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Environmentally-Assisted Cracking of Traditional and Innovative Alloys

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2022) | Viewed by 8340

Special Issue Editors

Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Bergamo, 24044 Dalmine, BG, Italy
Interests: electrochemical and corrosion; environmentally assisted cracking; hydrogen diffusion and embrittlement; corrosion of additive manufactured alloys; biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Materials Performance Centre, Department of Material, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Interests: environmental assisted cracking; stress corrosion cracking; hydrogen embrittlement; corrosion-fatigue; aqueous corrosion; elevated temperature aqueous corrosion; corrosion in nuclear environment; corrosion of additive manufactured alloys; electrochemical tests for corrosion; nickel base alloys, stainless steels, light weight alloys

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a pleasure to introduce you to this Special Issue dedicated to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC), the premature fracture of susceptible materials under the synergistic action of tensile loading and a specific environment. Although EAC phenomena are not the most widespread forms of corrosion, they are very aggressive, with the great economic and environmental impacts, and they sometimes even threaten human life. For this reason, they are the subject of numerous studies. Within EAC, we find phenomena such as stress corrosion, fatigue corrosion, and hydrogen embrittlement. The latter is extremely timely, considering that many industrialized countries see hydrogen as a source of green energy that will play an important role in decarbonising energy consumption. The transport, storage, and subsequent reoxidation of hydrogen represent a great challenge for the materials of the future, which must ensure great structural performance whilst guaranteeing operational safety. This Special Issue aims to be a collection of the most recent research on the problems of EAC, above all but not limited to the industry of production, transport, and the storage of traditional and innovative energy sources. Other aspects of EAC-related work are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Marina Cabrini
Dr. Fabio Scenini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • environmentally-assisted cracking
  • stress corrosion cracking
  • hydrogen embrittlement
  • corrosion-fatigue
  • sulfide stress corrosion cracking
  • stress corrosion cracking of additive manufactured alloys

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 15330 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Behavior and Susceptibility to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Leaded and Lead-Free Brasses in Simulated Drinking Water
Materials 2022, 15(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010144 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2801
Abstract
Duplex α + β’ brasses are widely used in drinking water distribution systems for tube fittings, valves, and ancillaries because they are low cost, easy to fabricate, and exhibit high mechanical strength. However, depending on application conditions and alloy composition, they may undergo [...] Read more.
Duplex α + β’ brasses are widely used in drinking water distribution systems for tube fittings, valves, and ancillaries because they are low cost, easy to fabricate, and exhibit high mechanical strength. However, depending on application conditions and alloy composition, they may undergo dealloying and stress corrosion cracking. In this research, three different brass types, two leaded (CW617N and CW602N) alloys and one lead-free brass (CW724R), were investigated to assess their corrosion behavior and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in simulated drinking water (SDW) solutions containing different chloride concentrations, compatible with drinking water composition requirements according to Moroccan standard NM 03.7.001. The corrosion behavior was assessed by electrochemical tests such as polarization curve recording and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) monitoring, coupled to SEM-EDS surface observations. The susceptibility to SCC was investigated by slow strain rate tests (SSRT). The tests showed that corrosion was mainly under diffusion control and chlorides slightly accelerated corrosion rates. All alloys, and particularly CW617N, were affected by SCC under the testing conditions adopted and in general the SCC susceptibility increased at increasing chloride concentration. Full article
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16 pages, 3960 KiB  
Article
Study of SCC of X70 Steel Immersed in Simulated Soil Solution at Different pH by EIS
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237445 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
An electrochemical study of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X70 steel in a simulated soil solution at different pH values (3, 8 and 10) was carried out. The stress conditions were implemented by slow strain rate stress test (SSRT) and the SCC [...] Read more.
An electrochemical study of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X70 steel in a simulated soil solution at different pH values (3, 8 and 10) was carried out. The stress conditions were implemented by slow strain rate stress test (SSRT) and the SCC process was simultaneously monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Fracture surface analysis and corrosion product analysis were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results show that the susceptibility to SCC was higher as the pH decreases. In the acid solution, hydrogen evolution can occur by H+ and H2CO3 reduction, and more atomic hydrogen can diffuse into the steel, producing embrittlement. EIS results indicated that the anodic dissolution contributed to SCC process by reducing the charge transfer resistances during the SSRT test. While SEM micrographs shown a general corrosion morphology on the longitudinal surface of samples. At higher pH (pH 8 and pH 10), the SCC susceptibility was lower, which it is attributed to the presence of corrosion products film, which could have limited the process. Using the angle phase (φ) value it was determined that the cracking process started at a point close to the yield strength (YS). Full article
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16 pages, 5805 KiB  
Article
Stress Corrosion Cracking of Additively Manufactured Alloy 625
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206115 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Laser bed powder fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of semi-finished components directly from computer-aided design modelling, through melting and consolidation, layer upon layer, of a metallic powder, with a laser source. This manufacturing technique is particularly indicated for [...] Read more.
Laser bed powder fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of semi-finished components directly from computer-aided design modelling, through melting and consolidation, layer upon layer, of a metallic powder, with a laser source. This manufacturing technique is particularly indicated for poor machinable alloys, such as Alloy 625. However, the unique microstructure generated could modify the resistance of the alloy to environment assisted cracking. The aim of this work was to analyze the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement resistance behavior of Alloy 625 obtained by LPBF, both in as-built condition and after a standard heat treatment (grade 1). U-bend testing performed in boiling magnesium chloride at 155 and 170 °C confirmed the immunity of the alloy to SCC. However, slow strain rate tests in simulated ocean water on cathodically polarized specimens highlighted the possibility of the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement in a specific range of strain rate and cathodic polarization. The very fine grain size and dislocation density of the thermally untreated specimens appeared to increase the hydrogen diffusion and embrittlement effect on pre-charged specimens that were deformed at the high strain rate. Conversely, heat treatment appeared to mitigate hydrogen embrittlement at high strain rates, however at the slow strain rate all the specimens showed a similar behavior. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 6069 KiB  
Review
Distinct Advantages of Circumferential Notch Tensile (CNT) Testing in the Determination of a Threshold for Stress Corrosion Cracking (KISCC)
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195620 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a vexing problem for load-bearing equipment operating in a corrosive environment in various industries, such as aerospace, chemical and mineral processing, civil structures, bioimplants, energy generation etc. For safe operation, effective maintenance and life prediction of such equipment, [...] Read more.
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a vexing problem for load-bearing equipment operating in a corrosive environment in various industries, such as aerospace, chemical and mineral processing, civil structures, bioimplants, energy generation etc. For safe operation, effective maintenance and life prediction of such equipment, reliable design data on SCC (such as threshold stress intensity for SCC, i.e., KISCC) are invaluable. Generating reliable KISCC data invariably requires a large number of tests. Traditional techniques can be prohibitively expensive. This article reviews the determination of KISCC using the circumferential notch tensile (CNT) technique, the validation of the technique and its application to a few industrially relevant scenarios. The CNT technique is a relatively recent and considerably inexpensive approach for the determination of KISCC when compared to traditional techniques, viz., double-cantilever beam (DCB) and compact tension (CT) that may be fraught with prohibitive complexities. As established through this article, the CNT technique circumvents some critical limitations of the traditional techniques. Full article
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