Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Machine Design and Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 33588

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
Interests: robotics; robot design; mechatronics; walking hexapod; design procedure; mechanics of machinery; leg–wheel
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Guest Editor
The Polytechnic Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Udine, Udine, Italy
Interests: robotics; mechatronics; modeling of mechanical systems

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

This Special Issue is aimed to present and circulate recent developments and achievements in the field of Machine Design coming from the Italian community with international collaborations and ranging from theoretical contributions to experimental and practical applications. The Special issue will be composed of contributions that have been invited from members of the community of IFToMM Italy that is the Italian Member Organization in IFToMM, the International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Sciences.

 Modern machines are mechatronic systems whose functionalities and tasks are related to mechanical actions and inter-actions either with humans or with other systems. Therefore, Machine Design can be considered fundamental to ensure a proper performance that is expected by a modern system in an assigned task. In this Special Issue attention is directed to design and development of the mechanical systems by looking at the advances in solutions and procedures that can provide enhancements in machine structures and their functionalities even in new areas of application. Papers will be solicited not only in the topics that are related to functionalities and architectures from theory up to practical applications. The submitted papers will be published after a positive review from independent reviewers.

All the published papers give interesting sources of information and inspiration as well as specific mechanical systems and research issues with a proper consideration of mechatronic aspects for successful modern solutions. The guest-editors believe that readers will surely enjoy the reading of the papers.

Prof. Dr. Marco Ceccarelli
Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Carbone
Prof. Dr. Alessandro Gasparetto
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Machines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Italian mechanical engineering;
  • mechanism design;
  • machine design;
  • robotics;
  • vibrations;
  • lubrication;
  • tribology;
  • rotordynamics;
  • medical devices;
  • simulation;
  • mechatronics;
  • gearing system;
  • automation;
  • theoretical mechanics;
  • history of machines
 

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022
by Marco Ceccarelli, Giuseppe Carbone and Alessandro Gasparetto
Machines 2023, 11(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11010064 - 04 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
This Special Issue is aimed to promote and circulate recent developments and achievements in the field of Mechanism and Machine Science coming from the Italian community with international collaborations and ranging from theoretical contributions to experimental and practical applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

17 pages, 5773 KiB  
Article
Design of the Drive Mechanism of a Rotating Feeding Device
by Matteo Bottin, Riccardo Minto and Giulio Rosati
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121160 - 04 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2088
Abstract
Component batching can be a source of time waste in specific industrial applications, such as kitting. Kitting operations are usually performed by hoppers, but other devices can be used to optimize the process. In a previous work, a rotary device has been proved [...] Read more.
Component batching can be a source of time waste in specific industrial applications, such as kitting. Kitting operations are usually performed by hoppers, but other devices can be used to optimize the process. In a previous work, a rotary device has been proved to be more efficient than hoppers; such a device allows the kitting and releasing of the components in a single rotatory movement, while traditional hoppers require at least two movements. In this paper, an improvement of such feeding device is proposed. The movement of the rotary device is driven by a four-bar linkage mechanism which is designed through functional synthesis. Thank to the four-bar linkage mechanism, the alternate motion of the rotary distributor is derived from the constant speed of the motor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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12 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
Configuration-Dependent Substructuring as a Tool to Predict the Vibrational Response of Mechanisms
by Jacopo Brunetti, Walter D’Ambrogio and Annalisa Fregolent
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121146 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Dynamic substructuring allows us to predict the dynamic behavior of mechanical systems built by linking together several subsystems, whose dynamic behavior is known. The classical formulation, originally conceived for invariant systems, was extended by the authors to include mechanical systems made by invariant [...] Read more.
Dynamic substructuring allows us to predict the dynamic behavior of mechanical systems built by linking together several subsystems, whose dynamic behavior is known. The classical formulation, originally conceived for invariant systems, was extended by the authors to include mechanical systems made by invariant subsystems that may be coupled in different configurations. A mechanism is a typical example of a mechanical system built by coupling together invariant subsystems; during its motion, it can take several configurations that significantly affect its vibrational behavior. Therefore, the configuration-dependent substructuring approach can provide meaningful insights into the dynamic behavior of the mechanism. In this paper, the proposed approach is exploited to evaluate the vibrational behavior of a three-point linkage, a widely used mechanism to connect agricultural tractors to operating machines, considering a significant range of operative configurations. The proposed substructuring approach is able to predict the frequency response functions, the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the mechanism in a wide range of configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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13 pages, 30923 KiB  
Article
Tools and Methods for Human Robot Collaboration: Case Studies at i-LABS
by Massimo Callegari, Luca Carbonari, Daniele Costa, Giacomo Palmieri, Matteo-Claudio Palpacelli, Alessandra Papetti and Cecilia Scoccia
Machines 2022, 10(11), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10110997 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
The collaboration among humans and machines is one of the most relevant topics in the Industry 4.0 paradigm. Collaborative robotics owes part of the enormous impact it has had in small and medium size enterprises to its innate vocation for close cooperation between [...] Read more.
The collaboration among humans and machines is one of the most relevant topics in the Industry 4.0 paradigm. Collaborative robotics owes part of the enormous impact it has had in small and medium size enterprises to its innate vocation for close cooperation between human operators and robots. The i-Labs laboratory, which is introduced in this paper, developed some case studies in this sense involving different technologies at different abstraction levels to analyse the feasibility of human-robot interaction in common, yet challenging, application scenarios. The ergonomics of the processes, safety of operators, as well as effectiveness of the cooperation are some of the aspects under investigation with the main objective of drawing to these issues the attention from industries who could benefit from them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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16 pages, 2501 KiB  
Article
Discriminant Analysis of the Vibrational Behavior of a Gas Micro-Turbine as a Function of Fuel
by Vincenzo Niola, Sergio Savino, Giuseppe Quaremba, Chiara Cosenza, Armando Nicolella and Mario Spirto
Machines 2022, 10(10), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100925 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Several studies were conducted previously on fuel and biofuel performance of micro-turbines. The present paper combines experimental and statistical approaches to study the vibrational behavior of a gas micro-turbine supplied with different pure fuels and admixed with rapeseed oils. Experimental tests carried out [...] Read more.
Several studies were conducted previously on fuel and biofuel performance of micro-turbines. The present paper combines experimental and statistical approaches to study the vibrational behavior of a gas micro-turbine supplied with different pure fuels and admixed with rapeseed oils. Experimental tests carried out at different operating conditions have allowed us to build a classification model through using discriminant analysis. The classification model can distinguish the vibrational behavior occurring when the turbine is fueled with kerosene, or pure and admixed diesel with rapeseed oil. Moreover, the methodology has even allowed us to highlight differences in vibrational behavior caused by small amounts of rapeseed oil admixed in the fuel. The model reliability, in terms of Cohen’s kappa, results in optimal data classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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23 pages, 6292 KiB  
Article
An Intelligent Predictive Algorithm for the Anti-Rollover Prevention of Heavy Vehicles for Off-Road Applications
by Antonio Tota, Luca Dimauro, Filippo Velardocchia, Genny Paciullo and Mauro Velardocchia
Machines 2022, 10(10), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100835 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
Rollover detection and prevention are among the most critical aspects affecting the stability and safety assessment of heavy vehicles, especially for off-road driving applications. This topic has been studied in the past and analyzed in depth in terms of vehicle modelling and control [...] Read more.
Rollover detection and prevention are among the most critical aspects affecting the stability and safety assessment of heavy vehicles, especially for off-road driving applications. This topic has been studied in the past and analyzed in depth in terms of vehicle modelling and control algorithms design able to prevent the rollover risk. However, it still represents a serious problem for automotive carmakers due to the huge counts among the main causes for traffic accidents. The risk also becomes more challenging to predict for off-road heavy vehicles, for which the incipient rollover might be triggered by external factors, i.e., road irregularities, bank angles as well as by aggressive input from the driver. The recent advances in road profile measurement and estimation systems make road-preview-based algorithms a viable solution for the rollover detection. This paper describes a model-based formulation to analytically evaluate the load transfer dynamics and its variation due to the presence of road perturbations, i.e., road bank angle and irregularities. An algorithm to detect and predict the rollover risk for heavy vehicles is also presented, even in presence of irregular road profiles, with the calculation of the ISO-LTR Predictive Time through the Phase-Plane analysis. Furthermore, the artificial intelligence techniques, based on the recurrent neural network approach, is also presented as a preliminary solution for a realistic implementation of the methodology. The paper finally assess the efficacy of the proposed rollover predictive algorithm by providing numerical results from the simulation of the most severe maneuvers in realistic off-road driving scenarios, also demonstrating its promising predictive capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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20 pages, 25367 KiB  
Article
Conceptualization and Implementation of a Reconfigurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Emulated Agricultural Tasks
by Raza A. Saeed, Giacomo Tomasi, Giovanni Carabin, Renato Vidoni and Karl D. von Ellenrieder
Machines 2022, 10(9), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090817 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
Small-to-medium sized systems able to perform multiple operations are a promising option for use in agricultural robotics. With this in mind, we present the conceptualization and implementation of a versatile and modular unmanned ground vehicle prototype, which is designed on top of a [...] Read more.
Small-to-medium sized systems able to perform multiple operations are a promising option for use in agricultural robotics. With this in mind, we present the conceptualization and implementation of a versatile and modular unmanned ground vehicle prototype, which is designed on top of a commercial wheeled mobile platform, in order to test and assess new devices, and motion planning and control algorithms for different Precision Agriculture applications. Considering monitoring, harvesting and spraying as target applications, the developed system utilizes different hardware modules, which are added on top of a mobile platform. Software modularity is realized using the Robot Operating System (ROS). Self- and ambient-awareness, including obstacle detection, are implemented at different levels. A novel extended Boundary Node Method is used for path planning and a modified Lookahead-based Line of Sight guidance algorithm is used for path following. A first experimental assessment of the system’s capabilities in an emulated orchard scenario is presented here. The results demonstrate good path-planning and path-following capabilities, including cases in which unknown obstacles are present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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26 pages, 7678 KiB  
Article
Squeeze Film Damper Modeling: A Comprehensive Approach
by Edoardo Gheller, Steven Chatterton, Andrea Vania and Paolo Pennacchi
Machines 2022, 10(9), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090781 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3654
Abstract
Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are components used in many industrial applications, ranging from turbochargers to jet engines. SFDs are applied when the vibration levels or some instability threatens the safe operation of the machine. However, modeling these components is difficult and somewhat counterintuitive [...] Read more.
Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are components used in many industrial applications, ranging from turbochargers to jet engines. SFDs are applied when the vibration levels or some instability threatens the safe operation of the machine. However, modeling these components is difficult and somewhat counterintuitive due to the multiple complex phenomena involved. After a thorough investigation of the state of the art, the most relevant phenomena for the characterization of the SFDs are highlighted. Among them, oil film cavitation, air ingestion, and inertia are investigated and modeled. The paper then introduces a numerical model based on the Reynolds equation, discretized with the finite difference method. Different boundary conditions for oil feeding and discharging are implemented and investigated. The model is validated by means of experimental results available in the literature, whereas different designs and configurations of the feeding and sealing system are considered. Eventually, an example of the application of a SFD to a compressor rotor for the reduction of vibration and correction of the instability is proposed. The paper provides an insight regarding the critical aspects of modeling SFDs, underscoring the limits of the numerical model, and suggesting where to further develop and improve the modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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15 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
Multiobjective Design Optimization of Lightweight Gears
by Francesco Cosco, Rocco Adduci, Leonardo Muzzi, Ali Rezayat and Domenico Mundo
Machines 2022, 10(9), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090779 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Lightweight gears have the potential to substantially contribute to the green economy demands. However, gear lightweighting is a challenging problem where various factors, such as the definition of the optimization problem and the parameterization of the design space, must be handled to achieve [...] Read more.
Lightweight gears have the potential to substantially contribute to the green economy demands. However, gear lightweighting is a challenging problem where various factors, such as the definition of the optimization problem and the parameterization of the design space, must be handled to achieve design targets and meet performance criteria. Recent advances in FE-based contact analysis have demonstrated that using hybrid FE–analytical gear contact models can offer a good compromise between computational costs and predictive accuracy. This paper exploits these enabling methodologies in a fully automated process, efficiently and reliably achieving an optimal lightweight gear design. The proposed methodology is demonstrated by prototyping a software architecture that combines commercial solutions and ad hoc procedures. The feasibility and validity of the proposed methodology are assessed, considering the multiobjective optimization of a transmission consisting of a pair of helical gears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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12 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design for Vibration Mitigation of a Planar Parallel Mechanism for a Fast Automatic Machine
by Federico Zaccaria, Edoardo Quarta, Simone Badini and Marco Carricato
Machines 2022, 10(9), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090770 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
This work studies a planar parallel mechanism installed on a fast-operating automatic machine. In particular, the mechanism design is optimized to mitigate experimentally-observed vibrations. The latter are a frequent issue in mechanisms operating at high speeds, since they may lead to low-quality products [...] Read more.
This work studies a planar parallel mechanism installed on a fast-operating automatic machine. In particular, the mechanism design is optimized to mitigate experimentally-observed vibrations. The latter are a frequent issue in mechanisms operating at high speeds, since they may lead to low-quality products and, ultimately, to permanent damage to the goods that are processed. In order to identify the vibration cause, several possible factors are explored, such as resonance phenomena, elastic deformations of the components, and joint deformations under operation loads. Then, two design optimization are performed, which result in a significant improvement in the vibrational behaviour, with oscillations being strongly reduced in comparison to the initial design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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15 pages, 4751 KiB  
Article
Friction-Induced Efficiency Losses and Wear Evolution in Hypoid Gears
by Eugeniu Grabovic, Alessio Artoni, Marco Gabiccini, Massimo Guiggiani, Lorenza Mattei, Francesca Di Puccio and Enrico Ciulli
Machines 2022, 10(9), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090748 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
A correct methodology to evaluate the friction coefficient in lubricated gear pairs is paramount for both the estimation of energy losses and the prediction of wear. In the first part of the paper, a methodology for estimating the coefficient of friction with a [...] Read more.
A correct methodology to evaluate the friction coefficient in lubricated gear pairs is paramount for both the estimation of energy losses and the prediction of wear. In the first part of the paper, a methodology for estimating the coefficient of friction with a semi-empirical formulation is presented, and its results are also employed to analyze mechanical efficiency losses in a hypoid gearset. Hypoid gears have complex tooth surface geometries, and the entraining kinematics of the lubricant is quite involved. The second part of the paper showcases a simulated wear investigation based on the Archard model. The main focus is on the impact of the frequency adopted for updating the worn geometry of the gear and pinion teeth on the fidelity and consistency of the tribological outcomes. These are measured in terms of overall quantity of material removed and characteristics of the loaded contact pattern. More in detail, a sensitivity analysis is presented that compares the total wear of a hypoid gearset after 30 million cycles estimated using different geometry update steps. Contact pressures, which are necessary to perform the aforementioned analyses, are calculated through an accurate, state-of-the-art loaded tooth contact analysis solver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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15 pages, 3042 KiB  
Article
Embedded Payload Solutions in UAVs for Medium and Small Package Delivery
by Matteo Saponi, Alberto Borboni, Riccardo Adamini, Rodolfo Faglia and Cinzia Amici
Machines 2022, 10(9), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090737 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3110
Abstract
Investigations about the feasibility of delivery systems with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones have been recently expanded, owing to the exponential demand for goods to be delivered in the recent years, which has been further increased by the COVID-19 pandemic. UAV delivery [...] Read more.
Investigations about the feasibility of delivery systems with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones have been recently expanded, owing to the exponential demand for goods to be delivered in the recent years, which has been further increased by the COVID-19 pandemic. UAV delivery can provide new contactless delivery strategies, in addition to applications for medical items, such as blood, medicines, or vaccines. The safe delivery of goods is paramount for such applications, which is facilitated if the payload is embedded in the main drone body. In this paper, we investigate payload solutions for medium and small package delivery (up to 5 kg) with a medium-sized UAV (maximum takeoff of less than 25 kg), focusing on (i) embedded solutions (packaging hosted in the drone fuselage), (ii) compatibility with transportation of medical items, and (iii) user-oriented design (usability and safety). We evaluate the design process for possible payload solutions, from an analysis of the package design (material selection, shape definition, and product industrialization) to package integration with the drone fuselage (possible solutions and comparison of quick-release systems). We present a prototype for an industrialized package, a right prism with an octagonal section made of high-performance double-wall cardboard, and introduce a set of concepts for a quick-release system, which are compared with a set of six functional parameters (mass, realization, accessibility, locking, protection, and resistance). Further analyses are already ongoing, with the aim of integrating monitoring and control capabilities into the package design to assess the condition of the delivered goods during transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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14 pages, 3286 KiB  
Article
Kinematic Modeling and Motion Planning of the Mobile Manipulator Agri.Q for Precision Agriculture
by Giovanni Colucci, Andrea Botta, Luigi Tagliavini, Paride Cavallone, Lorenzo Baglieri and Giuseppe Quaglia
Machines 2022, 10(5), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050321 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3007
Abstract
In recent years, the study of robotic systems for agriculture, a modern research field often shortened as “precision agriculture”, has become highly relevant, especially for those repetitive actions that can be automated thanks to innovative robotic solutions. This paper presents the kinematic model [...] Read more.
In recent years, the study of robotic systems for agriculture, a modern research field often shortened as “precision agriculture”, has become highly relevant, especially for those repetitive actions that can be automated thanks to innovative robotic solutions. This paper presents the kinematic model and a motion planning pipeline for a mobile manipulator specifically designed for precision agriculture applications, such as crop sampling and monitoring, formed by a novel articulated mobile base and a commercial collaborative manipulator with seven degrees of freedom. Starting from the models of the two subsystems, characterized by an adjustable position and orientation of the manipulator with respect to the mobile base, the linear mapping that describes the differential kinematics of the whole custom system is expressed as a function of the input commands. To perform pick–and–place tasks, a motion planning algorithm, based on the manipulator manipulability index mapping and a closed form inverse kinematics solution is presented. The motion of the system is based on the decoupling of the base and the arm mobility, and the paper discusses how the base can be properly used for manipulator positioning purposes. The closed form inverse kinematics solution is also provided as an open-source Matlab code. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

16 pages, 1449 KiB  
Review
Recent Advancements in the Tribological Modelling of Rough Interfaces
by Nicola Menga, Carmine Putignano and Giuseppe Carbone
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121205 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
This paper analyses some effective strategies proposed in the last few years to tackle contact mechanics problems involving rough interfaces. In particular, we present Boundary Element Methods capable of solving the contact with great accuracy and, at the same time, with a marked [...] Read more.
This paper analyses some effective strategies proposed in the last few years to tackle contact mechanics problems involving rough interfaces. In particular, we present Boundary Element Methods capable of solving the contact with great accuracy and, at the same time, with a marked computational efficiency. Particular attention is paid to non-linearly elastic constitutive relations and, specifically, to a linearly viscoelastic rheology. Possible implications deal with all the tribological mechanical systems, where contact interactions are present, including, e.g., seals, bearings and dampers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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20 pages, 2533 KiB  
Review
The Role of Instant Centers in Kinematics and Dynamics of Planar Mechanisms: Review of LaMaViP’s Contributions
by Raffaele Di Gregorio
Machines 2022, 10(9), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10090732 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Theoretical kinematics and dynamics is one of the research fields where LaMaViP (Laboratory of Mechatronics and Virtual Prototyping) operates, which is the lab leaded by the author at the University of Ferrara. In the last two decades, this research activity at LaMaViP has [...] Read more.
Theoretical kinematics and dynamics is one of the research fields where LaMaViP (Laboratory of Mechatronics and Virtual Prototyping) operates, which is the lab leaded by the author at the University of Ferrara. In the last two decades, this research activity at LaMaViP has produced, among others, many novel results that highlight how instant centers’ (ICs) locations condition the kinetostatic and dynamic behaviors of planar mechanisms, and that provide tools suitable for design purposes. This paper reviews/summarizes the tools devised at LaMaViP for PM analysis and synthesis through ICs, and shows that they are a complete set of tools, which make the full description of PMs’ kinematics and dynamics possible, and that the new IC features, identified while setting up these tools, are relevant in machine design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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25 pages, 8216 KiB  
Review
Italian Historical Developments of Teaching and Museum Valorization of Mechanism Models
by Marco Ceccarelli and Marco Cocconcelli
Machines 2022, 10(8), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080628 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
This paper presents an historical analysis of developments for the creation and usage of models of mechanisms in academic teaching fields, with the aim of re-evaluating the interest and usefulness of models in teaching and research, and of promoting their merits as a [...] Read more.
This paper presents an historical analysis of developments for the creation and usage of models of mechanisms in academic teaching fields, with the aim of re-evaluating the interest and usefulness of models in teaching and research, and of promoting their merits as a cultural heritage worthy of being preserved. The historical analysis is focused on developments in Italy, with specific attention given to physical models created and used for training young engineers in Italian engineering schools, using commercial products, but also original Italian creations. Examples are reported from the main Italian academic sites, where examples of such models of mechanisms have been preserved or have survived, also, as first attempts at museum valorization in terms of historical memorabilia of educational developments on mechanism design issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Machine Design in Italy 2022)
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