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Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 12190

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: additive manufacturing; characterization of weld joints; ultrasonic welding; laser welding; friction stir welding; friction welding; resistance spot welding; arc welding technologies; adhesive bonding
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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Campus De Nayer, 2860 Sint-Katelijne Waver, Belgium
Interests: welding engineering; process modelling; additive manufacturing; sustainable manufacturing; friction stir welding

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Guest Editor
WMG, International Manufacturing Centre, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Interests: light alloys; dissimilar metals joining; advanced characterization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The constant development of new materials and products also promotes the research and development of welding, joining and build-up welding technologies as well as additive manufacturing technologies. These investigations are multidisciplinary, and include processes, materials, the weldability and joinability of materials and alloys, the design of products and joints, and numerical simulations to comprehensively understand physical and metallurgical phenomena. A successful understanding of these phenomena enables the development of solutions to overcome these problems. This Special Issue aims to report basic and applied research results as well as case studies related to the weldability and joinability of materials and additive manufacturing.

The potential topics for the Special Issues include, but are not limited to:

  • Micro and nano joining;
  • Diffusion bonding;
  • Adhesive bonding;
  • Hybrid welding and additive manufacturing;
  • Laser welding;
  • Welding with mechanical energy;
  • Weldability of similar and dissimilar materials;
  • Advanced material characterization;
  • Residual stress and distortion;
  • Numerical modeling and simulation;
  • Additive manufacturing processes (DED, powder bed fusion, binder jetting, etc.);
  • Additive manufacturing of new materials, multi-materials and functionally graded materials;
  • Improvement of materials using weld surfacing and additive manufacturing;
  • Repair welding and repair additive manufacturing of products.

Dr. Damjan Klobcar
Dr. Abhay Sharma
Dr. Prakash Srirangam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • welding and joining technologies
  • brazing and soldering
  • additive manufacturing
  • adhesive bonding
  • weldability of materials

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

11 pages, 9743 KiB  
Article
Effect of Compressive Stress on Copper Bonding Quality and Bonding Mechanisms in Advanced Packaging
by Tsan-Feng Lu, Ping-Yang Lee and YewChung Sermon Wu
Materials 2024, 17(10), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17102236 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 287
Abstract
The thermal expansion behavior of Cu plays a critical role in the bonding mechanism of Cu/SiO2 hybrid joints. In this study, artificial voids, which were observed to evolve using a focused ion beam, were introduced at the bonded interfaces to investigate the [...] Read more.
The thermal expansion behavior of Cu plays a critical role in the bonding mechanism of Cu/SiO2 hybrid joints. In this study, artificial voids, which were observed to evolve using a focused ion beam, were introduced at the bonded interfaces to investigate the influence of compressive stress on bonding quality and mechanisms at elevated temperatures of 250 °C and 300 °C. The evolution of interfacial voids serves as a key indicator for assessing bonding quality. We quantified the bonding fraction and void fraction to characterize the bonding interface and found a notable increase in the bonding fraction and a corresponding decrease in the void fraction with increasing compressive stress levels. This is primarily attributed to the Cu film exhibiting greater creep/elastic deformation under higher compressive stress conditions. Furthermore, these experimental findings are supported by the surface diffusion creep model. Therefore, our study confirms that compressive stress affects the Cu–Cu bonding interface, emphasizing the need to consider the depth of Cu joints during process design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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13 pages, 13869 KiB  
Article
The Dominant Role of Recrystallization and Grain Growth Behaviors in the Simulated Welding Heat-Affected Zone of High-Mn Steel
by Yangwen Wang, Honghong Wang, Siyuan Peng, Bin Xia and Hai Zhu
Materials 2024, 17(10), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17102218 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Single-pass-welding thermal cycles with different peak temperatures (Tp) were reproduced by a Gleeble 3800 to simulate the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a Fe-24Mn-4Cr-0.4C-0.3Cu (wt.%) high manganese austenitic steel. Then, the effect of Tp on the microstructure and mechanical properties of [...] Read more.
Single-pass-welding thermal cycles with different peak temperatures (Tp) were reproduced by a Gleeble 3800 to simulate the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a Fe-24Mn-4Cr-0.4C-0.3Cu (wt.%) high manganese austenitic steel. Then, the effect of Tp on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the HAZ were investigated. The results indicate that recrystallization and grain growth play dominant roles. Based on this, the HAZ is proposed to categorize into three zones: the recrystallization heat-affected zone (RHAZ) with a Tp of 700~900 °C, the transition heat-affected zone (THAZ) with a Tp of 900~1000 °C, and the coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) with a Tp of 1000~1300 °C. The recrystallization fraction was 29~44% in the RHAZ, rapidly increased to 87% in the THAZ, and exceeded 95% in the CGHAZ. The average grain size was 17~19 μm in the RHAZ, slightly increased to 22 μm in the THAZ, and ultimately increased to 37 μm in the CGHAZ. The yield strength in the RHAZ and THAZ was consistent with the change in recrystallization fraction, while in the CGHAZ, it satisfied the Hall–Petch relationship with grain size. In addition, compared with the base material, the Charpy impact absorbed energy at −196 °C decreased by 22% in the RHAZ, but slightly increased in the CGHAZ. This indicates that the theory of fine grain strengthening and toughening is not entirely applicable to the HAZ of the investigated high-Mn steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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12 pages, 40630 KiB  
Article
Interfacial Reactions between Sn-Based Solders and n-Type Bi2(Te,Se)3 Thermoelectric Material
by Chao-Hong Wang, Chun-Wei Chiu and Mei-Hau Li
Materials 2024, 17(9), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17092158 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 420
Abstract
This study investigated the interfacial reactions between n-type Bi2(Te,Se)3 thermoelectric material, characterized by a highly-oriented (110) plane, and pure Sn and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) solders, respectively. At 250 °C, the liquid-state Sn/Bi2(Te,Se)3 reactions resulted in the formation of [...] Read more.
This study investigated the interfacial reactions between n-type Bi2(Te,Se)3 thermoelectric material, characterized by a highly-oriented (110) plane, and pure Sn and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) solders, respectively. At 250 °C, the liquid-state Sn/Bi2(Te,Se)3 reactions resulted in the formation of both SnTe and BiTe phases, with Bi-rich particles dispersed within the SnTe phase. The growth of the SnTe phase exhibited diffusion-controlled parabolic behavior over time. In contrast, the growth rate was considerably slower compared to that observed with p-type (Bi,Sb)2Te3. Solid-state Sn/Bi2(Te,Se)3 reactions conducted between 160 °C and 200 °C exhibited similar interfacial microstructures. The SnTe phase remained the primary reaction product, embedded with tiny Bi-rich particles, revealing a diffusion-controlled growth. However, the BiTe layer had no significant growth. Further investigation into growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds and microstructural evolution was conducted to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The slower growth rates in Bi2(Te,Se)3, compared to the reactions with (Bi,Sb)2Te3, could be attributed to the strong suppression effect of Se on SnTe growth. Additionally, the interfacial reactions of Bi2(Te,Se)3 with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu were also examined, showing similar growth behavior to those observed with Sn solder. Notably, compared with Ag, Cu tends to diffuse towards the interfacial reaction phases, resulting in a high Cu solubility within the SnTe phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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10 pages, 3506 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cu Film Thickness on Cu Bonding Quality and Bonding Mechanism
by Tsan-Feng Lu, Kai-Ning Hsu, Ching-Chi Hsu, Chia-Yu Hsu and YewChung Sermon Wu
Materials 2024, 17(9), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17092150 - 4 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 383
Abstract
In the hybrid bonding process, the final stage of chemical mechanical polishing plays a critical role. It is essential to ensure that the copper surface is recessed slightly from the oxide surface. However, this recess can lead to the occurrence of interfacial voids [...] Read more.
In the hybrid bonding process, the final stage of chemical mechanical polishing plays a critical role. It is essential to ensure that the copper surface is recessed slightly from the oxide surface. However, this recess can lead to the occurrence of interfacial voids between the bonded copper interfaces. To examine the effects of copper film thickness on bonding quality and bonding mechanisms in this study, artificial voids were intentionally introduced at the bonded interfaces at temperatures of 250 °C and 300 °C. The results revealed that as the thickness of the copper film increases, there is an increase in the bonding fraction and a decrease in the void fraction. The variations in void height with different copper film thicknesses were influenced by the bonding mechanism and bonding fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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13 pages, 2779 KiB  
Article
Weldability and Mechanical Properties of Pure Copper Foils Welded by Blue Diode Laser
by Tim Pasang, Shumpei Fujio, Pai-Chen Lin, Yuan Tao, Mao Sudo, Travis Kuendig, Yuji Sato and Masahiro Tsukamoto
Materials 2024, 17(9), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17092140 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The need to manufacture components out of copper is significantly increasing, particularly in the solar technology, semiconductor, and electric vehicle sectors. In the past few decades, infrared laser (IR) and green laser (GL) have been the primary technologies used to address this demand, [...] Read more.
The need to manufacture components out of copper is significantly increasing, particularly in the solar technology, semiconductor, and electric vehicle sectors. In the past few decades, infrared laser (IR) and green laser (GL) have been the primary technologies used to address this demand, especially for small or thin components. However, with the increased demand for energy saving, alternative joint techniques such as blue diode laser (BDL) are being actively explored. In this paper, bead-on-plate welding experiments on 0.2 mm thick pure copper samples employing a BDL are presented. Two sets of parameters were carefully selected in this investigation, namely Cu-1: Power (P) = 200 W; Speed (s) = 1 mm/s; and angle = 0°, and Cu-2: P = 200 W; s = 5 mm/s; and angle = 10°. The results from both sets of parameters produced defect-free full penetration welds. Hardness test results indicated relatively softer weld zones compared with the base metal. Tensile test samples fractured in the weld zones. Overall, the samples welded with Cu-1 parameters showed better mechanical properties, such as strength and elongation, than those welded with the Cu-2 parameters. The tensile strength and elongation obtained from Cu-1 were marginally lower than those of the unwelded pure copper. The outcomes from this research provide an alternative welding technique that is able to produce reliable, strong, and precise joints, particularly for small and thin components, which can be very challenging to produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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24 pages, 11055 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Mechanical Properties of Hardfacings Made by Standard Coated Stick Electrodes and a Newly Developed Rectangular Stick Electrode
by Edvard Bjelajac, Andrej Skumavc, Gorazd Lojen, Mirza Manjgo and Tomaž Vuherer
Materials 2024, 17(9), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17092051 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Cladding with a stick electrode is one of the oldest arc processes for adding a deposit on a base material. The process is suitable for outdoor working, but the disadvantages are low productivity and large dilution rates. In this work, a simple solution [...] Read more.
Cladding with a stick electrode is one of the oldest arc processes for adding a deposit on a base material. The process is suitable for outdoor working, but the disadvantages are low productivity and large dilution rates. In this work, a simple solution is proposed, which would enable cladding of a larger area with one pass and decrease the dilution rate at the same time—a new type of electrode was developed, exhibiting a rectangular cross-section instead of a round one. Hardfacings, welded with E Fe8 electrodes according to EN 14 700 Standard were welded on mild steel S355 J2 base material with three different coated stick electrodes. The first one was a commercially available, standard, round hardfacing electrode, the second was the same, but with a thinner coating, and the third one was a newly developed rectangular electrode. All three types had equal cross-sections of the metallic core and the same type of coating. Manufacturing of the rectangular electrodes in the laboratory is explained briefly. One- and multi-layer deposits were welded with all three types. Differences were observed in the arc behavior between the round and rectangular electrodes. With the rectangular electrode, the microstructure of the deposit was finer, penetration was shallower, and dilution rates were lower, while the hardness was higher, residual stresses predominantly compressive, and the results of instrumented Charpy impact tests and fracture mechanics tests were better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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16 pages, 5925 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Welds Produced with Different Processes
by Sakari Tolvanen, Robert Pederson and Uta Klement
Materials 2024, 17(4), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040782 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 604
Abstract
The effect of defects and microstructure on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V welds produced by tungsten inert gas welding; plasma arc welding; electron beam welding; and laser beam welding was studied in the present work. The mechanical properties of different weld types were [...] Read more.
The effect of defects and microstructure on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V welds produced by tungsten inert gas welding; plasma arc welding; electron beam welding; and laser beam welding was studied in the present work. The mechanical properties of different weld types were evaluated with respect to micro hardness; yield strength; ultimate tensile strength; ductility; and fatigue at room temperature and at elevated temperatures (200 °C and 250 °C). Metallographic investigation was carried out to characterize the microstructures of different weld types, and fractographic investigation was conducted to relate the effect of defects on fatigue performance. Electron and laser beam welding produced welds with finer microstructure, higher tensile ductility, and better fatigue performance than tungsten inert gas welding and plasma arc welding. Large pores, and pores located close to the specimen surface, were found to be most detrimental to fatigue life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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13 pages, 12227 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Joints from Coarse- and Ultrafine-Grained Al-Mg-Si Alloy Obtained via Friction Stir Welding
by Marta Lipińska
Materials 2023, 16(18), 6287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16186287 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
In the present study, the welding of coarse- (CG) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al-Mg-Si alloy using friction stir welding (FSW) was attempted. The purpose of welding the UFG material was to check the possibility of applying FSW to materials with a thermally unstable microstructure, [...] Read more.
In the present study, the welding of coarse- (CG) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al-Mg-Si alloy using friction stir welding (FSW) was attempted. The purpose of welding the UFG material was to check the possibility of applying FSW to materials with a thermally unstable microstructure, which is achieved by severe plastic deformation. This group of materials has significant potential due to the enhanced mechanical properties as a result of the elevated number of structural defects. The CG sample was also examined in order to assess whether there is an influence of the base material microstructure on the weld microstructure and properties. To refine the microstructure, incremental equal channel angular pressing was used. Plastic deformation resulted in grain refinement from 23 µm to 1.5 µm. It caused an increase in the microhardness from 105 HV0.1 to 125 HV0.1 and the tensile strength from 320 MPa to 394 MPa. Similar welds obtained using an FSW method exhibited good quality and grain size in a stir zone of 5 µm. For both welds, a decrease in the microhardness occurred in the stir zone. However, for the weld of UFG Al-Mg-Si, the microhardness distribution was homogeneous, while for the weld of the CG, it was inhomogeneous, which was caused by different characteristics of the second-phase precipitates. The tensile strength of the welds was lowered and equaled 269 MPa and 220 MPa for the CG and UFG welds, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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15 pages, 5661 KiB  
Article
Ni-Al Bronze in Molten Carbonate Manufactured by LPBF: Effect of Porosity Design on Mechanical Properties and Oxidation
by Camila Arcos, Carolina Guerra, Jorge A. Ramos-Grez and Mamié Sancy
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103893 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Fuel cell technology has developed due to diminishing dependence on fossil fuels and carbon footprint production. This work focuses on a nickel–aluminum bronze alloy as an anode produced by additive manufacturing as bulk and porous samples, studying the effect of designed porosity and [...] Read more.
Fuel cell technology has developed due to diminishing dependence on fossil fuels and carbon footprint production. This work focuses on a nickel–aluminum bronze alloy as an anode produced by additive manufacturing as bulk and porous samples, studying the effect of designed porosity and thermal treatment on mechanical and chemical stability in molten carbonate (Li2CO3-K2CO3). Micrographs showed a typical morphology of the martensite phase for all samples in as-built conditions and a spheroid structure on the surface after the heat treatment, possibly revealing the formation of molten salt deposits and corrosion products. FE-SEM analysis of the bulk samples showed some pores with a diameter near 2–5 μm in the as-built condition, which varied between 100 and −1000 μm for the porous samples. After exposure, the cross-section images of porous samples revealed a film composed principally of Cu and Fe, Al, followed by a Ni-rich zone, whose thickness was approximately 1.5 µm, which depended on the porous design but was not influenced significantly by the heat treatment. Additionally, by incorporating porosity, the corrosion rate of NAB samples increased slightly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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12 pages, 7663 KiB  
Article
The Influence of MSR-B Mg Alloy Surface Preparation on Bonding Properties
by Katarzyna Łyczkowska, Damian Miara, Beata Rams, Janusz Adamiec and Katarzyna Baluch
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103887 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Nowadays, industrial adhesives are replacing conventional bonding methods in many industries, including the automotive, aviation, and power industries, among others. The continuous development of joining technology has promoted adhesive bonding as one of the basic methods of joining metal materials. This article presents [...] Read more.
Nowadays, industrial adhesives are replacing conventional bonding methods in many industries, including the automotive, aviation, and power industries, among others. The continuous development of joining technology has promoted adhesive bonding as one of the basic methods of joining metal materials. This article presents the influence of surface preparation of magnesium alloys on the strength properties of a single-lap adhesive joint using a one-component epoxy adhesive. The samples were subjected to shear strength tests and metallographic observations. The lowest properties of the adhesive joint were obtained on samples degreased with isopropyl alcohol. The lack of surface treatment before joining led to destruction by adhesive and mixed mechanisms. Higher properties were obtained for samples ground with sandpaper. The depressions created as a result of grinding increased the contact area of the adhesive with the magnesium alloys. The highest properties were noticed for samples after sandblasting. This proved that the development of the surface layer and the formation of larger grooves increased both the shear strength and the resistance of the adhesive bonding to fracture toughness. It was found that the method of surface preparation had a significant influence on the resulting failure mechanism, and the adhesive bonding of the casting of magnesium alloy QE22 can be used successfully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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20 pages, 10818 KiB  
Article
Influence of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Rotary Friction Welded Inconel to Stainless Steel Joints
by Akhil Reddy Beeravolu, Nagumothu Kishore Babu, Mahesh Kumar Talari, Ateekh Ur Rehman and Prakash Srirangam
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083049 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
The present study aims to evaluate the microstructure, grain size, and mechanical properties of the dissimilar AISI 316L/Inconel 718 (IN 718) rotary friction welded joints under both the as-welded and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions. Because of reduced flow strength at elevated temperatures, [...] Read more.
The present study aims to evaluate the microstructure, grain size, and mechanical properties of the dissimilar AISI 316L/Inconel 718 (IN 718) rotary friction welded joints under both the as-welded and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions. Because of reduced flow strength at elevated temperatures, the AISI 316L and IN 718 dissimilar weldments exhibited more flash formation on the AISI 316L side. At higher rotating speeds during friction welding, an intermixing zone was created at the weld joint interface due to the material softening and squeezing. The dissimilar welds exhibited distinctive regions, including the fully deformed zone (FDZ), heat-affected zone (HAZ), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and the base metal (BM), located on either side of the weld interface. The dissimilar friction welds, AISI 316L/IN 718 ST and AISI 316L/IN 718 STA, exhibited yield strength (YS) of 634 ± 9 MPa and 602 ± 3 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 728 ± 7 MPa and 697± 2 MPa, and % elongation (% El) of 14 ± 1.5 and 17 ± 0.9, respectively. Among the welded samples, PWHT samples exhibited high strength (YS = 730 ± 2 MPa, UTS = 828 ± 5 MPa, % El = 9 ± 1.2), and this may be attributed to the formation of precipitates. Dissimilar PWHT friction weld samples resulted in the highest hardness among all the conditions in the FDZ due to the formation of precipitates. On the AISI 316L side, prolonged exposure to high temperatures during PWHT resulted in grain growth and decreased hardness. During the tensile test at ambient temperature, both the as-welded and PWHT friction weld joints failed in the HAZ regions of the AISI 316L side. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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19 pages, 7623 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Rotary Friction Welded AA7075 and AA5083 Dissimilar Joint
by Aditya M. Mahajan, Nagumothu Kishore Babu, Mahesh Kumar Talari, Ateekh Ur Rehman and Prakash Srirangam
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062464 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
The present work aims to investigate the changes in the microstructural and mechanical properties of various pre- and post weld heat treatments (PWHTs) on rotary friction welded dissimilar (AA7075 and AA5083) aluminum alloys. The investigation focused on the evolution of weld macro- and [...] Read more.
The present work aims to investigate the changes in the microstructural and mechanical properties of various pre- and post weld heat treatments (PWHTs) on rotary friction welded dissimilar (AA7075 and AA5083) aluminum alloys. The investigation focused on the evolution of weld macro- and microstructures, as well as the changes in hardness and tensile properties resulting from friction welding. The joint integrity was studied through various characterization techniques, and no cracks or incomplete bonding was observed. The study found that the dissimilar joints of the AA7075 and AA5083 alloys displayed higher flash formation on the AA7075 side, which has a lower melting temperature compared to the AA5083 alloy. Various zones were identified in the weld region, including the dynamic recrystallized zone (DRZ), the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) consisting of TMAZ-1 (elongated grains) and TMAZ-2 (compressed/distorted grains), the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the base metal (BM) zone. The rotary friction welded sample AA5083/AA7075-PWHT joint exhibited the highest strength (yield strength (YS): 195 ± 3 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS): 387 ± 2 MPa) among all the other welded conditions, and this may be attributed to the major strengthening precipitates MgZn2 (of AA7075) formed during postweld aging. All dissimilar welds failed in the HAZ region of the AA5083 side due to the formation of coarse grains, indicating the weakest region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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Review

Jump to: Research

35 pages, 12255 KiB  
Review
A Review on Multiplicity in Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing: Process, Capability, Scale, and Structure
by Ayush Verma, Angshuman Kapil, Damjan Klobčar and Abhay Sharma
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155246 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) has experienced exponential growth over the past two decades and now stands on the cusp of a transformative paradigm shift into the realm of multi-functional component manufacturing, known as multi-material AM (MMAM). While progress in MMAM has been more gradual [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) has experienced exponential growth over the past two decades and now stands on the cusp of a transformative paradigm shift into the realm of multi-functional component manufacturing, known as multi-material AM (MMAM). While progress in MMAM has been more gradual compared to single-material AM, significant strides have been made in exploring the scientific and technological possibilities of this emerging field. Researchers have conducted feasibility studies and investigated various processes for multi-material deposition, encompassing polymeric, metallic, and bio-materials. To facilitate further advancements, this review paper addresses the pressing need for a consolidated document on MMAM that can serve as a comprehensive guide to the state of the art. Previous reviews have tended to focus on specific processes or materials, overlooking the overall picture of MMAM. Thus, this pioneering review endeavors to synthesize the collective knowledge and provide a holistic understanding of the multiplicity of materials and multiscale processes employed in MMAM. The review commences with an analysis of the implications of multiplicity, delving into its advantages, applications, challenges, and issues. Subsequently, it offers a detailed examination of MMAM with respect to processes, materials, capabilities, scales, and structural aspects. Seven standard AM processes and hybrid AM processes are thoroughly scrutinized in the context of their adaptation for MMAM, accompanied by specific examples, merits, and demerits. The scope of the review encompasses material combinations in polymers, composites, metals-ceramics, metal alloys, and biomaterials. Furthermore, it explores MMAM’s capabilities in fabricating bi-metallic structures and functionally/compositionally graded materials, providing insights into various scale and structural aspects. The review culminates by outlining future research directions in MMAM and offering an overall outlook on the vast potential of multiplicity in this field. By presenting a comprehensive and integrated perspective, this paper aims to catalyze further breakthroughs in MMAM, thus propelling the next generation of multi-functional component manufacturing to new heights by capitalizing on the unprecedented possibilities of MMAM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining, and Additive Manufacturing of Metals and Alloys)
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