Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials of Marine Origin".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 16242

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of Milan, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: marine collagen; biomaterials; echinoderms; regeneration; circular economy

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of Milan, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: bioactive compounds from agro-industrial and food wastes; supercritical CO2 extraction; green technologies; green chemistry; pigments; antioxidants; materials chemistry
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the main societal challenges of waste recycling and valorization, two of the pillars of the Circular Economy approach. According to the latter, waste materials and byproducts are used as “secondary resources” for the development of new products, while reducing their socioeconomic and environmental impacts. In this context, byproducts from marine resources (mainly, but not only, from the food industry) are becoming a promising and abundant source of compounds to be reused for different human applications. These natural products include a large spectrum of both structural and bioactive molecules. Among the former, marine collagens are a rapidly expanding field of research.

The focus of this Special Issue will be to provide an overview of the latest research addressed to the valorization of marine byproducts toward different applied fields, gathering and publishing original articles and review papers on (but not limited to) the following topics:

  • Waste valorization strategies applied to marine-derived products;
  • Marine biomaterials and bioactive extraction strategies;
  • Biocomposite and biomaterial design and characterization;
  • Bioprinting and materials design;
  • Applications in anticancer therapies, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory treatments.

Both basic (e.g., novel extraction strategies, chemical/biological/functional characterization of the molecule) and applied research (e.g., in vivo efficacy testing) are welcome.

Dr. Michela Sugni
Dr. Stefania Marzorati
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • marine collagen
  • biomaterials
  • circular economy
  • byproducts
  • antioxidants
  • bioactives
  • polyphenols
  • anti-inflammatory activity
  • antitumoral activity
  • added-value compounds
  • composite materials
  • skin regeneration

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 4588 KiB  
Article
Sea Urchin Food Waste into Bioactives: Collagen and Polyhydroxynaphtoquinones from P. lividus and S. granularis
by Margherita Roncoroni, Giordana Martinelli, Stefano Farris, Stefania Marzorati and Michela Sugni
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040163 - 03 Apr 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Approximately 75,000 tons of different sea urchin species are globally harvested for their edible gonads. Applying a circular economy approach, we have recently demonstrated that non-edible parts of the Mediterranean Sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus can be fully valorized into high-value products: antioxidant pigments [...] Read more.
Approximately 75,000 tons of different sea urchin species are globally harvested for their edible gonads. Applying a circular economy approach, we have recently demonstrated that non-edible parts of the Mediterranean Sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus can be fully valorized into high-value products: antioxidant pigments (polyhydroxynaphthoquinones—PHNQs) and fibrillar collagen can be extracted to produce innovative biomaterials for biomedical applications. Can waste from other edible sea urchin species (e.g., Sphaerechinus granularis) be similarly valorised? A comparative study on PHNQs and collagen extraction was conducted. PHNQ extraction yields were compared, pigments were quantified and identified, and antioxidant activities were assessed (by ABTS assay) and correlated to specific PHNQ presence (i.e., spinochrome E). Similarly, collagen extraction yields were evaluated, and the resulting collagen-based biomaterials were compared in terms of their ultrastructure, degradation kinetics, and resistance to compression. Results showed a partially similar PHNQ profile in both species, with significantly higher yield in P. lividus, while S. granularis exhibited better antioxidant activity. P. lividus samples showed higher collagen extraction yield, but S. granularis scaffolds showed higher stability. In conclusion, waste from different species can be successfully valorised through PHNQ and collagen extraction, offering diverse applications in the biomedical field, according to specific technical requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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18 pages, 6114 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Enzyme-Soluble Swim Bladder Collagen from Sea Eel (Muraenesox cinereus) and Evaluation Its Wound Healing Capacity
by Hangting Li, Jing Tian, Hongjie Cao, Yunping Tang, Fangfang Huang and Zuisu Yang
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(10), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21100525 - 03 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
In the present research, the enzyme-facilitated collagen from sea eel (Muraenesox cinereus) swim bladder was isolated, and the collagen characteristics were analyzed. Then, the collagen sponge was prepared and its potential mechanism in promoting skin wound healing in mice was further [...] Read more.
In the present research, the enzyme-facilitated collagen from sea eel (Muraenesox cinereus) swim bladder was isolated, and the collagen characteristics were analyzed. Then, the collagen sponge was prepared and its potential mechanism in promoting skin wound healing in mice was further investigated. Collagen was obtained from the swim bladder of sea eels employing the pepsin extraction technique. Single-factor experiments served as the basis for the response surface method (RSM) to optimize pepsin concentration, solid-liquid ratio, and hydrolysis period. With a pepsin concentration of 2067 U/g, a solid-liquid ratio of 1:83 g/mL, and a hydrolysis period of 10 h, collagen extraction achieved a yield of 93.76%. The physicochemical analysis revealed that the extracted collagen belonged to type I collagen, and the collagen sponge displayed a fibrous structure under electron microscopy. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, mice treated with collagen sponge dressing exhibited elevated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The collagen sponge dressing effectively alleviated inflammation in the wound area, facilitating efficient repair and rapid healing of the skin tissue. During the initial phase of wound healing, the group treated with collagen sponge dressing exhibited an enhancement in the expressions of cluster of differentiation (CD)31, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and type I collagen, leading to an accelerated rate of wound healing. In addition, this collagen sponge dressing could also downregulate the expressions of CD31, EGF, and type I collagen to prevent scar formation in the later stage. Moreover, this collagen treatment minimized oxidative damage and inflammation during skin wound healing and facilitated blood vessel formation in the wound. Consequently, it exhibits significant potential as an ideal material for the development of a skin wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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18 pages, 4162 KiB  
Article
Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Inhibitory Peptides from the Collagens of Monkfish (Lophius litulon) Swim Bladders: Isolation, Characterization, Molecular Docking Analysis and Activity Evaluation
by Yu-Dong Hu, Qing-Hao Xi, Jing Kong, Yu-Qin Zhao, Chang-Feng Chi and Bin Wang
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(10), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21100516 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize collagen and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory (ACEi) peptides from the swim bladders of monkfish (Lophius litulon). Therefore, acid-soluble collagen (ASC-M) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC-M) with yields of 4.27 ± 0.22% and 9.54 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize collagen and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory (ACEi) peptides from the swim bladders of monkfish (Lophius litulon). Therefore, acid-soluble collagen (ASC-M) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC-M) with yields of 4.27 ± 0.22% and 9.54 ± 0.51%, respectively, were extracted from monkfish swim bladders using acid and enzyme methods. The ASC-M and PSC-M contained Gly (325.2 and 314.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively) as the major amino acid, but they had low imino acid content (192.5 and 188.6 residues/1000 residues, respectively) in comparison with collagen from calf skins (CSC) (216.6 residues/1000 residues). The sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrums of ASC-M and PSC-M illustrated that they were mainly composed of type I collagen. Subsequently, three ACEi peptides were isolated from a PSC-M hydrolysate prepared via a double-enzyme system (alcalase + neutrase) and identified as SEGPK (MHP6), FDGPY (MHP7) and SPGPW (MHP9), with molecular weights of 516.5, 597.6 and 542.6 Da, respectively. SEGPK, FDGPY and SPGPW displayed remarkable anti-ACE activity, with IC50 values of 0.63, 0.94 and 0.71 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, a molecular docking assay demonstrated that the affinities of SEGPK, FDGPY and SPGPW with ACE were −7.3, −10.9 and −9.4 kcal/mol, respectively. The remarkable ACEi activity of SEGPK, FDGPY and SPGPW was due to their connection with the active pockets and/or sites of ACE via hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic force. Moreover, SEGPK, FDGPY and SPGPW could protect HUVECs by controlling levels of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Therefore, this work provides an effective means for the preparation of collagens and novel ACEi peptides from monkfish swim bladders, and the prepared ACEi peptides, including SEGPK, FDGPY and SPGPW, could serve as natural functional components in the development of health care products to control hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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14 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Swim Bladder of Farmed Totoaba macdonaldi: A Source of Value-Added Collagen
by Honorio Cruz-López, Sergio Rodríguez-Morales, Luis M. Enríquez-Paredes, Luis Jesús Villarreal-Gómez, Conal True, Leticia Olivera-Castillo, D. Alejandro Fernández-Velasco and Lus M. López
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21030173 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Finding strategies to use the swim bladder of farmed totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) is of the utmost need to reduce waste. Fish swim bladders are rich in collagen; hence, extracting collagen is a promising alternative with benefits for aquaculture of totoaba and [...] Read more.
Finding strategies to use the swim bladder of farmed totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) is of the utmost need to reduce waste. Fish swim bladders are rich in collagen; hence, extracting collagen is a promising alternative with benefits for aquaculture of totoaba and the environment. The elemental biochemical composition of totoaba swim bladders, including their proximate and amino acid compositions, was determined. Pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) was used to extract collagen from swim bladders, and its characteristics were analyzed. Alcalase and papain were used for the preparation of collagen hydrolysates. Swim bladders contained 95% protein, 2.4% fat, and 0.8% ash (on a dry basis). The essential amino acid content was low, but the functional amino acid content was high. The PSC yield was high, at 68% (dry weight). The amino acid composition profile, electrophoretic pattern, and structural integrity analyses of the isolated collagen suggested it is a typical type-I collagen with high purity. The denaturalization temperature was 32.5 °C, probably attributable to the imino acid content (205 residues/1000 residues). Papain-hydrolysates (≤3 kDa) of this collagen exhibited higher radical scavenging activity than Alcalase-hydrolysates. The swim bladder from the farmed totoaba could be an ideal source to produce high-quality type I collagen and may be considered an alternative to conventional collagen sources or bioactive peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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14 pages, 2080 KiB  
Article
An In Vivo Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Blue Shark (Prionace glauca) Cartilage Collagen as a Cosmetic
by Wen-Chien Lu, Chien-Shan Chiu, Yung-Jia Chan, Tian-Pin Guo, Ching-Chin Lin, Po-Chun Wang, Po-Yu Lin, Amanda Tresiliana Mulio and Po-Hsien Li
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(10), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20100633 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
The “blue shark”, Prionace glauca (class: Chondrichthyes), is a pelagic shark species commonly found in tropical and temperate oceans. This shark is mainly sold in Asian countries as food and as traditional Chinese medicine. According to the Red List of the International Union [...] Read more.
The “blue shark”, Prionace glauca (class: Chondrichthyes), is a pelagic shark species commonly found in tropical and temperate oceans. This shark is mainly sold in Asian countries as food and as traditional Chinese medicine. According to the Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, P. glauca is classified as low-risk to near endangered. P. glauca cartilage contains collagen type II, which makes it suitable as a bioactive ingredient in cosmeceutical products. This study evaluated the effects of a gel containing various concentrations (0.125–5%) of lyophilized hydrolyzed P. glauca cartilage on the human inner wrist skin compared to a placebo (base). A skin properties evaluation test was conducted before and after applying various concentrations (0.125–5%) of the P. glauca cartilage gel for 10 and 20 min on the inner wrists of participants using a skin analyzer that determined the moisture level, oil level, texture level, complexion level, and the 3D level. Adding lyophilized hydrolyzed shark cartilage (LHSC) significantly improved the moisture, texture, and complexion of the skin while controlling oil and providing a wrinkle-smoothing effect. The result indicated that LHSC formulations were prepared at different concentrations, and they had significantly enhanced effects on skin hydration and elasticity (texture) and the smoothing of wrinkles (3D level). The LHSC also effectively controlled oil secretion and the complexion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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14 pages, 2421 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical, Structural and Antioxidant Properties of Collagens from the Swim Bladder of Four Fish Species
by Ye Dong and Zhiyuan Dai
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(9), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20090550 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
This study aimed to isolate and characterize pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) from marine and freshwater fish swim bladders. The physicochemical properties, protein pattern, amino acid composition, structure, thermal denaturation temperature, and antioxidant activity of PSC from four different swim bladder sources were investigated and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to isolate and characterize pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) from marine and freshwater fish swim bladders. The physicochemical properties, protein pattern, amino acid composition, structure, thermal denaturation temperature, and antioxidant activity of PSC from four different swim bladder sources were investigated and compared. The results demonstrated that the four types of collagen extracted were all type I collagen. The yield of PSC extracted from grass carp (GCSB-PSC), bighead carp (BCSB-PSC), grouper (GSB-PSC), and monkfish swim bladders (MSB-PSC) were 38.98, 27.97, 18.16, and 10.35%, respectively. Compared to the other three PSCs, BCSB-PSC has the highest thermal denaturation temperature (38.60 °C). Based on FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) analysis, the extracted PSCs retained the triple helix and secondary structure well. Antioxidant studies showed that in the swim bladders of four species the swim bladder PSC could scavenge DPPH and ABTS radicals. Overall, swim bladders from marine and freshwater fish can be utilized as raw materials for collagen extraction, and the extracted collagen has potential commercial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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Review

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39 pages, 1517 KiB  
Review
Shrimp Waste Upcycling: Unveiling the Potential of Polysaccharides, Proteins, Carotenoids, and Fatty Acids with Emphasis on Extraction Techniques and Bioactive Properties
by Nicola Rossi, Clara Grosso and Cristina Delerue-Matos
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040153 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Shrimp processing generates substantial waste, which is rich in valuable components such as polysaccharides, proteins, carotenoids, and fatty acids. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the valorization of shrimp waste, mainly shrimp shells, focusing on extraction methods, bioactivities, and potential applications of [...] Read more.
Shrimp processing generates substantial waste, which is rich in valuable components such as polysaccharides, proteins, carotenoids, and fatty acids. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the valorization of shrimp waste, mainly shrimp shells, focusing on extraction methods, bioactivities, and potential applications of these bioactive compounds. Various extraction techniques, including chemical extraction, microbial fermentation, enzyme-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and pressurized techniques are discussed, highlighting their efficacy in isolating polysaccharides, proteins, carotenoids, and fatty acids from shrimp waste. Additionally, the bioactivities associated with these compounds, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties, among others, are elucidated, underscoring their potential in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical applications. Furthermore, the review explores current and potential utilization avenues for these bioactive compounds, emphasizing the importance of sustainable resource management and circular economy principles in maximizing the value of shrimp waste. Overall, this review paper aims to provide insights into the multifaceted aspects of shrimp waste valorization, offering valuable information for researchers, industries, and policymakers interested in sustainable resource utilization and waste-management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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19 pages, 4248 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Chemical Extraction of Chitosan from Shrimp Wastes and Prediction of Factors Affecting Chitosan Yield by Using an Artificial Neural Network
by Ahmed Hosney, Sana Ullah and Karolina Barčauskaitė
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(11), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20110675 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4202
Abstract
There are two viable options to produce shrimp shells as by-product waste, either within the shrimp production phases or when the shrimp are peeled before cooking by the end user. This waste is considered a double-edged sword, as it is possible to be [...] Read more.
There are two viable options to produce shrimp shells as by-product waste, either within the shrimp production phases or when the shrimp are peeled before cooking by the end user. This waste is considered a double-edged sword, as it is possible to be either a source of environmental pollution, through dumping and burning, or a promising source from which to produce chitosan as a biodegradable, biocompatible biopolymer which has a variety of agricultural, industrial, and biomedical applications. Chitosan is a deacetylated form of chitin that can be chemically recovered from shrimp shells through the three sequential stages of demineralization, deproteinization, and deacetylation. The main aim of this review paper is to summarize the recent literature on the chemical extraction of chitosan from shrimp shells and to represent the physicochemical properties of chitosan extracted from shrimp shells in different articles, such as chitosan yield, moisture content, solubility, ash content, and degree of deacetylation. Another aim is to analyze the influence of the main predictors of the chemical extraction stages (demineralization, deproteinization, and deacetylation) on the chitosan yield percentage by using a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. This study showed that the deacetylation alkali concentration is the most crucial parameter, followed by the concentrations of acid and alkali of demineralization and deproteinization, respectively. The current review was conducted to be used in prospective studies for optimizing the chemical extraction of chitosan from shrimp wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collagen and Bioactives from Marine By-Products)
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