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Advances in Rock and Mineral Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2024 | Viewed by 2824

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mineral Resources and Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Slovenia, Dimičeva ulica 14, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: mineral raw materials; ore deposits; construction materials; secondary raw materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: concrete; building; building materials; ceramics; materials; material; characterization; nanomaterials; civil engineering materials; concrete technologies; construction material
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Lea Žibret
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor Assistant
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimičeva 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: alkali-activated material; clay-based materials; clay bricks; secondary raw materials; geology; X-ray diffraction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Material sciences support society by means of research and development of new, advanced, and environmental and health-friendly materials we all use for everyday activities. Among them are mineral raw materials, like iron and ferro-alloy metals, non-ferrous metals, precious metals, industrial minerals, mineral fuels, and materials for the construction industry. These "primary" raw materials are extracted from the earth and are precursors for various engineered materials, which are used for the vast number of different products we are using in everyday life, including products for construction, transportation, energy production and supply, telecommunications, home appliances, products for green transition, packaging, etc. To safeguard primary raw materials, the use of "secondary" raw materials has been gaining increased importance. The “Secondary” raw materials are materials, which are recycled raw materials that can be used in manufacturing processes instead of or alongside virgin raw materials

This Special Issue aims to explore various aspects within mineral material life cycles (both primary and secondary): geological occurrences and extraction, processing and metallurgy, engineered mineral materials (such as cements, ceramics, geopolymers, composites, adsorbents, etc.), and their application, recycling, and disposal. Papers shall aim to explore chemical, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental factors, engineering, life cycle assessment, and other aspects related to rock and mineral materials.

Dr. Gorazd Žibret
Dr. Vilma Ducman
Dr. Lea Žibret
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • primary and secondary mineral raw materials
  • engineered materials
  • lifecycle analysis
  • construction
  • disposal
  • recycling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 7199 KiB  
Article
Design, Characterization, and Incorporation of the Alkaline Aluminosilicate Binder in Temperature-Insulating Composites
Materials 2024, 17(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030664 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 403
Abstract
This paper covers the design of binder formulations and technology for low-energy building materials based on alkaline aluminosilicate binders developed for special uses. The microstructure of the binders was investigated using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy examination techniques. The identification of phase [...] Read more.
This paper covers the design of binder formulations and technology for low-energy building materials based on alkaline aluminosilicate binders developed for special uses. The microstructure of the binders was investigated using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy examination techniques. The identification of phase compositions was performed by means of X-ray diffraction. The degree of binding of the alkali metal ions within the binder was determined with the help of chemical analysis of the pore fluid. Structure formation depending upon binder mix design and curing conditions was also studied. Some examples of the manufacture and application of binder-based glues and adhesives, including those developed for heat insulation and fire prevention, are discussed. The advantages of binder-based temperature-insulating composite materials compared with traditionally used materials are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rock and Mineral Materials)
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35 pages, 9562 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Accuracy of Bonded Block Models for Prediction of Rockmass Analog Mechanical Behavior
Materials 2024, 17(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010088 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Large-scale rock formations, referred to as “rockmasses”, consist of intact rock separated by pre-existing discontinuities (i.e., joints). The mechanical behavior of rockmasses is difficult to directly test in the laboratory due to the required specimen scale. Instead, Synthetic Rockmass Modeling (SRM) is often [...] Read more.
Large-scale rock formations, referred to as “rockmasses”, consist of intact rock separated by pre-existing discontinuities (i.e., joints). The mechanical behavior of rockmasses is difficult to directly test in the laboratory due to the required specimen scale. Instead, Synthetic Rockmass Modeling (SRM) is often used to simulate field-scale rockmass behavior. SRM requires a calibrated discrete element model (DEM) of intact rock combined with a Discrete Fracture Network (DFN). While the SRM concept has been informally determined to provide reasonable results based on practitioner experience, detailed and peer-reviewed validation is lacking. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the SRM method. Previously available data on intact and rockmass analog laboratory specimens of Blanco Mera granite containing DFNs with two joint sets were used as a basis for the SRM created in this study. Specifically, the intact DEM was a Bonded Block Model (BBM), generated to match the grain structure and composition of Blanco Mera granite and the model’s input parameters were calibrated so that the behavior of the BBM matched that of the intact laboratory specimens. The predictive capabilities of the model were evaluated by recreating the DFN from the jointed laboratory specimens within the intact BBM and comparing the behavior of the jointed models back to the jointed laboratory specimens, which has not been previously studied in the literature. The BBM was found capable of approximately predicting the behavior of rockmass analog specimens containing a pre-existing DFN without further calibration, which shows potential for the use of SRM in both industry and academia. Specifically, the BBM predicted the strength, dilatancy, and microfracturing behavior of the jointed laboratory specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rock and Mineral Materials)
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22 pages, 9321 KiB  
Article
New Minerals from Inclusions in Corundum Xenocrysts from Mt. Carmel, Israel: Magnéliite, Ziroite, Sassite, Mizraite-(Ce) and Yeite
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247578 - 09 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
Our nanomineralogical investigation of melt inclusions in corundum xenocrysts from the Mt. Carmel area, Israel has revealed seven IMA-approved new minerals since 2021. We report here four new oxide minerals and one new alloy mineral. Magnéliite (Ti3+2Ti4+2O [...] Read more.
Our nanomineralogical investigation of melt inclusions in corundum xenocrysts from the Mt. Carmel area, Israel has revealed seven IMA-approved new minerals since 2021. We report here four new oxide minerals and one new alloy mineral. Magnéliite (Ti3+2Ti4+2O7; IMA 2021-111) occurs as subhedral crystals, ~4 μm in size, with alabandite, zirconolite, Ti,Al,Zr-oxide, and hibonite in corundum Grain 767-1. Magnéliite has an empirical formula (Ti3+1.66Al0.13Ti4+0.15Mg0.10Ca0.01Sc0.01)Σ2.06 (Ti4+1.93Zr0.08)Σ2.01O7 and the triclinic P1¯ Ti4O7-type structure with the cell parameters: a = 5.60(1) Å, b = 7.13(1) Å, c = 12.47(1) Å, α = 95.1(1)°, β = 95.2(1)°, γ = 108.7(1)°, V = 466(2) Å3, Z = 4. Ziroite (ZrO2; IMA 2022-013) occurs as irregular crystals, ~1–4 μm in size, with baddeleyite, hibonite, and Ti,Al,Zr-oxide in corundum Grain 479-1a. Ziroite has an empirical formula (Zr0.72Ti4+0.26Mg0.02Al0.02Hf0.01)Σ1.03O2 and the tetragonal P42/nmc zirconia(HT)-type structure with the cell parameters: a = 3.60(1) Å, c = 5.18(1) Å, V = 67.1(3) Å3, Z = 2. Sassite (Ti3+2Ti4+O5; IMA 2022-014) occurs as subhedral-euhedral crystals, ~4–16 μm in size, with Ti,Al,Zr-oxide, mullite, osbornite, baddeleyite, alabandite, and glass in corundum Grain 1125C1. Sassite has an empirical formula (Ti3+1.35Al0.49Ti4+0.08Mg0.07)Σ1.99(Ti4+0.93Zr0.06Si0.01)Σ1.00O5 and the orthorhombic Cmcm pseudobrookite-type structure with the cell parameters: a = 3.80(1) Å, b = 9.85(1) Å, c = 9.99(1) Å, V = 374(1) Å3, Z = 4. Mizraite-(Ce) (Ce(Al11Mg)O19; IMA 2022-027) occurs as euhedral crystals, <1–14 μm in size, with Ce-silicate, Ti-sulfide, Ti,Al,Zr-oxide, ziroite, and thorianite in corundum Grain 198-8. Mizraite-(Ce) has an empirical formula (Ce0.76Ca0.10La0.07Nd0.01)Σ0.94(Al10.43Mg0.84Ti3+0.60Si0.09Zr0.04)Σ12.00O19 and the hexagonal P63/mmc magnetoplumbite-type structure with the cell parameters: a = 5.61(1) Å, c = 22.29(1) Å, V = 608(2) Å3, Z = 2. Yeite (TiSi; IMA 2022-079) occurs as irregular-subhedral crystals, 1.2–3.5 μm in size, along with wenjiite (Ti5Si3) and zhiqinite (TiSi2) in Ti-Si alloy inclusions in corundum Grain 198c. Yeite has an empirical formula (Ti0.995Mn0.003V0.001Cr0.001)(Si0.996P0.004) and the orthorhombic Pnma FeB-type structure with the cell parameters: a = 6.55(1) Å, b = 3.64(1) Å, c = 4.99(1) Å, V = 119.0(4) Å3, Z = 4. The five minerals are high-temperature oxide or alloy phases, formed in melt pockets in corundum xenocrysts derived from the upper mantle beneath Mt. Carmel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rock and Mineral Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

18 pages, 1133 KiB  
Review
Recovery of Phosphorus and Metals from the Ash of Sewage Sludge, Municipal Solid Waste, or Wood Biomass: A Review and Proposals for Further Use
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216948 - 29 Oct 2023
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Abstract
This review provides an overview of methods to extract valuable resources from the ash fractions of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and wood biomass combustion. The resources addressed here include critical raw materials, such as phosphorus, base and precious metals, and rare earth [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of methods to extract valuable resources from the ash fractions of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and wood biomass combustion. The resources addressed here include critical raw materials, such as phosphorus, base and precious metals, and rare earth elements for which it is increasingly important to tap into secondary sources in addition to the mining of primary raw materials. The extraction technologies prioritized in this review are based on recycled acids or excess renewable energy to achieve an optimum environmental profile for the extracted resources and provide benefits in the form of local industrial symbioses. The extraction methods cover all scarce and valuable chemical elements contained in the ashes above certain concentration limits. Another important part of this review is defining potential applications for the mineral residues remaining after extraction. Therefore, the aim of this review is to combine the knowledge of resource extraction technology from ashes with possible applications of mineral residues in construction and related sectors to fully close material cycle loops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rock and Mineral Materials)
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