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Piezoelectrics and Ferroelectrics for End Users

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Electronic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2024) | Viewed by 1510

Special Issue Editors

Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC. c/ Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3. 24049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: piezoceramics; ferroelectrics; processing; characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Chemical, Physics, Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari, Italy
Interests: piezoceramics; structural characterization; wet chemistry; processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, James Watt South Building, Glasgow, UK
Interests: piezoelectric crystals; textured ceramics; ultrasonic testing of materials; material characterization

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Guest Editor Assistant
Thales UK, 350 Longwater Avenue, Reading, Berkshire, UK
Interests: piezoceramics; textured ceramics; single crystals; electromechanical properties; underwater transducers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials based on these constitutes a consolidated, but still challenging, field of research activities. Their multifunctionality has resulted in numerous applications as sensors, actuators and transducers, covering a well-known range of human activities (communications, transport, health, manufacture and quality control). Emerging applications in energy (energy storage, piezoelectric harvesting, photovoltaic, thermoelectricity...) are receiving increasing interest nowadays. Increasing effort has been devoted to obtaining high sensitivity and lead-free composition materials since the turn of the century. This was driven by the toxicity of lead oxide, the main component of commercial ceramics, and now by directives for environmental protection, demanding the elimination of lead from piezoelectric components in devices. This demand must be accompanied by the development of green methods of processing. While being a key topic for the performance and life time of these materials, the mechanical properties of ferro-piezoelectric ceramics are difficult to control, and this opens a so far poorly explored field of activities.

Manuscripts and review papers on the topics of “Piezoelectrics and Ferroelectrics for End Users” are welcomed. S. Cochran is the Chairman and L. Stoica and S. Garroni are Co-Chairs of the Conference “ELECTROCERAMICS FOR END USERS XII—PIEZO2023 WITH FERROELECTRICS UK”, 5–8 November 2023, Glasgow University, Glasgow, UK. L. Pardo and S. Garroni are members of the Organization of the European Institute of Piezoelectric Materials and Devices that co-organizes the Conference. Attendees are encouraged to publish the work presented at the event in this Special Issue (Email: ECEUXII@glasgow.ac.uk).

Prof. Dr. Lorena Pardo
Dr. Sebastiano Garroni
Prof. Dr. Sandy Cochran
Dr. Laura Stoica
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • piezoelectrics, pyroelectrics, ferroelectrics, relaxors, tuneable materials
  • ceramics, single crystals, thick and thin films, polymers and composites
  • lead-free materials
  • materials processing including low-temperature sintering techniques and chemical routes avoiding toxic precursors
  • raw materials avoiding environmentally aggressive conditions
  • advanced and innovative characterization of structural, electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties of piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics
  • materials and devices for sensors, acoustic transducers and medical imaging
  • materials and devices for energy conversion, energy harvesting, cooling and energy storage
  • piezoelectrics for actuators
  • multiferroics, electrocalorics, magnetoelectrics, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics and photo-ferroelectrics
  • theory and modelling of piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics
  • thermoelectrics and photovoltaics

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 5691 KiB  
Article
Influence of Grain-Growth Inhibitors on Modified (Ba,Sr)(Sn,Ti)O3 for Electrocaloric Application
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051036 - 23 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The paper reports on effect of grain-growth inhibitors MgO, Y2O3 and MnCO3 as well as Ca modification on the microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and electrocaloric (EC) properties of Ba0.82Sr0.18Sn0.065Ti0.935O3 (BSSnT). Furthermore, [...] Read more.
The paper reports on effect of grain-growth inhibitors MgO, Y2O3 and MnCO3 as well as Ca modification on the microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and electrocaloric (EC) properties of Ba0.82Sr0.18Sn0.065Ti0.935O3 (BSSnT). Furthermore, the effects of the sintering time and temperature on the microstructure and the electrical properties of the most promising material system Ba0.62Ca0.20Sr0.18Sn0.065Ti0.935O3 (BCSSnT-20) are investigated. Additions of MgO (xMgO = 1%), Y2O3 (xY2O3 = 0.25%) and MnCO3 (xMnCO3 = 1%) significantly decreased the mean grain size of BSSnT to 0.4 µm, 0.8 µm and 0.4 µm, respectively. Ba0.62Ca0.20Sr0.18Sn0.065Ti0.935O3 (BCSSnT-20) gained a homogeneous fine-grained microstructure with an average grain size of 1.5 µm, leading to a maximum electrocaloric temperature change |ΔTEC| of 0.49 K at 40 °C with a broad peak of |ΔTEC| > 0.33 K in the temperature range from 10 °C to 75 °C under an electric field change of 5 V µm−1. By increasing the sintering temperature of BCSSnT-20 from 1350 °C to 1425 °C, the grain size increased from 1.5 µm to 7.3 µm and the maximum electrocaloric temperature change |ΔTEC| increased from 0.15 K at 35 °C to 0.37 K at 20 °C under an electric field change of 2 V µm−1. Our results show that under all investigated material systems, BCSSnT-20 is the most promising candidate for future application in multilayer ceramic (MLC) components for EC cooling devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectrics and Ferroelectrics for End Users)
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17 pages, 3714 KiB  
Article
Tuning Nb Solubility, Electrical Properties, and Imprint through PbO Stoichiometry in PZT Films
Materials 2023, 16(11), 3970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16113970 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films with high Nb concentrations (6–13 mol%) were grown by chemical solution deposition. In concentrations up to 8 mol% Nb, the films self-compensate the stoichiometry; single phase films were grown from precursor solutions with 10 mol% PbO excess. Higher [...] Read more.
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films with high Nb concentrations (6–13 mol%) were grown by chemical solution deposition. In concentrations up to 8 mol% Nb, the films self-compensate the stoichiometry; single phase films were grown from precursor solutions with 10 mol% PbO excess. Higher Nb concentrations induced multi-phase films unless the amount of excess PbO in the precursor solution was reduced. Phase pure perovskite films were grown with 13 mol% excess Nb with the addition of 6 mol% PbO. Charge compensation was achieved by creating lead vacancies when decreasing excess PbO level; using Kroger-Vink notation, NbTi are ionically compensated by VPb to maintain charge neutrality in heavily Nb-doped PZT films. With Nb doping, films showed suppressed {100} orientation, the Curie temperature decreased, and the maximum in the relative permittivity at the phase transition broadened. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties were dramatically degraded due to increased quantity of the non-polar pyrochlore phase in multi-phase films; εr reduced from 1360 ± 8 to 940 ± 6, and the remanent d33,f value decreased from 112 to 42 pm/V when increasing the Nb concentration from 6 to 13 mol%. Property deterioration was corrected by decreasing the PbO level to 6 mol%; phase pure perovskite films were attained. εr and the remanent d33,f increased to 1330 ± 9 and 106 ± 4 pm/V, respectively. There was no discernable difference in the level of self-imprint in phase pure PZT films with Nb doping. However, the magnitude of the internal field after thermal poling at 150 °C increased significantly; the level of imprint was 30 kV/cm and 11.5 kV/cm in phase pure 6 mol% and 13 mol% Nb-doped films, respectively. The absence of mobile VO, coupled with the immobile VPb in 13 mol% Nb-doped PZT films, leads to lower internal field formation upon thermal poling. For 6 mol% Nb-doped PZT films, the internal field formation was primarily governed by (1) the alignment of (VPbVO )x and (2) the injection and subsequent electron trapping by Ti4+. For 13 mol% Nb-doped PZT films, hole migration between VPb controlled internal field formation upon thermal poling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectrics and Ferroelectrics for End Users)
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