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Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2024) | Viewed by 9942

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-007 Katowice, Poland
Interests: mechanical alloying; X-ray diffraction; diffuse scattering; RDF; PDF; rietveld refinement; structure determination; residual stress
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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: materials engineering; amorphous and nanostructured materials; soft magnetic materials; steels; degradable biomaterials; heat treatment; mechanical alloying; powder metallurgy; fracture morphology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We cordially invite you to publish original scientific articles describing the results of research works or review articles in the Special Issue entitled "Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites". New metal matrix alloys and composites are materials that can have unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. This allows them to be used in numerous and advanced applications. These materials are in the mainstream of global research; therefore, in order to better understand the mechanisms occurring in such materials, and thus model and design them more effectively, it is necessary to fully understand and describe their structure and relate it to the specific properties of these materials.

Therefore, the submitted works may concern both innovative engineering materials, alloys, and composites with modified structures and physico-chemical properties, as well as original technological modifications used in the manufacturing methodology. Papers can also focus on developing new technological solutions and mathematical models to formulate new conclusions.

This Special Issue will provide a detailed review of recent research and developments in the phase and structural analysis of novel alloys and metal matrix composites. We are pleased to invite you to submit your manuscript for this Special Issue. Full articles, announcements, and reviews related to structural characterization are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Małgorzata Karolus
Prof. Dr. Sabina Lesz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • alloys
  • metal matrix composites
  • structural characterization
  • phase analysis
  • rietveld refinement
  • SEM, TEM
  • XRD

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 5934 KiB  
Article
Phase Field Simulation of the Effect of Second Phase Particles with Different Orientations on the Microstructure of Magnesium Alloys
by Yan Wu, Jinlin Xiong, Shuo Wang, Junsheng Yang and Mingtao Wang
Materials 2023, 16(18), 6329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16186329 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 673
Abstract
In this study, the phase field method has been used to study the effect of second phase particles with different shapes and different orientations on the grain growth of AZ31 magnesium alloy, after annealing at 350 °C for 100 min. The results show [...] Read more.
In this study, the phase field method has been used to study the effect of second phase particles with different shapes and different orientations on the grain growth of AZ31 magnesium alloy, after annealing at 350 °C for 100 min. The results show that the shape of the second phase particles would have an effect on the grain growth; the refinement effect of elliptical particles and rod-shaped particles was similar, and better than the spherical particles; the spatial arrangement direction of the second phase particles had no significant effect on the grain growth. On the other hand, when the microstructure of AZ31 magnesium alloy contained second phase particles with different shapes, the effect of mixing different shapes of second phase particles on the grain refinement was enhanced gradually with the decrease im the volume fraction of spherical particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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14 pages, 11508 KiB  
Article
Grain Structure Evolution in 6013 Aluminum Alloy during High Heat-Input Friction-Stir Welding
by Alexander Kalinenko, Pavel Dolzhenko, Sergey Malopheyev, Diana Yuzbekova, Ivan Shishov, Vasiliy Mishin, Sergey Mironov and Rustam Kaibyshev
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175973 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 607
Abstract
This work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of friction-stir welding (FSW) under a high-heat input condition on microstructural evolution. Given the extreme combination of deformation conditions associated with such an FSW regime (including the highest strain, temperature, and strain rate), it was [...] Read more.
This work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of friction-stir welding (FSW) under a high-heat input condition on microstructural evolution. Given the extreme combination of deformation conditions associated with such an FSW regime (including the highest strain, temperature, and strain rate), it was expected to result in an unusual structural response. For this investigation, a commercial 6013 aluminum alloy was used as a program material, and FSW was conducted at a relatively high spindle rate of 1100 rpm and an extremely low feed rate of 13 mm/min; moreover, a Ti-6Al-4V backing plate was employed to reduce heat loss during welding. It was found that the high-heat-input FSW resulted in the formation of a pronounced fine-grained layer at the upper weld surface. This observation was attributed to the stirring action exerted by the shoulder of the FSW tool. Another important issue was the retardation of continuous recrystallization. This interesting phenomenon was explained in terms of a competition between recrystallization and recovery at high temperatures. Specifically, the activation of recovery should reduce dislocation density and thus retard the development of deformation-induced boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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13 pages, 4739 KiB  
Article
Effect of C Addition on the Microstructure and Fracture Properties of In Situ Laminated Nb/Nb5Si3 Composites
by Delu Zeng, Lairong Xiao, Shaofu Xu, Huali Yu, Yu Zhang, Chenxu Yu, Xiaojun Zhao, Zhenyang Cai and Wei Li
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5637; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165637 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 625
Abstract
//Nbss and α-Nb5Si3 phases were detected. Meanwhile, Nb2C was observed, and the crystal forms of Nb5Si3 changed in the C-doped composites. Furthermore, micron-sized and nano-sized Nb2C particles were found in the Nb [...] Read more.
//Nbss and α-Nb5Si3 phases were detected. Meanwhile, Nb2C was observed, and the crystal forms of Nb5Si3 changed in the C-doped composites. Furthermore, micron-sized and nano-sized Nb2C particles were found in the Nbss layer. The orientation relationship of Nb2C phase and the surrounding Nbss was [001]Nbss//[010]Nb2C, (200) Nbss//(101) Nb2C. Additionally, with the addition of C, the compressive strength of the composites, at 1400 °C, and the fracture toughness increased from 310 MPa and 11.9 MPa·m1/2 to 330 MPa and 14.2 MPa·m1/2, respectively; the addition of C mainly resulted in solid solution strengthening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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21 pages, 10493 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Oxidation Resistance of a Novel MoSi2-ZrB2-Based Coating on Mo-Based Alloy
by Yafang Zhang, Xiaojun Zhou, Huichao Cheng, Zhanji Geng and Wei Li
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5634; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165634 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
To enhance the oxidation resistance of Mo-based TZM alloy (Mo-0.5Ti-0.1Zr-0.02C, wt%), a novel MoSi2-ZrB2 composite coating was applied on the TZM substrate by a two-step process comprising the in situ reaction of Mo, Zr, and B4C to form [...] Read more.
To enhance the oxidation resistance of Mo-based TZM alloy (Mo-0.5Ti-0.1Zr-0.02C, wt%), a novel MoSi2-ZrB2 composite coating was applied on the TZM substrate by a two-step process comprising the in situ reaction of Mo, Zr, and B4C to form a ZrB2-MoB pre-layer followed by pack siliconizing. The as-packed coating was composed of a multi-layer structure, consisting of a MoB diffusion layer, an MoSi2-ZrB2 inner layer, and an outer layer of mixture of MoSi2 and Al2O3. The composite coating could provide excellent oxidation-resistant protection for the TZM alloy at 1600 °C. The oxidation kinetic curve of the composite coating followed the parabolic rule, and the weight gain of the coated sample after 20 h of oxidation at 1600 °C was only 5.24 mg/cm2. During oxidation, a dense and continuous SiO2-baed oxide scale embedded with ZrO2 and ZrSiO4 particles showing high thermal stability and low oxygen permeability could be formed on the surface of the coating by oxidation of MoSi2 and ZrB2, which could hinder the inward diffusion of oxygen at high temperatures. Concurrently, the MoB inner diffusion layer played an important role in hindering the diffusion of Si inward with regard to the TZM alloy and could retard the degradation of MoSi2, which could also improve the long life of the coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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10 pages, 7430 KiB  
Article
The Effects of MgO and Al2O3 Content in Sinter on the Softening–Melting Properties of Mixed Ferrous Burden
by Zhexi Li, Tingle Li, Changyu Sun, Songtao Yang and Qi Wang
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155490 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
The softening–melting properties of mixed ferrous burden made from high-basicity sinter with increased MgO and Al2O3 content and acid pellets was investigated for optimization. The influences of MgO and Al2O3 are discussed with the aid of phase [...] Read more.
The softening–melting properties of mixed ferrous burden made from high-basicity sinter with increased MgO and Al2O3 content and acid pellets was investigated for optimization. The influences of MgO and Al2O3 are discussed with the aid of phase analysis. The results showed that, with decreasing MgO mass%/Al2O3 mass% in mixed burden, all the softening–melting characteristic temperatures decreased, which can be attributed to the low melting temperature and viscosity of the slag caused by MgO and Al2O3. The permeability of the melting zone deteriorated again when MgO mass%/Al2O3 mass% decreased to a certain content. The softening interval widened slightly at first and then narrowed, while the melting interval first increased slightly and then increased greatly later. It can be deduced that the softening properties were improved, but the melting properties were worsened. Under comprehensive consideration of its softening–melting properties, permeability, iron ore reduction and the thermal state of the blast furnace hearth, the optimal softening–melting properties of a mixed ferrous burden with MgO mass%/Al2O3 mass% of 0.82 is optimal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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16 pages, 7047 KiB  
Article
Application of Constitutive Models and Machine Learning Models to Predict the Elevated Temperature Flow Behavior of TiAl Alloy
by Rui Zhao, Jianchao He, Hao Tian, Yongjuan Jing and Jie Xiong
Materials 2023, 16(14), 4987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16144987 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
The hot deformation behaviors of a Ti46Al2Cr2Nb alloy were investigated at strain rates of 0.001–0.1 s−1 and temperatures of 910–1060 °C. Under given deformation conditions, the activation energy of the TiAl alloy could be estimated as 319 kJ/mol. The experimental results were [...] Read more.
The hot deformation behaviors of a Ti46Al2Cr2Nb alloy were investigated at strain rates of 0.001–0.1 s−1 and temperatures of 910–1060 °C. Under given deformation conditions, the activation energy of the TiAl alloy could be estimated as 319 kJ/mol. The experimental results were predicted by different predictive models including three constitutive models and three data-driven models. The most accurate data-driven model and constitutive model were an artificial neural network (ANN) and an Arrhenius type strain-compensated Sellars (SCS) model, respectively. In addition, the generalization capability of ANN model and SCS model was examined under different deformation conditions. Under known deformation conditions, the ANN model could accurately predict the flow stress of TiAl alloys at interpolated and extrapolated strains with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.98, while the R2 value of the SCS model was smaller than 0.5 at extrapolated strains. However, both ANN and SCS models performed poorly under new deformation conditions. A hybrid model based on the SCS model and ANN predictions was shown to have a wider generalization capability. The present work provides a comprehensive study on how to choose a predictive model for the flow stress of TiAl alloys under different conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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12 pages, 2347 KiB  
Article
Thermophysical Properties of Laser Powder Bed Fused Ti-6Al-4V and AlSi10Mg Alloys Made with Varying Laser Parameters
by Stephen Akwaboa, Congyuan Zeng, Nigel Amoafo-Yeboah, Samuel Ibekwe and Patrick Mensah
Materials 2023, 16(14), 4920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16144920 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 871
Abstract
This study investigated the influence of diverse laser processing parameters on the thermophysical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and AlSi10Mg alloys manufactured via laser powder bed fusion. During fabrication, the laser power (50 W, 75 W, 100 W) and laser scanning speed (0.2 m/s, 0.4 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the influence of diverse laser processing parameters on the thermophysical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and AlSi10Mg alloys manufactured via laser powder bed fusion. During fabrication, the laser power (50 W, 75 W, 100 W) and laser scanning speed (0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s, 0.6 m/s) were adjusted while keeping other processing parameters constant. Besides laser processing parameters, this study also explored the impact of test temperatures on the thermophysical properties of the alloys. It was found that the thermophysical properties of L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples were sensitive to laser processing parameters, while L-PBF AlSi10Mg alloy showed less sensitivity. In general, for the L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V alloy, as the laser power increased and laser scan speed decreased, both thermal diffusivity and conductivity increased. Both L-PBF Ti-6Al-4V and L-PBF AlSi10Mg alloys demonstrated similar dependence on test temperatures, with thermal diffusivity and conductivity increasing as the test temperature rose. The CALPHAD software Thermo-Calc (2023b), applied in Scheil Solidification Mode, was utilized to calculate the quantity of solution atoms, thus enhancing our understanding of observed thermal conductivity variations. A detailed analysis revealed how variations in laser processing parameters and test temperatures significantly influence the alloy’s resulting density, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity. This research not only highlights the importance of processing parameters but also enriches comprehension of the mechanisms influencing these effects in the domain of laser powder bed fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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21 pages, 11644 KiB  
Article
Recrystallization of Hot-Rolled 2A14 Alloy during Semisolid Temperature Annealing Process
by Yingze Liu, Jufu Jiang, Ying Zhang, Minjie Huang, Jian Dong and Ying Wang
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072796 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
In this study, in order to provide proper parameters for the preparation of semisolid billets, the semisolid annealing of hot-rolled 2A14 Al alloy was investigated. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer [...] Read more.
In this study, in order to provide proper parameters for the preparation of semisolid billets, the semisolid annealing of hot-rolled 2A14 Al alloy was investigated. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The XRD results showed that, with an increase in temperature, the θ-Al2Cu equilibrium gradually dissolved in the matrix. The EDS results of SEM and STEM showed a coarse θ-Al2Cu phase, ultrafine precipitate Al(MnFeSi) or (Mn, Fe)Al6 phase, and atomic clusters in the microstructure. The EBSD results showed that the recrystallization mechanism was dominated by continuous static recrystallization (CSRX), homogeneous nucleation occurred when the sample was heated to near solidus temperature, and CSRX occurred at a semisolid temperature. In the process of recrystallization, the microtexture changed from the preferred orientation to a random orientation. Various experimental results showed that static recrystallization (SRX) occurred at a semisolid temperature due to the blocking effect of atomic clusters on the dislocation slip, and the Zener drag effect of fine precipitates on low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) disappeared with melting at a semisolid temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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17 pages, 9171 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Mg-Based Sintered Alloy with Au Addition
by Sabina Lesz, Małgorzata Karolus, Adrian Gabryś, Bartłomiej Hrapkowicz, Witold Walke, Wojciech Pakieła, Klaudiusz Gołombek, Julia Popis and Peter Palček
Materials 2023, 16(5), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16051915 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
The magnesium-based alloys produced by mechanical alloying (MA) are characterized by specific porosity, fine-grained structure, and isotropic properties. In addition, alloys containing magnesium, zinc, calcium, and the noble element gold are biocompatible, so they can be used for biomedical implants. The paper assesses [...] Read more.
The magnesium-based alloys produced by mechanical alloying (MA) are characterized by specific porosity, fine-grained structure, and isotropic properties. In addition, alloys containing magnesium, zinc, calcium, and the noble element gold are biocompatible, so they can be used for biomedical implants. The paper assesses selected mechanical properties and the structure of the Mg63Zn30Ca4Au3 as a potential biodegradable biomaterial. The alloy was produced by mechanical synthesis with a milling time of 13 h, and sintered via spark-plasma sintering (SPS) carried out at a temperature of 350 °C and a compaction pressure of 50 MPa, with a holding time of 4 min and a heating rate of 50 °C∙min−1 to 300 °C and 25 °C∙min−1 from 300 to 350 °C. The article presents the results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, density, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size distributions, and Vickers microhardness and electrochemical properties via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic immersion testing. The obtained results reveal the compressive strength of 216 MPa and Young’s modulus of 2530 MPa. The structure comprises MgZn2 and Mg3Au phases formed during the mechanical synthesis, and Mg7Zn3 that has been formed during the sintering process. Although MgZn2 and Mg7Zn3 improve the corrosion resistance of the Mg-based alloys, it has been revealed that the double layer formed because of contact with the Ringer’s solution is not an effective barrier; hence, more data and optimization are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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10 pages, 9049 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Core-Shell B4C-Reinforced Ti Matrix Composites
by Ziyang Xiu, Boyu Ju, Junhai Zhan, Ningbo Zhang, Pengjun Wang, Keguang Zhao, Mingda Liu, Aiping Yin, Weidi Chen, Yang Jiao, Hao Wang, Shuyang Li, Xiaolin Zhu, Ping Wu and Wenshu Yang
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031166 - 30 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Composite material uses ceramic reinforcement to add to the metal matrix to obtain higher material properties. Structural design is an important direction of composite research. The reinforcement distribution of the core-shell structure has the unique advantages of strong continuity and uniform stress distribution. [...] Read more.
Composite material uses ceramic reinforcement to add to the metal matrix to obtain higher material properties. Structural design is an important direction of composite research. The reinforcement distribution of the core-shell structure has the unique advantages of strong continuity and uniform stress distribution. In this paper, a method of preparing boron carbide (B4C)-coated titanium (Ti) powder particles by ball milling and preparing core-shell B4C-reinforced Ti matrix composites by Spark Plasma Sintering was proposed. It can be seen that B4C coated on the surface of the spherical Ti powder to form a shell structure, and B4C had a certain continuity. Through X-ray diffraction characterization, it was found that B4C reacted with Ti to form layered phases of titanium boride (TiB) and titanium carbide (TiC). The compressive strength of the composite reached 1529.1 MPa, while maintaining a compressive strain rate of 5%. At the same time, conductivity and thermal conductivity were also characterized. The preparation process of the core-shell structure composites proposed in this paper has high feasibility and universality, and it is expected to be applied to other ceramic reinforcements. This result provides a reference for the design, preparation and performance research of core-shell composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase and Structure Analysis of Alloys and Metal Matrix Composites)
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