Progress and Challenges in Lubrication: Green Tribology

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 4511

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical, Energy and Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vytautas Magnus University, LT-53361 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: green tribology; biotribology; nanoparticles in lubricants; biodegradable oils; monitoring of tribosystems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical, Energy and Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Vytautas Magnus University, LT-53361 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: friction and wear reducing coatings; green tribology materials; bio-degradable oils; nano-particles in lubricants; self-regulation in tribo systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We wish to invite you to submit your research in this Special Issue "Progress and Challenges in Lubrication: Green Tribology". Lubricants and lubrication ensure the reliability of machines and reduce the energy costs of running machines by decreasing friction. Therefore, desired contributions for this journal should be dedicated to environmentally friendly lubricants, with lubrication technologies based on green tribology being of particular relevance. Issues concerning the processing of waste fatty materials derived from vegetable and animal origins into lubricants have, thus far, been underinvestigated. Articles should disclose the features of biological lubricants, their application areas, advantages and disadvantages, as well as possibilities to reduce those disadvantages. A significant issue in solving lubrication problems concerns changing the properties of lubricants for use during operation, alongside the development and improvement of lubrication monitoring systems.

We look forward to works evaluating not only the influence of functional additives on the physical, mechanical and tribological properties of lubricants, but also the influence of lubricants on friction mechanisms, surface interactions and their degradation processes.

We invite authors working on biotribology issues to submit articles on lubrication problems in biological systems that do not only demand great responsibility, but also novel knowledge, welcoming such contributions in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Juozas Padgurskas
Dr. Raimundas Rukuiža
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • green tribology
  • nanoparticles in lubricants
  • biodegradability
  • monitoring of lubricants
  • waste cooking oil
  • biotribology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

31 pages, 7898 KiB  
Article
Olive Pomace Oil as a Chainsaw Lubricant: First Results of Tests on Performance and Safety Aspects
by Roberto Fanigliulo, Paolo Bondioli, Marcello Biocca, Renato Grilli, Pietro Gallo, Laura Fornaciari, Liliana Folegatti, Stefano Benigni, Igor Calderari, Francesco Gallucci and Daniele Pochi
Lubricants 2023, 11(11), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11110494 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
The total loss lubrication system that is typical of chainsaws is responsible for a massive dispersion in the agro-forestry environment of highly impactful pollutants, mostly of fossil origin, often well known as carcinogenic substances, which, in addition to presenting a risk to the [...] Read more.
The total loss lubrication system that is typical of chainsaws is responsible for a massive dispersion in the agro-forestry environment of highly impactful pollutants, mostly of fossil origin, often well known as carcinogenic substances, which, in addition to presenting a risk to the environment, represent an important risk factor for human health, especially for chainsaw users. During its use, the chain lubricant is dispersed from the guide bar tip in the form of droplets and aerosol, or it is adsorbed on wood residues and sawdust. Then, it is subjected to drift, settles on the ground and vegetation, and can hit the operators, who, after prolonged exposures, can suffer both irritation of the respiratory tract and dermal absorption. Such a risk factor is often amplified by the widespread use of less-expensive, sometimes illegal alternatives, such as exhausted motor oils. To mitigate said negative effects, a process has been in progress for several years that is aimed at replacing conventional lubricants with synthetic or biobased oils with increasing biodegradability. As a contribution to this process, a study has been started on the possibility of using refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) as a base stock for the formulation of a totally biodegradable chainsaw lubricant. On purpose, to improve its properties of viscosity and adhesivity, such an oil was added with a biodegradable thickening agent, obtaining four formulations with different viscosity. After a lab test and a preliminary cutting test on firewood, the formulation with 2% of thickener resulted in being the best, and 3.0 g kg−1 of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), a food-grade antioxidant, was then added to form the final formulation (F2) to be compared, in the subsequent four test sessions, to a biodegradable commercial chain lubricant (SB). The tests were carried out without changing the chainsaw setting, on different wood species, both in forest and, with the aim of increasing the repeatability of tests conditions and comparability of results, at a fixed point. The fluids’ performances were mainly evaluated based both on the operators’ opinions and on the measurements of the chain–bar temperatures and of saw chain wear related to a predefined number of cuts. As to the destiny of the fluid dispersed during cutting, the overall dispersion was assessed by considering the average working time, the consumption of chain lubricant, and the forest area cut down daily. Eventually, the amounts of inhalable and respirable dust particles as vectors of oil residues were quantified by means of personal air samplers worn by the operators and analyzed to determine any differences in the concentration of metallic elements. The test results evidenced chain temperatures that were 0.5, 4.9, and 12.5 °C higher with F2 relating to SB, respectively, in the cutting of trunks of fresh Pinus, Eucalyptus, and dry Pinus. They were accompanied by chain weight losses of 89.5% and 35% higher with F2 relating to SB, respectively, in cutting tests of Turkey oak and Poplar. Such a greater wear, however, apparently did not affect the saw chain’s cutting efficiency with F2, since the operators declared that they did not notice any difference between the performances of the two fluids at the time of comparison. The effects of higher wear on the chain lifetime, any deriving risks for the operator’s safety, and the possibility to reduce the wear levels observed with F2 will be explored in a further study, e.g., through different settings of the lubricating system of the chainsaw. The results of the analyses of the air-sampled dust residues that were evidenced with F2 showed lower concentrations of respirable and inhalable particles and of some metallic elements (Al, Mg, and Ca) than those with SB. This behavior probably depends on the different interaction between sawdust and the two fluids, which differ according to their chemical–physical characteristics (different viscosity, composition, and additives). However, it represents a positive factor in favor of the use of the ROPO-based lubricant, emphasized by the total biodegradability of its residues that are possibly contained in the dust inhaled by the operators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Challenges in Lubrication: Green Tribology)
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15 pages, 14704 KiB  
Article
Friction and Wear Characteristics of Fe3O4 Nano-Additive Lubricant in Micro-Rolling
by Yuchuan Zhu, Hongmei Zhang, Na Li and Zhengyi Jiang
Lubricants 2023, 11(10), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11100434 - 8 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
As nanotechnology has developed, some nano-additives have been employed to improve the performance of lubricants. The mechanisms of nano-additives still need to be investigated. The wear characteristics of Fe3O4 nano-additive lubricant were investigated in this study. Different diameters of Fe [...] Read more.
As nanotechnology has developed, some nano-additives have been employed to improve the performance of lubricants. The mechanisms of nano-additives still need to be investigated. The wear characteristics of Fe3O4 nano-additive lubricant were investigated in this study. Different diameters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were mixed in basic oil using an ultrasonic mixer. The new lubricant was used for analytical tests at room temperature. The results showed that nano-lubricants with 20 nm nanoparticles increase the oil film strength. The coefficient of friction was reduced when 20 nm diameter 8 wt% Fe3O4 nanoparticles were mixed with lubricants. The effect of surfactants and nanoparticles in the base oil was measured using numerical simulation methods. The adsorption capacity of the lubricants was significantly improved by Fe3O4 nanoparticles, particularly when looking at the small relative atomic mass of the metal. The 8 wt% Fe3O4 lubricant exhibited optimal tribological properties when applied in micro-rolling tests. The results showed that the surface quality of the rolled samples was significantly improved, and the rolling force was dramatically reduced. At the same time, the shapes of the samples were effectively controlled in the rolling process. Therefore, Fe3O4 nanoparticles can improve the friction and wear characteristics of lubricants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Challenges in Lubrication: Green Tribology)
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14 pages, 39532 KiB  
Article
Limitary State of Heavy-Duty Engine Oils and Their Evaluation According to the Change of Tribological Properties during Operation
by Juozas Padgurskas, Darius Volskis, Raimundas Rukuiža, Artūras Kupčinskas, Nino Basheleishvili and Simona Tučkutė
Lubricants 2023, 11(6), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11060236 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The tribological properties of engine oils for heavy-duty trucks are evaluated, taking into consideration their variation during operation. After testing new oils or oils after a 2500 km and 5000 km run, there were no essential differences in their tribological properties at lower [...] Read more.
The tribological properties of engine oils for heavy-duty trucks are evaluated, taking into consideration their variation during operation. After testing new oils or oils after a 2500 km and 5000 km run, there were no essential differences in their tribological properties at lower loads, but at higher loads and longer durations of operation, significant differences were found, including increased friction losses and the reduced surface wear protection ability of the oils. There are two main reasons for this reduced ability of the tested oils to form a boundary lubrication layer: the consuming of the functional additives and the aging of the oil, i.e., oxidation and an increase in acidity. Research data show a close relationship between the increasing acidity and surface wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Challenges in Lubrication: Green Tribology)
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