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State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018) | Viewed by 69226

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specially Medicine, University of Bologna, via San Giacomo 14, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2. Laboratorio di Patologia delle Infezioni Associate all’Impianto, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Interests: anti-adhesive surfaces; anti-biofilm agents; anti-biofouling materials; antibiotic-loaded biomaterials; anti-infective materials; anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes; bioactive antibacterial coatings; materials delivering antimicrobials; covalent conjugation of antimicrobial peptides; (GTR/GBR) membrane with anti-infective properties; implant infections; multilayer antibacterial films; periprosthetic infections; photocatalytic coatings for hygienic surfaces; technologies and nano-technologies for infection-resistant surfaces
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Functional Materials and Hydrogen Technology, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: scanning probe microscopy; nanocomposites; nanoporous oxides of valve metals; applications of anodic porous alumina; SERS; biocompatibility of materials; nanoindentation; dental restorative materials and implants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In Italy, the materials science is protagonist of a remarkable development, which can be attributed to several factors including the excellence of Italian academic and industrial research, as well as to the excellent capacity of Italian companies to turn innovation into valuable products. 

These advancements are particularly notable in the health area. The biotech companies in Italy are almost 500 and more than half of these are companies that dedicate over 75% of their total R & D investment in biotech researches. In particular, more than 250 companies are engaged in research of new therapeutic and diagnostic tools, the core activity being the research and applications of nanostructured materials.

In the academic area, the interest on materials and biomaterials is oriented on both research and high formation. An increasing number of research papers in the field of new biomaterials is yearly published and new PhD courses on these items are activated in Italian Universities.

For example, in the field of medical tissue engineering, interesting hot topics are presently cell-based biomaterials and nanoparticles coatings aiming to repair bone and joint defects, or biomaterials able to tune the inflammatory response. Additionally, multifunctional polymeric nanoconstructs for drug delivery and imaging open new perspectives in the field of nano-oncology. Similarly, an active field of development for biomaterials is that of dental research, from restorative composites or glass-ionomer cements, to bioactive implant materials.

On the industrial side, materials science is producing innovative materials for food packaging, aiming to avoid the migration of toxic substances from the envelop to the food or to avoid water and oil leakage from the food to the container. 

Additionally, vegetable substances are of interest in the field of materials not only as food to be protected but also as a source for bioplastics, such as for raw starch and cellulose but also for by-products of the agricultural foods as is the case of tomato skin.

Polymer fibers are increasingly employed, particularly in the field of innovative biomedical devices for wound care. For example, electrospun fibers can be designed to be ultrafine and to give mechanical flexibility and conformability to non-woven materials for wound dressing and coverage of the injured tissues, protection against infections and dehydration, transport of nutrients, retention of moisture and absorption of exudates. New materials, possibly modified by hybrid formulations including inorganic functional materials such as graphene or other carbon-based nanofillers, should guarantee adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells during tissue regeneration and delivery of drugs, as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents. Preventing infection is the main focus on wound care. In this connection, essential oils or other natural compounds from plants appear promising additives to be encapsulated in advanced biomedical devices.

Besides the mentioned innovative materials, other innovative issues are welcome.

This special issue is aimed at collecting excellent papers that will be of interest to scholars in the field.

Prof. Dr. Carla Renata  Arciola
Dr. Marco  Salerno
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D printed scaffolds
  • Alloys and intermetallics
  • Anti-fouling and bacteria repelling surfaces
  • Bactericidal coatings
  • Anti-bacterial surfaces
  • Anti-biofilm surfaces
  • Anti-infective biomaterials
  • Anti-infective catheters
  • Phytocompounds for anti-infective and anti-inflammatory biomaterials
  • Infection-resistant surfaces
  • Nanocapsules
  • Nanoparticle-mediated delivery systems
  • Bioactive implant materials
  • Biomaterials doped with anti-inflammatory agents
  • Biomaterials in bone repair
  • Biomaterials in oncology
  • Biomaterials in tissue engineering
  • Biomaterials technologies for antimicrobial properties
  • Biomaterials with wound-healing properties
  • Bioresorbable materials
  • Carbon based nanomaterials
  • Cell-based biomaterials
  • Colloids
  • Electrospun scaffolds
  • Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles
  • Hierarchical material structures and metamaterials
  • Hyaluronic Acid-based scaffolds for cartilage repair
  • Multifunctional polymeric nanoconstructs for drug delivery
  • Multilayered biomaterials for osteochondral regeneration
  • Nanocoatings
  • Nanomaterials
  • Nanosized delivery systems
  • Natural phenolpolymers: food and health applications
  • Oxides and ceramics
  • Phytofabricated biomaterials
  • Polymer-based biosensors
  • Polymers and composites
  • Porous materials
  • Restorative composites in dentistry
  • Scaffold fixation by magnetic forces
  • Scaffold supporting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow cells
  • Scaffold to capture and kill cancer cells
  • Scaffolds for blood vessel regeneration
  • Self-assembled and self-organized materials
  • Silver-coated prosthesis in oncological surgery
  • Substitutes for articular cartilages
  • Thin films and coatings

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 9235 KiB  
Article
Copper-Doped Bioactive Glass as Filler for PMMA-Based Bone Cements: Morphological, Mechanical, Reactivity, and Preliminary Antibacterial Characterization
by Marta Miola, Andrea Cochis, Ajay Kumar, Carla Renata Arciola, Lia Rimondini and Enrica Verné
Materials 2018, 11(6), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060961 - 6 Jun 2018
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5427
Abstract
To promote osteointegration and simultaneously limit bacterial contamination without using antibiotics, we designed innovative composite cements containing copper (Cu)-doped bioactive glass powders. Cu-doped glass powders were produced by a melt and quenching process, followed by an ion-exchange process in a Cu salt aqueous [...] Read more.
To promote osteointegration and simultaneously limit bacterial contamination without using antibiotics, we designed innovative composite cements containing copper (Cu)-doped bioactive glass powders. Cu-doped glass powders were produced by a melt and quenching process, followed by an ion-exchange process in a Cu salt aqueous solution. Cu-doped glass was incorporated into commercial polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based cements with different viscosities. The realized composites were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, leaching ability, bioactivity, mechanical, and antibacterial properties. Glass powders appeared well distributed and exposed on the PMMA surface. Composite cements showed good bioactivity, evidencing hydroxyapatite precipitation on the sample surfaces after seven days of immersion in simulated body fluid. The leaching test demonstrated that composite cements released a significant amount of copper, with a noticeable antibacterial effect toward Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. Thus, the proposed materials represent an innovative and multifunctional tool for orthopedic prostheses fixation, temporary prostheses, and spinal surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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17 pages, 3852 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Thermal Behaviour of AA5754-H111 during Fatigue Loading and Fatigue Strength at Fixed Number of Cycles
by Rosa De Finis, Davide Palumbo, Livia Maria Serio, Luigi A. C. De Filippis and Umberto Galietti
Materials 2018, 11(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050719 - 2 May 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3478
Abstract
The characterization of the fatigue behaviour of aluminium alloys is still capturing the attention of researchers. As it is well known in literature, for certain alloys, in a specific range of cycles number, the S-N curves do not present any asymptote. So that, [...] Read more.
The characterization of the fatigue behaviour of aluminium alloys is still capturing the attention of researchers. As it is well known in literature, for certain alloys, in a specific range of cycles number, the S-N curves do not present any asymptote. So that, problems result in the assessment of the fatigue life. In these conditions, the concept of the fatigue limit has to be replaced by the fatigue strength at a fixed number of loading cycles. Temperature acquisitions during fatigue tests allow for a specific analysis that can support the researchers in understanding the complex processes that are involved in fatigue and their influence on fatigue life, even for aluminium alloys. In fact, the analysis of the surface temperature signal that was detected during a self-heating test provides a curve that is characterized by a distinct slope-change point at a specific stress value. Even though researchers have been investigating fatigue life characterisation and temperature variations for more than a decade, it is not clear what this point represents in terms of fatigue strength. The aim of the present paper is to find out a possible correlation between the thermal behaviour of AA5754-H111 undergoing self-heating testing procedure and fatigue strength at a specific loading cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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18 pages, 3985 KiB  
Article
The Incorporation of Strontium to Improve Bone-Regeneration Ability of Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses
by Sonia Fiorilli, Giulia Molino, Carlotta Pontremoli, Giorgio Iviglia, Elisa Torre, Clara Cassinelli, Marco Morra and Chiara Vitale-Brovarone
Materials 2018, 11(5), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050678 - 26 Apr 2018
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 5311
Abstract
Over the recent years, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) gained interest as bone regeneration systems, due to their excellent bioactivity and ability to release therapeutic molecules. In order to improve the bone regeneration ability of MBGs, the incorporation of Sr2+ ions, due to [...] Read more.
Over the recent years, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) gained interest as bone regeneration systems, due to their excellent bioactivity and ability to release therapeutic molecules. In order to improve the bone regeneration ability of MBGs, the incorporation of Sr2+ ions, due to its recognized pro-osteogenenic potential, represents a very promising strategy. In this study, MBGs based on the SiO2–CaO system and containing different percentages (2 and 4 mol %) of strontium were prepared by two synthesis methods, in the form of microspheres and nanoparticles. Sr-containing MBGs were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis. The in vitro bioactivity in SBF resulted excellent. The assessment of fibroblast cell (line L929) viability showed that Sr-containing MBGs were biocompatible both in form of micro- and nanoparticles. The osteogenic response of osteoblast-like SAOS-2 cells was investigated by analysing the expression of GAPDH, COL1a1, RANKL, SPARC, OPG and ALPL genes, as cell differentiation markers. The results indicate that the incorporation of Sr into MBG is beneficial for bone regeneration as promotes a pro-osteogenic effect, paving the way to the design of advanced devices enabled by these nanocarriers also in combination with drug release, for the treatment of bone pathologies, particularly in patients with osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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11 pages, 2147 KiB  
Article
Nanoscale Topographical Characterization of Orbital Implant Materials
by Marco Salerno, Andrea Pietro Reverberi and Francesco Baino
Materials 2018, 11(5), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050660 - 24 Apr 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7542
Abstract
The search for an ideal orbital implant is still ongoing in the field of ocular biomaterials. Major limitations of currently-available porous implants include the high cost along with a non-negligible risk of exposure and postoperative infection due to conjunctival abrasion. In the effort [...] Read more.
The search for an ideal orbital implant is still ongoing in the field of ocular biomaterials. Major limitations of currently-available porous implants include the high cost along with a non-negligible risk of exposure and postoperative infection due to conjunctival abrasion. In the effort to develop better alternatives to the existing devices, two types of new glass-ceramic porous implants were fabricated by sponge replication, which is a relatively inexpensive method. Then, they were characterized by direct three-dimensional (3D) contact probe mapping in real space by means of atomic force microscopy in order to assess their surface micro- and nano-features, which were quantitatively compared to those of the most commonly-used orbital implants. These silicate glass-ceramic materials exhibit a surface roughness in the range of a few hundred nanometers (Sq within 500–700 nm) and topographical features comparable to those of clinically-used “gold-standard” alumina and polyethylene porous orbital implants. However, it was noted that both experimental and commercial non-porous implants were significantly smoother than all the porous ones. The results achieved in this work reveal that these porous glass-ceramic materials show promise for the intended application and encourage further investigation of their clinical suitability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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14 pages, 50571 KiB  
Article
3D Printing of Thermo-Responsive Methylcellulose Hydrogels for Cell-Sheet Engineering
by Andrea Cochis, Lorenzo Bonetti, Rita Sorrentino, Nicola Contessi Negrini, Federico Grassi, Massimiliano Leigheb, Lia Rimondini and Silvia Farè
Materials 2018, 11(4), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040579 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 7298
Abstract
A possible strategy in regenerative medicine is cell-sheet engineering (CSE), i.e., developing smart cell culture surfaces from which to obtain intact cell sheets (CS). The main goal of this study was to develop 3D printing via extrusion-based bioprinting of methylcellulose (MC)-based hydrogels. Hydrogels [...] Read more.
A possible strategy in regenerative medicine is cell-sheet engineering (CSE), i.e., developing smart cell culture surfaces from which to obtain intact cell sheets (CS). The main goal of this study was to develop 3D printing via extrusion-based bioprinting of methylcellulose (MC)-based hydrogels. Hydrogels were prepared by mixing MC powder in saline solutions (Na2SO4 and PBS). MC-based hydrogels were analyzed to investigate the rheological behavior and thus optimize the printing process parameters. Cells were tested in vitro on ring-shaped printed hydrogels; bulk MC hydrogels were used for comparison. In vitro tests used murine embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) and endothelial murine cells (MS1), and the resulting cell sheets were characterized analyzing cell viability and immunofluorescence. In terms of CS preparation, 3D printing proved to be an optimal approach to obtain ring-shaped CS. Cell orientation was observed for the ring-shaped CS and was confirmed by the degree of circularity of their nuclei: cell nuclei in ring-shaped CS were more elongated than those in sheets detached from bulk hydrogels. The 3D printing process appears adequate for the preparation of cell sheets of different shapes for the regeneration of complex tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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22 pages, 4610 KiB  
Article
New Parameters to Quantitatively Express the Invasiveness of Bacterial Strains from Implant-Related Orthopaedic Infections into Osteoblast Cells
by Davide Campoccia, Lucio Montanaro, Stefano Ravaioli, Ilaria Cangini, Francesca Testoni, Livia Visai and Carla Renata Arciola
Materials 2018, 11(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040550 - 3 Apr 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4054
Abstract
Complete eradication of bacterial infections is often a challenging task, especially in presence of prosthetic devices. Invasion of non-phagocytic host cells appears to be a critical mechanism of microbial persistence in host tissues. Hidden within host cells, bacteria elude host defences and antibiotic [...] Read more.
Complete eradication of bacterial infections is often a challenging task, especially in presence of prosthetic devices. Invasion of non-phagocytic host cells appears to be a critical mechanism of microbial persistence in host tissues. Hidden within host cells, bacteria elude host defences and antibiotic treatments that are intracellularly inactive. The intracellular invasiveness of bacteria is generally measured by conventional gentamicin protection assays. The efficiency of invasion, however, markedly differs across bacterial species and adjustments to the titre of the microbial inocula used in the assays are often needed to enumerate intracellular bacteria. Such changes affect the standardisation of the method and hamper a direct comparison of bacteria on a same scale. This study aims at investigating the precise relation between inoculum, in terms of multiplicity of infection (MOI), and internalised bacteria. The investigation included nine Staphylococcus aureus, seven Staphylococcus epidermidis, five Staphylococcus lugdunensis and two Enterococcus faecalis clinical strains, which are co-cultured with MG63 human osteoblasts. Unprecedented insights are offered on the relations existing between MOI, number of internalised bacteria and per cent of internalised bacteria. New parameters are identified that are of potential use for qualifying the efficiency of internalization and compare the behaviour of bacterial strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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4905 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Effectiveness of Microspheres Based on Silk Sericin and Chlorella vulgaris or Arthrospira platensis for Wound Healing Applications
by Elia Bari, Carla Renata Arciola, Barbara Vigani, Barbara Crivelli, Paola Moro, Giorgio Marrubini, Milena Sorrenti, Laura Catenacci, Giovanna Bruni, Theodora Chlapanidas, Enrico Lucarelli, Sara Perteghella and Maria Luisa Torre
Materials 2017, 10(9), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10090983 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5883
Abstract
Some natural compounds have recently been widely employed in wound healing applications due to their biological properties. One such compound is sericin, which is produced by Bombix mori, while active polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins are synthetized by Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis [...] Read more.
Some natural compounds have recently been widely employed in wound healing applications due to their biological properties. One such compound is sericin, which is produced by Bombix mori, while active polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins are synthetized by Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis microalgae. Our hypothesis was that sericin, as an optimal bioactive polymeric carrier for microencapsulation process, could also improve the regenerative effect of the microalgae. A solvent-free extraction method and spray drying technique were combined to obtain five formulations, based on algal extracts (C. vulgaris and A. platensis, Chl and Art, respectively) or silk sericin (Ser) or their mixtures (Chl-Ser and Art-Ser). The spray drying was a suitable method to produce microspheres with similar dimensions, characterized by collapsed morphology with a rough surface. Art and Art-Ser showed higher antioxidant properties than other formulations. All microspheres resulted in cytocompatibility on fibroblasts until 1.25 mg/mL and promoted cell migration and the complete wound closure; this positive effect was further highlighted after treatment with Art and Art-Ser. To our surprize the combination of sericin to Art did not improve the microalgae extract efficacy, at least in our experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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Review

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23 pages, 1368 KiB  
Review
Environmentally Sustainable and Ecosafe Polysaccharide-Based Materials for Water Nano-Treatment: An Eco-Design Study
by Ilaria Corsi, Andrea Fiorati, Giacomo Grassi, Irene Bartolozzi, Tiberio Daddi, Lucio Melone and Carlo Punta
Materials 2018, 11(7), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11071228 - 17 Jul 2018
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5196
Abstract
Nanoremediation, which is the use of nanoparticles and nanomaterials for environmental remediation, is widely explored and proposed for preservation of ecosystems that suffer from the increase in human population, pollution, and urbanization. We herein report a critical analysis of nanotechnologies for water remediation [...] Read more.
Nanoremediation, which is the use of nanoparticles and nanomaterials for environmental remediation, is widely explored and proposed for preservation of ecosystems that suffer from the increase in human population, pollution, and urbanization. We herein report a critical analysis of nanotechnologies for water remediation by assessing their sustainability in terms of efficient removal of pollutants, appropriate methods for monitoring their effectiveness, and protocols for the evaluation of any potential environmental risks. Our purpose is to furnish fruitful guidelines for sustainable water management, able to promote nanoremediation also at European level. In this context, we describe new nanostructured polysaccharide-based materials obtained from renewable resources as alternative efficient and ecosafe solutions for water nano-treatment. We also provide eco-design indications to improve the sustainability of the production of these materials, based on life-cycle assessment methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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17 pages, 2532 KiB  
Review
Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy: Challenges and Perspectives towards Increased Application on Biomaterials and Biological Samples
by Marco Salerno and Silvia Dante
Materials 2018, 11(6), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060951 - 5 Jun 2018
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 7269
Abstract
We report and comment on the possible increase of application of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) for biomaterials, biological substrates, and biological samples. First, the fundamental concepts and the practical limitations of SKPM are presented, pointing out the difficulties in proper probe calibration. [...] Read more.
We report and comment on the possible increase of application of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) for biomaterials, biological substrates, and biological samples. First, the fundamental concepts and the practical limitations of SKPM are presented, pointing out the difficulties in proper probe calibration. Then, the most relevant literature on the use of SKPM on biological substrates and samples is briefly reviewed. We report first about biocompatible surfaces used as substrates for subsequent biological applications, such as cultures of living cells. Then, we briefly review the SKPM measurements made on proteins, DNA, and similar biomolecular systems. Finally, some considerations about the perspectives for the use of SKPM in the field of life sciences are made. This work does not pretend to provide a comprehensive view of this emerging scenario, yet we believe that it is time to put these types of application of SKPM under focus, and to face the related challenges, such as measuring in liquid and quantitative comparison with other techniques for the electrical potential readout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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27 pages, 1875 KiB  
Review
Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polymers
by Ilaria Armentano, Debora Puglia, Francesca Luzi, Carla Renata Arciola, Francesco Morena, Sabata Martino and Luigi Torre
Materials 2018, 11(5), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050795 - 15 May 2018
Cited by 85 | Viewed by 6737
Abstract
In the present review paper, our main results on nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers (on a time scale from 2010 to 2018) are reported. We mainly focused our attention on commercial biodegradable polymers, which we mixed with different nanofillers and/or additives with the [...] Read more.
In the present review paper, our main results on nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymers (on a time scale from 2010 to 2018) are reported. We mainly focused our attention on commercial biodegradable polymers, which we mixed with different nanofillers and/or additives with the final aim of developing new materials with tunable specific properties. A wide list of nanofillers have been considered according to their shape, properties, and functionalization routes, and the results have been discussed looking at their roles on the basis of different adopted processing routes (solvent-based or melt-mixing processes). Two main application fields of nanocomposite based on biodegradable polymers have been considered: the specific interaction with stem cells in the regenerative medicine applications or as antimicrobial materials and the active role of selected nanofillers in food packaging applications have been critically revised, with the main aim of providing an overview of the authors’ contribution to the state of the art in the field of biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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426 KiB  
Review
Update on Monoterpenes as Antimicrobial Agents: A Particular Focus on p-Cymene
by Anna Marchese, Carla Renata Arciola, Ramona Barbieri, Ana Sanches Silva, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Arold Jorel Tsetegho Sokeng, Morteza Izadi, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, Ipek Suntar, Maria Daglia and Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Materials 2017, 10(8), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10080947 - 15 Aug 2017
Cited by 219 | Viewed by 10006
Abstract
p-Cymene [1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene] is a monoterpene found in over 100 plant species used for medicine and food purposes. It shows a range of biological activity including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, anticancer and antimicrobial effects. This last property has been widely investigated due to the [...] Read more.
p-Cymene [1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene] is a monoterpene found in over 100 plant species used for medicine and food purposes. It shows a range of biological activity including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, anticancer and antimicrobial effects. This last property has been widely investigated due to the urgent need for new substances with antimicrobial properties, to be used to treat communicable diseases whose diffusion in developed countries has been facilitated by globalization and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. This review summarizes available scientific data, as reported by the most recent studies describing the antimicrobial activity of p-cymene either alone, or as the main component of plant extracts, as well as addressing the mechanisms of action of cymenes as antimicrobial agents. While p-cymene is one of the major constituents of extracts and essential oils used in traditional medicines as antimicrobial agents, but considering the limited data on its in vivo efficacy and safety, further studies are required to reach a definitive recommendation on the use and beneficial effects of p-cymene in human healthcare and in biomedical applications as a promising candidate to functionalize biomaterials and nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
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