Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine-Derived Ingredients for Drugs, Cosmeceuticals and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 16968

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Interests: marine functional lipids; brain function; lipid metabolism; metabolism syndrome
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Interests: DHA/EPA; phospholipids; plasmalogen; early life nutrition; neurodegenerative diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fish oil is considered a healthy food due to the presence of large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially in the form of n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. Various studies have indicated that fish oil can reduce or prevent the burden of diseases, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cancers, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Fish oil dietary supplements are widely available, usually in triacylglycerol (TAG) and ethyl ester (EE) forms. The main forms of EPA/DHA in marine foods are TAGs and phospholipids (PLs). PL forms and traditional fish oil supplements have different nutritional functions and are constitute of the most popular research topics for EPA/DHA-enriched structural lipids. Moreover, there is an increasing number of high-purity DHA or EPA products, so it is essential to clarify the differences in physiological activities between DHA and EPA, as well as the differences in disease treatment and prevention, exploring new physiological regulatory functions and analyzing their molecular mechanisms. In recent years, researchers have also focused on the structural modification and derivatives of EPA/DHA. This research will contribute to the development and applications of fish oils as functional foods.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight the potential of marine fish oils as functional foods. We welcome all original research articles, reviews, perspectives, and method papers that focus on, but are not limited to, the following themes:

  • The structure-activity relationship of fish oil in different molecular species to maintain human health and prevent chronic disease.
  • The evaluation of novel functions and an analysis of the possible underlying mechanisms of high-purity DHA or EPA.
  • To explore the impact of fish oil on human health at different stages of the life cycle, such as early-life nutrition.

Prof. Dr. Yuming Wang
Dr. Tiantian Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fish oil
  • DHA/EPA
  • Phospholipids
  • early-life nutrition
  • structure-activity relationship
  • chronic disease
  • mechanism
  • bioactivity

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 6761 KiB  
Article
EPA and DHA Alleviated Chronic Dextran Sulfate Sodium Exposure-Induced Depressive-like Behaviors in Mice and Potential Mechanisms Involved
by Xi-Yu Wang, Shu-Sen He, Miao-Miao Zhou, Xiao-Ran Li, Cheng-Cheng Wang, Ying-Cai Zhao, Chang-Hu Xue and Hong-Xia Che
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22020076 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have higher rates of depression. However, the mechanism of depression development remains unclear. The improvements of EPA and DHA on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC have been verified. Therefore, the present study mainly focused on the effects of [...] Read more.
Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have higher rates of depression. However, the mechanism of depression development remains unclear. The improvements of EPA and DHA on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC have been verified. Therefore, the present study mainly focused on the effects of EPA and DHA on UC-induced depression in C57BL/6 mice and the possible mechanisms involved. A forced swimming test and tail suspension experiment showed that EPA and DHA significantly improved DSS-induced depressive-like behavior. Further analysis demonstrated that EPA and DHA could significantly suppress the inflammation response of the gut and brain by regulating the NLRP3/ASC signal pathway. Moreover, intestine and brain barriers were maintained by enhancing ZO-1 and occludin expression. In addition, EPA and DHA also increased the serotonin (5-HT) concentration and synaptic proteins. Interestingly, EPA and DHA treatments increased the proportion of dominant bacteria, alpha diversity, and beta diversity. In conclusion, oral administration of EPA and DHA alleviated UC-induced depressive-like behavior in mice by modulating the inflammation, maintaining the mucosal and brain barriers, suppressing neuronal damage and reverting microbiota changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
Dietary Phospholipids Alleviate Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice: Which Fatty Acids and Which Polar Head
by Lingyu Zhang, Jiaqin Mu, Jing Meng, Wenjin Su and Jian Li
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(11), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21110555 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
The weight loss effects of dietary phospholipids have been extensively studied. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of phospholipids (PLs) with different fatty acids and polar headgroups on the development of obesity. High-fat-diet-fed mice were administrated with different kinds of [...] Read more.
The weight loss effects of dietary phospholipids have been extensively studied. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of phospholipids (PLs) with different fatty acids and polar headgroups on the development of obesity. High-fat-diet-fed mice were administrated with different kinds of PLs (2%, w/w) with specific fatty acids and headgroups, including EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylserine (EPA-PC/PE/PS), DHA-PC/PE/PS, Egg-PC/PE/PS, and Soy-PC/PE/PS for eight weeks. Body weight, white adipose tissue weight, and the levels of serum lipid and inflammatory markers were measured. The expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver were determined. The results showed that PLs decreased body weight, fat storage, and circulating lipid levels, and EPA-PLs had the best efficiency. Serum TNF-α, MCP-1 levels were significantly reduced via treatment with DHA-PLs and PS groups. Mechanistic investigation revealed that PLs, especially EPA-PLs and PSs, reduced fat accumulation through enhancing the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt1a, Cpt2, Cd36, and Acaa1a) and downregulating lipogenesis gene (Srebp1c, Scd1, Fas, and Acc) expression. These data suggest that EPA-PS exhibits the best effects among other PLs in terms of ameliorating obesity, which might be attributed to the fatty acid composition of phospholipids, as well as their headgroup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3665 KiB  
Article
Heme Oxygenase-1 Is Involved in the Repair of Oxidative Damage Induced by Oxidized Fish Oil in Litopenaeus vannamei by Sulforaphane
by Junliang Luo, Yongxiong Huang, Yanghui Chen, Yunhao Yuan, Guojian Li, Shuanghu Cai, Jichang Jian and Shiping Yang
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(10), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21100548 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which could be highly induced under the stimulation of oxidative stress, functions in reducing the damage caused by oxidative stress, and sulforaphane (SFN) is an antioxidant. This study aims to investigate whether HO-1 is involved in the repair of oxidative [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which could be highly induced under the stimulation of oxidative stress, functions in reducing the damage caused by oxidative stress, and sulforaphane (SFN) is an antioxidant. This study aims to investigate whether HO-1 is involved in the repair of oxidative damage induced by oxidized fish oil (OFO) in Litopenaeus vannamei by sulforaphane (SFN). The oxidative stress model of L. vannamei was established by feeding OFO feed (OFO accounts for 6%), and they were divided into the following four groups: control group (injected with dsRNA-EGFP and fed with common feed), dsRNA-HO-1 group (dsRNA-HO-1, common feed), dsRNA-HO-1 + SFN group (dsRNA-HO-1, supplement 50 mg kg−1 SFN feed), and SFN group (dsRNA-EGFP, supplement 50 mg kg−1 SFN feed). The results showed that the expression level of HO-1 in the dsRNA-HO-1 + SFN group was significantly increased compared with the dsRNA-HO-1 group (p < 0.05). The activities of SOD in muscle and GPX in hepatopancreas and serum of the dsRNA-HO-1 group were significantly lower than those of the control group, and MDA content in the dsRNA-HO-1 group was the highest among the four groups. However, SFN treatment increased the activities of GPX and SOD in hepatopancreas, muscle, and serum and significantly reduced the content of MDA (p < 0.05). SFN activated HO-1, upregulated the expression of antioxidant-related genes (CAT, SOD, GST, GPX, Trx, HIF-1α, Nrf2, prx 2, Hsp 70), and autophagy genes (ATG 3, ATG 5), and stabilized the expression of apoptosis genes (caspase 2, caspase 3) in the hepatopancreas (p < 0.05). In addition, knocking down HO-1 aggravated the vacuolation of hepatopancreas and increased the apoptosis of hepatopancreas, while the supplement of SFN could repair the vacuolation of hepatopancreas and reduce the apoptosis signal. In summary, HO-1 is involved in the repair of the oxidative damage induced by OFO in L. vannamei by SFN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4485 KiB  
Article
Soy Protein Isolate–Chitosan Nanoparticle-Stabilized Pickering Emulsions: Stability and In Vitro Digestion for DHA
by Pengcheng Zhao, Yuan Ji, Han Yang, Xianghong Meng and Bingjie Liu
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(10), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21100546 - 22 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the stability and oral delivery of DHA-encapsulated Pickering emulsions stabilized by soy protein isolate–chitosan (SPI-CS) nanoparticles (SPI-CS Pickering emulsions) under various conditions and in the simulated gastrointestinal (GIT) model. The stability of DHA was characterized [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the stability and oral delivery of DHA-encapsulated Pickering emulsions stabilized by soy protein isolate–chitosan (SPI-CS) nanoparticles (SPI-CS Pickering emulsions) under various conditions and in the simulated gastrointestinal (GIT) model. The stability of DHA was characterized by the retention rate under storage, ionic strength, and thermal conditions. The oral delivery efficiency was characterized by the retention and release rate of DHA in the GIT model and cell viability and uptake in the Caco-2 model. The results showed that the content of DHA was above 90% in various conditions. The retention rate of DHA in Pickering emulsions containing various nanoparticle concentrations (1.5 and 3.5%) decreased to 80%, while passing through the mouth to the stomach, and DHA was released 26% in 1.5% Pickering emulsions, which was faster than that of 3.5% in the small intestine. After digestion, DHA Pickering emulsions proved to be nontoxic and effectively absorbed by cells. These findings helped to develop a novel delivery system for DHA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 5074 KiB  
Article
A Compared Study of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Improving Seizure-Induced Cognitive Deficiency in a Pentylenetetrazol-Kindling Young Mice Model
by Yueqi Yang, Xueyan Wang, Lu Chen, Shiben Wang, Jun Han, Zhengping Wang and Min Wen
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(9), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21090464 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is more prevalent in children, and recurrent unprovoked seizures can lead to cognitive impairment. Numerous studies have reported the benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on neurodevelopment and cognitive ability, while comparatively less attention has been given [...] Read more.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is more prevalent in children, and recurrent unprovoked seizures can lead to cognitive impairment. Numerous studies have reported the benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on neurodevelopment and cognitive ability, while comparatively less attention has been given to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Additionally, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of DHA and EPA in relation to seizure-induced cognitive impairment in the young rodent model. Current research indicates that ferroptosis is involved in epilepsy and cognitive deficiency in children. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether EPA or DHA can mitigate seizure-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting ferroptosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the effects of DHA and EPA on seizure-induced cognitive deficiency and reveal the underlying mechanisms focused on ferroptosis in a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindling young mice model. Mice were fed a diet containing DHA-enriched ethyl esters or EPA-enriched ethyl esters for 21 days at the age of 3 weeks and treated with PTZ (35 mg/kg, i.p.) every other day 10 times. The findings indicated that both EPA and DHA exhibited ameliorative effects on seizure-induced cognitive impairment, with EPA demonstrating a superior efficacy. Further mechanism study revealed that supplementation of DHA and EPA significantly increased cerebral DHA and EPA levels, balanced neurotransmitters, and inhibited ferroptosis by modulating iron homeostasis and reducing lipid peroxide accumulation in the hippocampus through activating the Nrf2/Sirt3 signal pathway. Notably, EPA exhibited better an advantage in ameliorating iron dyshomeostasis compared to DHA, owing to its stronger upregulation of Sirt3. These results indicate that DHA and EPA can efficaciously alleviate seizure-induced cognitive deficiency by inhibiting ferroptosis in PTZ-kindled young mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 3276 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study about the Neuroprotective Effects of DHA-Enriched Phosphatidylserine and EPA-Enriched Phosphatidylserine against Oxidative Damage in Primary Hippocampal Neurons
by Yi-Wen Wang, Qian Li, Xiao-Yue Li, Ying-Cai Zhao, Cheng-Cheng Wang, Chang-Hu Xue, Yu-Ming Wang and Tian-Tian Zhang
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(7), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21070410 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Nerve damage caused by accumulated oxidative stress is one of the characteristics and main mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that phosphatidylserine (PS) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays a significant role in preventing and mitigating [...] Read more.
Nerve damage caused by accumulated oxidative stress is one of the characteristics and main mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that phosphatidylserine (PS) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays a significant role in preventing and mitigating the progression of AD. However, whether DHA-PS and EPA-PS can directly protect primary hippocampal neurons against oxidative damage has not been studied. Here, the neuroprotective functions of DHA-PS and EPA-PS against H2O2/t-BHP-induced oxidative damage and the possible mechanisms were evaluated in primary hippocampal neurons. It was found that DHA-PS and EPA-PS could significantly improve cell morphology and promote the restoration of neural network structure. Further studies showed that both of them significantly alleviated oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. EPA-PS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, thus playing an anti-apoptotic role, and EPA-PS significantly increased the protein expressions of p-TrkB and p-CREB, thus playing a neuroprotective role. In addition, EPA-PS, rather than DHA-PS could enhance synaptic plasticity by increasing the expression of SYN, and both could significantly reduce the expression levels of p-GSK3β and p-Tau. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of DHA/EPA-enriched phospholipids in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, and also provide a reference for the development of related functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2110 KiB  
Article
N-3 PUFA Deficiency Aggravates Streptozotocin-Induced Pancreatic Injury in Mice but Dietary Supplementation with DHA/EPA Protects the Pancreas via Suppressing Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis
by Hong-Yu Zou, Hui-Juan Zhang, Ying-Cai Zhao, Xiao-Yue Li, Yu-Ming Wang, Tian-Tian Zhang and Chang-Hu Xue
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21010039 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
It has been reported that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert therapeutic potential for the preservation of functional β-cell mass. However, the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency on pancreatic injury and whether the supplementation of n-3 PUFA could prevent the [...] Read more.
It has been reported that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert therapeutic potential for the preservation of functional β-cell mass. However, the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency on pancreatic injury and whether the supplementation of n-3 PUFA could prevent the development of pancreatic injury are still not clear. In the present study, an n-3 PUFA deficiency mouse model was established by feeding them with n-3 PUFA deficiency diets for 30 days. Results showed that n-3 PUFA deficiency aggravated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced pancreas injury by reducing the insulin level by 18.21% and the HOMA β-cell indices by 31.13% and the area of islet by 52.58% compared with the STZ group. Moreover, pre-intervention with DHA and EPA for 15 days could alleviate STZ-induced pancreas damage by increasing the insulin level by 55.26% and 44.33%, the HOMA β-cell indices by 118.81% and 157.26% and reversed the area of islet by 196.75% and 205.57% compared to the n-3 Def group, and the effects were significant compared to γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) treatment. The possible underlying mechanisms indicated that EPA and DHA significantly reduced the ration of n-6 PUFA to n-3 PUFA and then inhibited oxidative stress, inflammation and islet β-cell apoptosis levels in pancreas tissue. The results might provide insights into the prevention and alleviation of pancreas injury by dietary intervention with PUFAs and provide a theoretical basis for their application in functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3187 KiB  
Article
Targeting EGFR in Combination with Nutritional Supplements on Antitumor Efficacy in a Lung Cancer Mouse Model
by Chih-Hung Guo, Wen-Chin Li, Chia-Lin Peng, Pei-Chung Chen, Shih-Yu Lee and Simon Hsia
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(12), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20120751 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Selenium (Se) and fish oil (FO) exert anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) action on tumors. This study aimed to compare the anti-cancer efficacy of EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib and erlotinib) alone and in combination with nutritional supplements of Se/FO in treating lung cancer. Lewis [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) and fish oil (FO) exert anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) action on tumors. This study aimed to compare the anti-cancer efficacy of EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib and erlotinib) alone and in combination with nutritional supplements of Se/FO in treating lung cancer. Lewis LLC1 tumor-bearing mice were treated with a vehicle or Se/FO, gefitinib or gefitinib plus Se/FO, and erlotinib or erlotinib plus Se/FO. The tumors were assessed for mRNA and protein expressions of relevant signaling molecules. Untreated tumor-bearing mice had the lowest body weight and highest tumor weight and volume of all the mice. Mice receiving the combination treatment with Se/FO and gefitinib or erlotinib had a lower tumor volume and weight and fewer metastases than did those treated with gefitinib or erlotinib alone. The combination treatment exhibited greater alterations in receptor signaling molecules (lower EGFR/TGF-β/TβR/AXL/Wnt3a/Wnt5a/FZD7/β-catenin; higher GSK-3β) and immune checkpoint molecules (lower PD-1/PD-L1/CD80/CTLA-4/IL-6; higher NKp46/CD16/CD28/IL-2). These mouse tumors also had lower angiogenesis, cancer stemness, epithelial to mesenchymal transitions, metastases, and proliferation of Ki-67, as well as higher cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These preliminary results showed the Se/FO treatment enhanced the therapeutic efficacies of gefitinib and erlotinib via modulating multiple signaling pathways in an LLC1-bearing mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 3020 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Docosahexaenoic Acid with Different Molecular Forms for Promoting Apoptosis of the 95D Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells in a PPARγ-Dependent Manner
by Hao Yue, Yingying Tian, Zifang Zhao, Yuying Bo, Yao Guo and Jingfeng Wang
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(10), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20100599 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Cancer is a leading cause of death in worldwide. Growing evidence has shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has ameliorative effects on cancer. However, the effects of DHA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) and efficacy differences between DHA-PC, DHA-triglyceride (DHA-TG), and DHA- ethyl esters (DHA-EE) on cancer [...] Read more.
Cancer is a leading cause of death in worldwide. Growing evidence has shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has ameliorative effects on cancer. However, the effects of DHA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) and efficacy differences between DHA-PC, DHA-triglyceride (DHA-TG), and DHA- ethyl esters (DHA-EE) on cancer cells had not been studied. In this study, 95D lung cancer cells in vitro were used to determine the effects and underlying mechanisms of DHA with different molecular forms. The results showed that DHA-PC and DHA-TG treatment significantly inhibited the growth of 95D cells by 53.7% and 33.8%, whereas DHA-EE had no significantly effect. Morphological analysis showed that DHA-PC and DHA-TG prompted promoted cell contraction, increased concentration of cell heterochromatin, vacuolization of cytoplasm, and edema of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. TUNEL and AO/EB staining indicated that both DHA-PC and DHA-TG promoted cell apoptosis, in which DHA-PC performed better than DHA-TG. Mechanistically, DHA-PC and DHA-TG treatment up-regulated the PPARγ and RXRα signal, inhibited the expression of NF-κB and Bcl-2, and enhanced the expression of Bax and caspase-3, thereby promoting cell apoptosis. In conclusion, DHA-PC exerted superior effects to DHA-TG and DHA-EE in promoting apoptosis in 95D non-small-cell lung cancer cells. These data provide new evidence for the application of DHA in treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 2326 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Diseases and Marine Oils: A Focus on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Polar Lipids
by Cliodhna Caffrey, Anna Leamy, Ellen O’Sullivan, Ioannis Zabetakis, Ronan Lordan and Constantina Nasopoulou
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(11), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21110549 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death across the globe, hence, establishing strategies to counteract CVD are imperative to reduce mortality and the burden on health systems. Dietary modification is an effective primary prevention strategy against CVD. Research regarding dietary supplementation [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death across the globe, hence, establishing strategies to counteract CVD are imperative to reduce mortality and the burden on health systems. Dietary modification is an effective primary prevention strategy against CVD. Research regarding dietary supplementation has become increasingly popular. This review focuses on the current in vivo, in vitro, and epidemiological studies associated with that of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and polar lipids (PLs) and how they play a role against CVD. Furthermore, this review focuses on the results of several major clinical trials examining n-3 PUFAs regarding both primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Notably, we place a lens on the REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH trials. Finally, supplementation of PLs has recently been suggested as a potential alternative avenue for the reduction of CVD incidence versus neutral forms of n-3 PUFAs. However, the clinical evidence for this argument is currently rather limited. Therefore, we draw on the current literature to suggest future clinical trials for PL supplementation. We conclude that despite conflicting evidence, future human trials must be completed to confirm whether PL supplementation may be more effective than n-3 PUFA supplementation to reduce cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fish Oils as Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop