Recent Analysis and Research in the Field of Vehicle Traffic Safety

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Vehicle Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3704

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poznań University of Technology, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
Interests: vehicle traffic safety; vehicle dynamics; tire/road contact

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in the number of car users, the development of road infrastructure and the increase in the number of kilometers traveled forces vehicle manufacturers, road infrastructure builders and those who are responsible for devising legal regulations to take action to increase road safety. An important direction in reducing road accidents and incidents is the identification and assessment of physical phenomena and the analysis of the impact of the driver's behavior during road incidents. The subject of this project is the identification and study of important parameters that determine road safety. The quantification of parameters that affect the scope of vehicle traffic safety can be divided into the following several basic sources:

  • Vehicle design/active and passive safety; support for driving and steering systems.
  • Interactions at the contact point between the tire and the road surface. The parameter that describes the shape–friction cooperation is the coefficient of adhesion, which is a characteristic feature of the tire–pavement system that depends on the following factors:
    • Tire construction, tread geometry and depth, rubber material properties, wheel load, tire air pressure and distribution of local unit pressures at the contact point between the tire and the road surface;
    • The type of materials used for pavement construction, parameters of pavement shape and structure, hydrophobic properties and pavement condition;
    • The factors that determine tire operation, including the speed of movement, slippage, operating temperature and wear and tear;
    • External factors, such as humidity, snow cover, ice, ambient and surface temperature.
  • Road infrastructure.
  • Behavior of the driver.

Additional factors that influence road safety are the type of surface, the arrangement of road infrastructure and the behavior of the driver.

This Special Issue will bring together both review articles and in-depth research papers on new developments on defined topics.

Dr. Konrad Jan Waluś
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • automotive
  • autonomous vehicles
  • vehicle dynamics
  • mobile measurement
  • experimental validation
  • active deceleration device
  • intelligent speed assist
  • tire/road contact
  • tire force
  • tire model
  • adhesion coefficient
  • TPMS
  • road condition
  • roads infrastructure
  • driving behavior
  • human factors

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 9236 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Occupant Restraint System Using Machine Learning for THOR-M50 and Euro NCAP
by Jaehyuk Heo, Min Gi Cho and Taewung Kim
Machines 2024, 12(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12010074 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 964
Abstract
In this study, we propose an optimization method for occupant protection systems using a machine learning technique. First, a crash simulation model was developed for a Euro NCAP MPDB frontal crash test condition. Second, a series of parametric simulations were performed using a [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose an optimization method for occupant protection systems using a machine learning technique. First, a crash simulation model was developed for a Euro NCAP MPDB frontal crash test condition. Second, a series of parametric simulations were performed using a THOR dummy model with varying occupant safety system design parameters, such as belt attachment locations, belt load limits, crash pulse, and so on. Third, metamodels were developed using neural networks to predict injury criteria for a given occupant safety system design. Fourth, the occupant safety system was optimized using metamodels, and the optimal design was verified using a subsequent crash simulation. Lastly, the effects of design variables on injury criteria were investigated using the Shapely method. The Euro NCAP score of the THOR dummy model was improved from 14.3 to 16 points. The main improvement resulted from a reduced risk of injury to the chest and leg regions. Higher D-ring and rearward anchor placements benefited the chest and leg regions, respectively, while a rear-loaded crash pulse was beneficial for both areas. The sensitivity analysis through the Shapley method quantitatively estimated the contribution of each design variable regarding improvements in injury metric values for the THOR dummy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Analysis and Research in the Field of Vehicle Traffic Safety)
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30 pages, 5599 KiB  
Article
Development of a Restraint System for Rear-Facing Car Seats
by Samet Yavuz and Selcuk Himmetoglu
Machines 2023, 11(12), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11121076 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
In self-driving vehicles, passengers can set their seats in an unconventional seating position, such as rear-facing. Sitting in such an orientation can increase the risk of whiplash in the head-and-neck system in a frontal impact, as frontal crashes usually have higher severities compared [...] Read more.
In self-driving vehicles, passengers can set their seats in an unconventional seating position, such as rear-facing. Sitting in such an orientation can increase the risk of whiplash in the head-and-neck system in a frontal impact, as frontal crashes usually have higher severities compared with rear-end crashes. This paper shows that a forward-facing front seat optimised for rear-impact protection needs to be redesigned to be used as a rear-facing seat. In the second and main part of this paper, a restraint system for rear-facing car seats is developed, and frontal impact simulations with 64 km/h of delta-V are used to evaluate its performance. The designed seating system comprises two rigid torso plates, a fixed recliner and an energy absorber under the seat pan. Without using the developed restraint system, the 50th percentile male human model is exposed to neck shear forces exceeding 600 N. With the developed restraint system, neck shear forces are less than 350 N in frontal impacts with 64 km/h of delta-V. Apart from whiplash, the risk of head, chest, lower extremity and lower back injuries are also evaluated. The results confirm that the developed restraint system successfully protects the occupant since all assessment criteria values are lower than the injury assessment reference values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Analysis and Research in the Field of Vehicle Traffic Safety)
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23 pages, 8580 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Dynamic Analysis in the Complex Design of an Unconventional Three-Wheeled Vehicle with Enhancing Cornering Safety
by Miroslav Blatnický, Ján Dižo, Milan Sága, Denis Molnár and Aleš Slíva
Machines 2023, 11(8), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11080842 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Current trends in the transportation industry prioritize competitive rivalry, compelling manufacturers to prioritize concepts such as quality and reliability. These concepts are closely associated with public expectations of safety, vehicle lifespan, and trouble-free operation. However, the public must recognize that a vehicle weighing [...] Read more.
Current trends in the transportation industry prioritize competitive rivalry, compelling manufacturers to prioritize concepts such as quality and reliability. These concepts are closely associated with public expectations of safety, vehicle lifespan, and trouble-free operation. However, the public must recognize that a vehicle weighing several hundred kilograms, moving at a non-zero speed, only contacts the road surface through a few points (depending on the number of wheels), each no larger than a human palm. Therefore, it is imperative to operate the vehicle in a manner that optimizes the behavior of these contact points. There are situations where drivers find themselves requiring dynamic vehicle handling, often unpredictable with a high degree of uncertainty. Rapid changes in direction become necessary in these cases. Such maneuvers can pose a significant risk of rollover for three-wheeled vehicles. Hence, the vehicle itself should contribute to increased ride safety. This paper presents key findings from the development of an unconventional three-wheeled vehicle utilizing the delta arrangement. Rollover safety for three-wheeled vehicles is currently well-managed, thanks to the utilization of electronic or mechatronic systems in delta-type vehicles to enhance stability. However, these systems require additional components. In contrast, the proposed control system operates solely on a mechanical principle, eliminating operational costs, energy consumption, maintenance expenses, and similar factors. The study also explores the absence of equivalent suspension and steering systems for front-wheel steering. Such designs are lacking in both practical applications and theoretical realms. Analytical and simulation calculations are compared in this study, highlighting the effectiveness of the newly proposed control system in enhancing stability and safety compared to conventional front-wheel suspension systems. Simulation programs provide more realistic results than analytical calculations due to their ability to account for dynamic effects on vehicle components and passengers, which is practically unfeasible in analytical approaches. Furthermore, this study focuses on investigating the fatigue life of material frames subjected to dynamic loading, which is a crucial aspect of ensuring safety. It is essential to have various testing devices to examine the fatigue life of materials under both uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions. However, obtaining experimental results for fatigue life measurements of specific materials, which can be directly applied to one’s research, poses significant challenges. Hence, the proposed testing device plays a vital role in measuring material fatigue life and advancing the development of unconventional transportation methods. The information about the original testing device aligns perfectly with the article’s emphasis on dynamic analysis. The ultimate objective of all these efforts is to put the vehicle into practical operation for commercial utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Analysis and Research in the Field of Vehicle Traffic Safety)
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