oral Biofilm Model
by Javi Vilarrasa, Gerard Àlvarez, Agnès Soler-Ollé, Javier Gil, José Nart and Vanessa Blanc
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134592 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 955
Abstract
This in vitro study analyzed the influence of substrate roughness on biofilm adhesion and cellular viability over triethoxysilylpropyl succinic anhydride silane (TESPSA)- and citric acid (CA)-coated surfaces at 12 and 24 h, respectively. A multispecies biofilm composed of S. oralis, A. naslundii [...] Read more.
This in vitro study analyzed the influence of substrate roughness on biofilm adhesion and cellular viability over triethoxysilylpropyl succinic anhydride silane (TESPSA)- and citric acid (CA)-coated surfaces at 12 and 24 h, respectively. A multispecies biofilm composed of S. oralis, A. naslundii, V. parvula, F. nucleatum, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis and F. alocis was developed over titanium discs grouped depending on their roughness (low, medium, high) and antibacterial coating (low-TESPSA, medium-TESPSA, high-TESPSA, and CA). The biofilm was quantified by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and viability PCR and assessed through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Quantitative PCR revealed no significant differences in bacterial adhesion and biofilm mortality. CA was the surface with the lowest bacterial counts and highest mortality at 12 and 24 h, respectively, while high harbored the highest amount of biofilm at 24 h. By CLSM, CA presented significant amounts of dead cells compared to medium-TESPSA and high-TESPSA. A significantly greater volume of dead cells was found at 12 h in low-TESPSA compared to medium-TESPSA, while CA also presented significant amounts of dead cells compared to medium-TESPSA and high-TESPSA. With regard to the live/dead ratio, low-TESPSA presented a significantly higher ratio at 12 h compared to medium-TESPSA and high-TESPSA. Similarly, CA exhibited a significantly higher live/dead ratio compared to medium-TESPSA and high-TESPSA at 12 h. This multispecies in vitro biofilm did not evidence clear antiadhesive and bactericidal differences between surfaces, although a tendency to reduce adhesion and increase antibacterial effect was observed in the low-TESPSA and CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3539 KiB  
Article
Biocompatibility, Surface Morphology, and Bacterial Load of Dental Implant Abutments following Decontamination Protocols: An In-Vitro Study
by Esi Sharon, Yoav Pietrokovski, Ilana Engel, Rula Assali, Yael Houri-Haddad and Nurit Beyth
Materials 2023, 16(11), 4080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16114080 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
The long-term success of dental implant rehabilitation depends significantly on proper peri-implant soft tissue integration. Therefore, decontamination of abutments prior to their connection to the implant is beneficial to enhance soft tissue attachment and to aid in maintaining marginal bone around the implant. [...] Read more.
The long-term success of dental implant rehabilitation depends significantly on proper peri-implant soft tissue integration. Therefore, decontamination of abutments prior to their connection to the implant is beneficial to enhance soft tissue attachment and to aid in maintaining marginal bone around the implant. Consequently, different implant abutment decontamination protocols were evaluated regarding biocompatibility, surface morphology, and bacterial load. The protocols evaluated were autoclave sterilization, ultrasonic washing, steam cleaning, chlorhexidine chemical decontamination, and sodium hypochlorite chemical decontamination. The control groups included: (1) implant abutments prepared and polished in a dental lab without decontamination and (2) unprepared implant abutments obtained directly from the company. Surface analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biocompatibility was evaluated using XTT cell viability and proliferation assays. Biofilm biomass and viable counts (CFU/mL) (n = 5 for each test) were used for surface bacterial load evaluation. Surface analysis revealed areas of debris and accumulation of materials, such as iron, cobalt, chromium, and other metals, in all abutments prepared by the lab and with all decontamination protocols. Steam cleaning was the most efficient method for reducing contamination. Chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite left residual materials on the abutments. XTT results showed that the chlorhexidine group (M = 0.7005, SD = 0.2995) had the lowest values (p < 0.001) (autoclave: M = 3.6354, SD = 0.1510; ultrasonic: M = 3.4077, SD = 0.3730; steam: M = 3.2903, SD = 0.2172; NaOCl: M = 3.5377, SD = 0.0927; prep non-decont.: M = 3.4815, SD = 0.2326; factory: M = 3.6173, SD = 0.0392). Bacterial growth (CFU/mL) was high in the abutments treated with steam cleaning and ultrasonic bath: 2.93 × 109, SD = 1.68 × 1012 and 1.83 × 109, SD = 3.95 × 1010, respectively. Abutments treated with chlorhexidine showed higher toxicity to cells, while all other samples showed similar effects to the control. In conclusion, steam cleaning seemed to be the most efficient method for reducing debris and metallic contamination. Bacterial load can be reduced using autoclaving, chlorhexidine, and NaOCl. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 7565 KiB  
Article
Effects of ATP on the Physicochemical Properties and Cytocompatibility of Calcium Sulfate/Calcium Citrate Composite Cement
by Xiangyue Liu, Hong Chen, Haohao Ren, Bo Wang, Xiaodan Li, Suping Peng, Qiyi Zhang and Yonggang Yan
Materials 2023, 16(11), 3947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16113947 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), acting as a source of energy, has effects on cellular activities, such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In this study, ATP-loaded calcium sulfate hemihydrate/calcium citrate tetrahydrate cement (ATP/CSH/CCT) was successfully prepared for the first time. The effect of different contents [...] Read more.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), acting as a source of energy, has effects on cellular activities, such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In this study, ATP-loaded calcium sulfate hemihydrate/calcium citrate tetrahydrate cement (ATP/CSH/CCT) was successfully prepared for the first time. The effect of different contents of ATP on the structure and physicochemical properties of ATP/CSH/CCT was also studied in detail. The results indicated that incorporating ATP into the cement did not significantly alter their structures. However, the addition ratio of ATP directly impacted the mechanical properties and in vitro degradation properties of the composite bone cement. The compressive strength of ATP/CSH/CCT gradually decreased with an increasing ATP content. The degradation rate of ATP/CSH/CCT did not significantly change at low concentrations of ATP, but it increased with a higher ATP content. The composite cement induced the deposition of a Ca-P layer in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH = 7.4). Additionally, the release of ATP from the composite cement was controlled. The ATP was controlled releasing at the 0.5% and 1% ATP in cement by the diffusion of ATP and the degradation of the cement, whereas it was controlled by the diffusion process merely at the 0.1% ATP in cement. Furthermore, ATP/CSH/CCT demonstrated good cytoactivity with the addition of ATP and is expected to be used for the repair and regeneration of bone tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

25 pages, 12148 KiB  
Review
Synthesis of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid and Its Application in Biomedical Materials
by Minjian Cai, Yumin Han, Xianhong Zheng, Baigong Xue, Xinyao Zhang, Zulpya Mahmut, Yuda Wang, Biao Dong, Chunmei Zhang, Donghui Gao and Jiao Sun
Materials 2024, 17(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010015 - 19 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a natural polymer composed of glutamic acid monomer and it has garnered substantial attention in both the fields of material science and biomedicine. Its remarkable cell compatibility, degradability, and other advantageous characteristics have made it a vital component in [...] Read more.
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a natural polymer composed of glutamic acid monomer and it has garnered substantial attention in both the fields of material science and biomedicine. Its remarkable cell compatibility, degradability, and other advantageous characteristics have made it a vital component in the medical field. In this comprehensive review, we delve into the production methods, primary application forms, and medical applications of γ-PGA, drawing from numerous prior studies. Among the four production methods for PGA, microbial fermentation currently stands as the most widely employed. This method has seen various optimization strategies, which we summarize here. From drug delivery systems to tissue engineering and wound healing, γ-PGA’s versatility and unique properties have facilitated its successful integration into diverse medical applications, underlining its potential to enhance healthcare outcomes. The objective of this review is to establish a foundational knowledge base for further research in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

24 pages, 2503 KiB  
Review
A Review of Abdominal Meshes for Hernia Repair—Current Status and Emerging Solutions
by Alfred Najm, Adelina-Gabriela Niculescu, Bogdan Severus Gaspar, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu and Mircea Beuran
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227124 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Abdominal hernias are common issues in the clinical setting, burdening millions of patients worldwide. Associated with pain, decreased quality of life, and severe potential complications, abdominal wall hernias should be treated as soon as possible. Whether an open repair or laparoscopic surgical approach [...] Read more.
Abdominal hernias are common issues in the clinical setting, burdening millions of patients worldwide. Associated with pain, decreased quality of life, and severe potential complications, abdominal wall hernias should be treated as soon as possible. Whether an open repair or laparoscopic surgical approach is tackled, mesh reinforcement is generally required to ensure a durable hernia repair. Over the years, numerous mesh products have been made available on the market and in clinical settings, yet each of the currently used meshes presents certain limitations that reflect on treatment outcomes. Thus, mesh development is still ongoing, and emerging solutions have reached various testing stages. In this regard, this paper aims to establish an up-to-date framework on abdominal meshes, briefly overviewing currently available solutions for hernia repair and discussing in detail the most recent advances in the field. Particularly, there are presented the developments in lightweight materials, meshes with improved attachment, antimicrobial fabrics, composite and hybrid textiles, and performant mesh designs, followed by a systematic review of recently completed clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 4255 KiB  
Review
Freeze-Drying Process for the Fabrication of Collagen-Based Sponges as Medical Devices in Biomedical Engineering
by Chrysoula Katrilaka, Niki Karipidou, Nestor Petrou, Chris Manglaris, George Katrilakas, Anastasios Nektarios Tzavellas, Maria Pitou, Eleftherios E. Tsiridis, Theodora Choli-Papadopoulou and Amalia Aggeli
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124425 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
This paper presents a systematic review of a key sector of the much promising and rapidly evolving field of biomedical engineering, specifically on the fabrication of three-dimensional open, porous collagen-based medical devices, using the prominent freeze-drying process. Collagen and its derivatives are the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a systematic review of a key sector of the much promising and rapidly evolving field of biomedical engineering, specifically on the fabrication of three-dimensional open, porous collagen-based medical devices, using the prominent freeze-drying process. Collagen and its derivatives are the most popular biopolymers in this field, as they constitute the main components of the extracellular matrix, and therefore exhibit desirable properties, such as biocompatibility and biodegradability, for in vivo applications. For this reason, freeze-dried collagen-based sponges with a wide variety of attributes can be produced and have already led to a wide range of successful commercial medical devices, chiefly for dental, orthopedic, hemostatic, and neuronal applications. However, collagen sponges display some vulnerabilities in other key properties, such as low mechanical strength and poor control of their internal architecture, and therefore many studies focus on the settlement of these defects, either by tampering with the steps of the freeze-drying process or by combining collagen with other additives. Furthermore, freeze drying is still considered a high-cost and time-consuming process that is often used in a non-optimized manner. By applying an interdisciplinary approach and combining advances in other technological fields, such as in statistical analysis, implementing the Design of Experiments, and Artificial Intelligence, the opportunity arises to further evolve this process in a sustainable and strategic manner, and optimize the resulting products as well as create new opportunities in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2789 KiB  
Review
Relevant Choices Affecting the Fatigue Analysis of Ni-Ti Endovascular Devices
by Francesca Berti, Alma Brambilla, Giancarlo Pennati and Lorenza Petrini
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083178 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1715
Abstract
Ni-Ti alloys are widely used for biomedical applications due to their superelastic properties, which are especially convenient for endovascular devices that require minimally invasive insertion and durable effects, such as peripheral/carotid stents and valve frames. After crimping and deployment, stents undergo millions of [...] Read more.
Ni-Ti alloys are widely used for biomedical applications due to their superelastic properties, which are especially convenient for endovascular devices that require minimally invasive insertion and durable effects, such as peripheral/carotid stents and valve frames. After crimping and deployment, stents undergo millions of cyclic loads imposed by heart/neck/leg movements, causing fatigue failure and device fracture that can lead to possibly severe consequences for the patient. Standard regulations require experimental testing for the preclinical assessment of such devices, which can be coupled with numerical modeling to reduce the time and costs of such campaigns and to obtain more information regarding the local state of stress and strain in the device. In this frame, this review aimed to enlighten the relevant choices that can affect the outcome of the fatigue analysis of Ni-Ti devices, both from experimental and numerical perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

45 pages, 2604 KiB  
Systematic Review
Biomechanics of the Human Osteochondral Unit: A Systematic Review
by Matteo Berni, Gregorio Marchiori, Massimiliano Baleani, Gianluca Giavaresi and Nicola Francesco Lopomo
Materials 2024, 17(7), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071698 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 884
Abstract
The damping system ensured by the osteochondral (OC) unit is essential to deploy the forces generated within load-bearing joints during locomotion, allowing furthermore low-friction sliding motion between bone segments. The OC unit is a multi-layer structure including articular cartilage, as well as subchondral [...] Read more.
The damping system ensured by the osteochondral (OC) unit is essential to deploy the forces generated within load-bearing joints during locomotion, allowing furthermore low-friction sliding motion between bone segments. The OC unit is a multi-layer structure including articular cartilage, as well as subchondral and trabecular bone. The interplay between the OC tissues is essential in maintaining the joint functionality; altered loading patterns can trigger biological processes that could lead to degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis. Currently, no effective treatments are available to avoid degeneration beyond tissues’ recovery capabilities. A thorough comprehension on the mechanical behaviour of the OC unit is essential to (i) soundly elucidate its overall response to intra-articular loads for developing diagnostic tools capable of detecting non-physiological strain levels, (ii) properly evaluate the efficacy of innovative treatments in restoring physiological strain levels, and (iii) optimize regenerative medicine approaches as potential and less-invasive alternatives to arthroplasty when irreversible damage has occurred. Therefore, the leading aim of this review was to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art—up to 2022—about the mechanical behaviour of the OC unit. A systematic search is performed, according to PRISMA standards, by focusing on studies that experimentally assess the human lower-limb joints’ OC tissues. A multi-criteria decision-making method is proposed to quantitatively evaluate eligible studies, in order to highlight only the insights retrieved through sound and robust approaches. This review revealed that studies on human lower limbs are focusing on the knee and articular cartilage, while hip and trabecular bone studies are declining, and the ankle and subchondral bone are poorly investigated. Compression and indentation are the most common experimental techniques studying the mechanical behaviour of the OC tissues, with indentation also being able to provide information at the micro- and nanoscales. While a certain comparability among studies was highlighted, none of the identified testing protocols are currently recognised as standard for any of the OC tissues. The fibril-network-reinforced poro-viscoelastic constitutive model has become common for describing the response of the articular cartilage, while the models describing the mechanical behaviour of mineralised tissues are usually simpler (i.e., linear elastic, elasto-plastic). Most advanced studies have tested and modelled multiple tissues of the same OC unit but have done so individually rather than through integrated approaches. Therefore, efforts should be made in simultaneously evaluating the comprehensive response of the OC unit to intra-articular loads and the interplay between the OC tissues. In this regard, a multidisciplinary approach combining complementary techniques, e.g., full-field imaging, mechanical testing, and computational approaches, should be implemented and validated. Furthermore, the next challenge entails transferring this assessment to a non-invasive approach, allowing its application in vivo, in order to increase its diagnostic and prognostic potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 15th Anniversary of Materials—Recent Advances in Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop