Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects

A special issue of Magnetochemistry (ISSN 2312-7481). This special issue belongs to the section "Magnetic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 21939

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Guest Editor
Department of Science (Physics), Public University of Navarre, E-31006 Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
Interests: magnetic thin films; nano-morphology; nano-structure; magnetic properties; magnetic anisotropy; magneto-elastic properties; pulsed laser deposition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to present this Special Issue on Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects which is open for submissions. This Special Issue aims to provide researchers with an overview of some of the most relevant aspects of today’s magnetic materials research, from fundamental properties to latest applications and from their fabrication and characterization to their implementation as key elements in scientific and technological devices with numerous uses. Included in this extensive field are physical and chemical sensing; biomedical applications, such as in drug delivery, diagnosis, and hyperthermia detection; high-frequency, microwave, and millimeter-wave devices; transformers and inductors; energy production, conversion, and storage; automotive applications; and high-density recording media. Hence, magnetic materials in their bulk form or in the form of ribbons, thin films, layers and multilayers, nanowires, nanoparticles, and nanodots are meticulously and proficiently optimized, including the control of their structure and their morphology, which leads to interesting physical phenomena closely related to the magnetic properties used in that wide range of high-performance applications.

Topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Soft and/or hard magnetic materials fabrication
  • Soft and/or hard magnetic materials characterization
  • Magnetic materials for physical or chemical sensing
  • Nanomagnetism and biomedical applications
  • Magnetism in molecular/ionic/organic-based systems
  • Magnetic materials for spintronics devices
  • Magnetic information storage and MRAM
  • Magnetic materials for energy applications
  • Multiferroic heterostructures for magnetoelectronics

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Applied Sciences.

Dr. Cristina Favieres
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Magnetochemistry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • magnetic materials fabrication
  • magnetic materials characterization
  • magnetic materials for physical or chemical sensing
  • nanomagnetism and biomedical applications
  • spintronics
  • magnetic information storage
  • magnetic materials for energy applications
  • magnetoelectronics

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 207 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects
by Cristina Favieres
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(7), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9070179 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects aims to provide researchers with an overview of some aspects of the current research in magnetic materials from theoretical studies to their applications, including their fabrication and characterization [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)

Research

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15 pages, 4019 KiB  
Article
Transformation Pathways of Ferromagnetic Mn-Al-Ga-Ni
by Shane Palmer, John Martin, Paul Lindquist and Peter Müllner
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9050128 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of alloying Mn-Al-Ga with 3 at.-% Ni and the stability and formation mechanisms of the τ phase and the resulting magnetic properties. The stabilizing effect of Ga on the τ phase was verified, and the ternary alloy’s magnetization [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of alloying Mn-Al-Ga with 3 at.-% Ni and the stability and formation mechanisms of the τ phase and the resulting magnetic properties. The stabilizing effect of Ga on the τ phase was verified, and the ternary alloy’s magnetization was measured up to M2T=482kA m1. The phase transformation from γ2 to τ in ternary Mn-Al-Ga was demonstrated microscopically. The solubility limit of Ni into the τ phase was exceeded at 3 at.-% and a primitive cubic κ phase formed. The Ni addition stabilized the τ phase. The highest magnetization at 2 T for the Mn52Al39.4Ga5.6Ni3 alloy was M2T=416 kA m1. A new transformation pathway was demonstrated by first annealing the Mn-Al-Ga-Ni alloy at 800 °C for 24 h, which forms a nearly single κ phase, which is followed by a second anneal at 500 °C for 24 h at which the τ phase formed with some remaining κ phase. This is a new transformation mechanism since it involves a phase reaction from κ to τ. The energy product of the Mn-Al-Ga-Ni alloy exceeded that of the ternary Mn-Al-Ga alloy by a factor of 4.5. The κ-phase particles in the Mn-Al-Ga-Ni alloy hinder magnetic domain boundary motion, thus providing a method for magnetic hardening and increasing the energy product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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10 pages, 2367 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Properties of the Fe2B Alloy Doped with Transition Metal Elements
by Diana Benea and Viorel Pop
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9040109 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
The intrinsic magnetic properties (magnetic moments, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, Curie temperatures) of the (Fe1−xMx)2B alloys have been calculated using the spin-polarized relativistic Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (SPR-KKR) band structure method. The transition metal elements M (M = Co, Ni, Mo, Ta, [...] Read more.
The intrinsic magnetic properties (magnetic moments, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, Curie temperatures) of the (Fe1−xMx)2B alloys have been calculated using the spin-polarized relativistic Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (SPR-KKR) band structure method. The transition metal elements M (M = Co, Ni, Mo, Ta, W and Re) considered in the present study are reported to form stable M2B or FeMB alloys with a tetragonal Cu2Al structure type. The experimental studies show that the Fe2B alloy has a large magnetization (173 Am2/kg), a large Curie temperature (1017 K) and a relatively large anisotropy constant K1 (−0.80 MJ/m3), but the alloy is inappropriate for permanent magnet applications due to in-plane easy magnetization axis (EMD). The present investigations show the magnetocrystalline anisotropy behaviour by doping with selected d-elements aiming to find an appropriate dopant which is able to switch the EMD from planar to axial and to enhance the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) value without a major decrease of magnetization and Curie temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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13 pages, 3605 KiB  
Article
Dissolution of Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrils Using Magnetic Nanoparticles in an Alternating Magnetic Field: Design of an Effective Treatment for Cutaneous Amyloidosis
by Natália Andrýsková, Hana Vrbovská, Melánia Babincová, Peter Babinec and Mária Šimaljaková
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9030084 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to apply functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment of amyloidosis, a disease characterized by the accumulation of aberrant protein forms with an insoluble amyloid structure. The dissolution and clearance of these extremely stable fibrils from lesions is [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to apply functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment of amyloidosis, a disease characterized by the accumulation of aberrant protein forms with an insoluble amyloid structure. The dissolution and clearance of these extremely stable fibrils from lesions is very complicated. For this purpose, we examined the possibility of using magnetic nanoparticles that generate heat in an external alternating magnetic field with a frequency of 3.5 MHz. As a convenient model system, we used lysozyme fibrils. For the quantification of fibrillar status, we used Thioflavin T and Congo red, specific dyes which change their spectroscopic properties upon binding with the cross-beta structure of fibrils. We found that by using fluorescence, and polarization microscopy, as well as absorption spectrophotometry, the amyloid-like fibrils can be almost completely dissolved. The obtained results suggest that the application of magnetic nanoparticles could be a possible therapeutic intervention in cutaneous amyloidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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11 pages, 4071 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Properties and Microstructure of Ce-Cu-Al Low Melting Alloy Bonding Sm2Fe17N3 Magnet Fabricated by the Hot-Pressing Method
by Jingwu Zheng, Shitong Yu, Heng Huang, Rongyao Li, Wei Cai, Haibo Chen, Juan Li, Liang Qiao, Yao Ying, Wangchang Li, Jing Yu and Shenglei Che
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(11), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8110149 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Sm2Fe17N3 compounds, having excellent intrinsic magnetic properties, are prone to decomposition at high temperatures; thus, a low melting point metal binder is the key to prepare high performance bulk magnets at low temperatures. In this paper, a new [...] Read more.
Sm2Fe17N3 compounds, having excellent intrinsic magnetic properties, are prone to decomposition at high temperatures; thus, a low melting point metal binder is the key to prepare high performance bulk magnets at low temperatures. In this paper, a new low melting point alloy Ce72Cu28-xAlx was used as the binders, and high-performance Ce-based alloy bonding Sm2Fe17N3 magnets were realized by the hot-pressing method. The experimental results demonstrated that the content of Al in the Ce-based alloys had an important influence on the performance of the magnets. High performance Sm-Fe-N bonded magnets with remanence of 10.19 KGs and maximum magnetic energy product of 21.06 MGOe were achieved by using 5 wt.% Ce72Cu22Al6 alloy as a binder. At the same time, it was found that the Ce72Cu28-xAlx alloy has a lower density and better bonding effect than the common Zn binder. Its bonding magnets still have higher performance even with extremely high oxygen content. Therefore, Ce72Cu28-xAlx alloy with low melting point is a promising new rare earth-based alloy binder. If the oxygen content of the alloy powders could be reduced, higher performance Sm2Fe17N3 bonded magnets can be prepared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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23 pages, 9233 KiB  
Article
Tailoring Magnetic and Transport Anisotropies in Co100−x–Cux Thin Films through Obliquely Grown Nano-Sheets
by Cristina Favieres, José Vergara and Vicente Madurga
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8010004 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
The magnetic and transport properties of pulsed laser-deposited Co100−x–Cux thin films were tailored through their nano-morphology and composition by controlling for the deposition geometry, namely normal or oblique deposition, and their Cu content. All films were composed of an amorphous [...] Read more.
The magnetic and transport properties of pulsed laser-deposited Co100−x–Cux thin films were tailored through their nano-morphology and composition by controlling for the deposition geometry, namely normal or oblique deposition, and their Cu content. All films were composed of an amorphous Co matrix and a textured growth of Cu nanocrystals, whose presence and size d increased as x increased. For x = 50, all films were superparamagnetic, regardless of deposition geometry. The normally deposited films showed no in-plane magnetic anisotropy. On the contrary, controllable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in both direction and magnitude was generated in the obliquely deposited films. The magnetic anisotropy field Hk remained constant for x = 0, 5 and 10, Hk ≈ 35 kAm−1, and decreased to 28 and 26 kAm−1 for x = 20 and 30, respectively. This anisotropy had a magnetostatic origin due to a tilted nano-sheet morphology. In the normally deposited films, the coercive field Hc increased when x increased, from 200 (x = 0) to 1100 Am−1 (x = 30). In contrast, in obliquely deposited films, Hc decreased from 1500 (x = 0) to 100 Am−1 (x = 30) as x increased. Activation energy spectra corresponding to structural relaxation phenomena in obliquely deposited films were obtained from transport property measurements. They revealed two peaks, which also depended on their nano-morphology and composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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12 pages, 3408 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Properties of a Ni Nanonet Grown in Superfluid Helium under Laser Irradiation
by Oksana Koplak, Elizaveta Dvoretskaya, Maxim Stepanov, Alexander Karabulin, Vladimir Matyushenko and Roman Morgunov
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(10), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7100139 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
A nanonet consisting of ultrathin Ni nanowires (diameter <4 nm) and Ni nanoballs (diameter <20 nm) has been grown through laser ablation of a Ni target in superfluid helium. At a low Ni concentration, the nanonet consists mainly of nanowires and manifests a [...] Read more.
A nanonet consisting of ultrathin Ni nanowires (diameter <4 nm) and Ni nanoballs (diameter <20 nm) has been grown through laser ablation of a Ni target in superfluid helium. At a low Ni concentration, the nanonet consists mainly of nanowires and manifests a rectangular magnetic hysteresis loop, while an increase in the Ni concentration results in an increase in both the concentration and diameter of the nanoballs. A decrease in hysteresis loop rectangularity is observed as the concentration of the nanoball increases. We show that the composition of the system can be determined from the changes in the magnetic hysteresis loop and the temperature dependence of magnetization. The significance of the work consists of the observation of evolution of magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic nanonet, while its composition varies from nanowires to a combined nanowires–nanoballs system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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20 pages, 7413 KiB  
Article
A Ti/Pt/Co Multilayer Stack for Transfer Function Based Magnetic Force Microscopy Calibrations
by Baha Sakar, Sibylle Sievers, Alexander Fernández Scarioni, Felipe Garcia-Sanchez, İlker Öztoprak, Hans Werner Schumacher and Osman Öztürk
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(6), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7060078 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widespread technique for imaging magnetic structures with a resolution of some 10 nanometers. MFM can be calibrated to obtain quantitative (qMFM) spatially resolved magnetization data in units of A/m by determining the calibrated point spread function of [...] Read more.
Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is a widespread technique for imaging magnetic structures with a resolution of some 10 nanometers. MFM can be calibrated to obtain quantitative (qMFM) spatially resolved magnetization data in units of A/m by determining the calibrated point spread function of the instrument, its instrument calibration function (ICF), from a measurement of a well-known reference sample. Beyond quantifying the MFM data, a deconvolution of the MFM image data with the ICF also corrects the smearing caused by the finite width of the MFM tip stray field distribution. However, the quality of the calibration depends critically on the calculability of the magnetization distribution of the reference sample. Here, we discuss a Ti/Pt/Co multilayer stack that shows a stripe domain pattern as a suitable reference material. A precise control of the fabrication process, combined with a characterization of the sample micromagnetic parameters, allows reliable calculation of the sample’s magnetic stray field, proven by a very good agreement between micromagnetic simulations and qMFM measurements. A calibrated qMFM measurement using the Ti/Pt/Co stack as a reference sample is shown and validated, and the application area for quantitative MFM measurements calibrated with the Ti/Pt/Co stack is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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24 pages, 10347 KiB  
Article
Estimation of the Electricity Storage Volume Density of Compact SMESs of a New Concept Based on Si Microfabrication Technologies
by Tomoyoshi Motohiro, Minoru Sasaki, Joo-hyong Noh and Osamu Takai
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7030044 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
A compact superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) produced by Si micro fabrication technologies has been proposed to improve electricity storage volume density, w, in the sub-Wh/L range of conventional SMESs and to produce them at a low cost by mass production. [...] Read more.
A compact superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) produced by Si micro fabrication technologies has been proposed to improve electricity storage volume density, w, in the sub-Wh/L range of conventional SMESs and to produce them at a low cost by mass production. In parallel with the experimental development reported previously, a series of trials was performed to estimate a feasible value of w based on the calculation of the magnetic field generated by the compact SMES by improving the calculation models step by step. In this work, the experimentally obtained magnetic flux density dependence of superconductive critical current density was taken into consideration for the first time in this series of trials, together with the additional improvement of the calculation models. The results of the estimation indicated that a compact SMES produced by the proposed concept can attain a w in the Wh/L range or more, ranking with or surpassing that of presently used capacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Review

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24 pages, 6611 KiB  
Review
Laser Additive Manufacturing of Fe-Based Magnetic Amorphous Alloys
by Merve G. Ozden and Nicola A. Morley
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7020020 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4515
Abstract
Fe-based amorphous materials offer new opportunities for magnetic sensors, actuators, and magnetostrictive transducers due to their high saturation magnetostriction (λs = 20–40 ppm) and low coercive field compared with polycrystalline Fe-based alloys, which have high magnetostriction but large coercive fields and [...] Read more.
Fe-based amorphous materials offer new opportunities for magnetic sensors, actuators, and magnetostrictive transducers due to their high saturation magnetostriction (λs = 20–40 ppm) and low coercive field compared with polycrystalline Fe-based alloys, which have high magnetostriction but large coercive fields and Co-based amorphous alloys with small magnetostriction (λs = −3 to −5 ppm). Additive layer manufacturing (ALM) offers a new fabrication technique for more complex net-shaping designs. This paper reviews the two different ALM techniques that have been used to fabricate Fe-based amorphous magnetic materials, including the structural and magnetic properties. Selective laser melting (SLM)—a powder-bed fusion technique—and laser-engineered net shaping (LENS)—a directed energy deposition method—have both been utilised to fabricate amorphous alloys, owing to their high availability and low cost within the literature. Two different scanning strategies have been introduced by using the SLM technique. The first strategy is a double-scanning strategy, which gives rise to maximum relative density of 96% and corresponding magnetic saturation of 1.22 T. It also improved the glassy phase content by an order of magnitude of 47%, as well as improving magnetic properties (decreasing coercivity to 1591.5 A/m and increasing magnetic permeability to around 100 at 100 Hz). The second is a novel scanning strategy, which involves two-step melting: preliminary laser melting and short pulse amorphisation. This increased the amorphous phase fraction to a value of up to 89.6%, and relative density up to 94.1%, and lowered coercivity to 238 A/m. On the other hand, the LENS technique has not been utilised as much as SLM in the production of amorphous alloys owing to its lower geometric accuracy (0.25 mm) and lower surface quality, despite its benefits such as providing superior mechanical properties, controlled composition and microstructure. As a result, it has been commonly used for large parts with low complexity and for repairing them, limiting the production of amorphous alloys because of the size limitation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these techniques for Fe-based amorphous magnetic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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