Advances in Fuel-Lubricant Interactions

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 11923

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Neal M. Morgan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Shell Global Solutions UK Ltd., Shell Centre, York Road, London SE1 7NA, UK
Interests: tribology (including additive interactions, frictions reduction, wear); fuel combustion (RON/MON, flame speed, ignition delay time, kinetic mechanisms)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The transition to low-carbon fuels and powertrains is well under way; however, to paraphrase an old saying, talk of the death of the internal combustion engine is greatly exaggerated. While we navigate the transition, there is still much to be learned about how fuels and lubricants interact in the variety of interfaces present in the modern internal combustion engine.

While the predominant role of the fuel is to provide energy and the lubricant to reduce energy losses, the two do not exist in complete isolation—the piston/cylinder system being a perfect example where the two functional fluids interact both physically and chemically. Is this necessarily bad though? Are there ways to engineer systems so that the two fluids are synergistic rather than antagonistic? How would we quantify or model such interactions and measure their effect?

To expand still further, in the future the “fuel” could well be electrons stored in a battery rather than molecules in a liquid fuel—what then for the role of the lubricant and its interaction with its new fuel partner?

There is still significant research going into the development of new lubricants and fuels for engines both big (e.g., power/marine) and small (e.g., passenger cars), and this Special Issue aims to shine a light on the latest research and development in this area, which will hopefully create a clear pathway to a low-carbon future.

Dr. Neal M. Morgan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fuels
  • Lubricants
  • Combustion
  • Friction
  • Tribology
  • Wear
  • Knock
  • Pre-ignition
  • Measurements
  • Modelling
  • Engine design
  • Additive transfer
  • Fuel dilution

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 3714 KiB  
Article
Implications of the Use of Biodiesel on the Longevity and Operation of Particle Filters
Lubricants 2022, 10(10), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10100259 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
While biodiesel is one of many necessary steps forward in a cleaner transportation future, alkali metal residuals, including Na and K (in the form of oxides, sulfates, hydroxides, and carbonates) originating from fuel production catalysts were found to be detrimental to emissions control [...] Read more.
While biodiesel is one of many necessary steps forward in a cleaner transportation future, alkali metal residuals, including Na and K (in the form of oxides, sulfates, hydroxides, and carbonates) originating from fuel production catalysts were found to be detrimental to emissions control components. Na + K and Ca + Mg (also biodiesel production byproducts) are regulated by ASTM-D6751 standards (American Society for Testing and Materials) to be less than 5 ppm for B100; however, the literature gives examples of physical and chemical degradation of automotive emissions catalysts and their substrates with these Na and K residuals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of ash from Na-doped biodiesel fuel (B20) on a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Investigations found that the Na-ash accumulated in the DPF has several unique properties which help to fundamentally explain some of the interactions and impacts of biodiesel on the particle filter. The biodiesel-related Na-ash was found to (1) have a significantly lower melting temperature than typical ash from inorganic lubricant additives and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel resulting in ash particles sintered to the DPF catalyst/substrate, (2) have a primary particle size which is about an order of magnitude larger than typical ash, (3) produce a larger amount of ash resulting in significantly thick wall ash layers and (4) penetrate the DPF substrate about 3× deeper than typical ULSD and lubricant-related ash. This study utilizes numerous characterization techniques to investigate the interactions between biodiesel-related ash and a DPF, ranging from visualization to composition to thermal analysis methods. The findings suggest the need for tighter control of the thermal environment in the DPF when using biodiesel, additional/improved DPF cleaning efforts, and avoidance of unregulated biodiesel with high Na/K levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fuel-Lubricant Interactions)
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23 pages, 10426 KiB  
Article
Effect of Blowby on the Leakage of the Three-Piece Oil Control Ring and Subsequent Oil Transport in Upper Ring-Pack Regions in Internal Combustion Engines
by and
Lubricants 2022, 10(10), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10100250 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
The lubricating oil consumption (LOC) in internal combustion engines contributes to emission and deteriorates the performance of the aftertreatment. In this work, an optical engine with a 2D Laser-induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) system was used to study operating conditions critical to real driving oil [...] Read more.
The lubricating oil consumption (LOC) in internal combustion engines contributes to emission and deteriorates the performance of the aftertreatment. In this work, an optical engine with a 2D Laser-induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) system was used to study operating conditions critical to real driving oil emissions. Additionally, numerical models were used to analyze the ring dynamics, oil flow and gas flow. It was found that the intake pressure that results in zero blowby is the separation line between two drastically different oil flow patterns in the ring pack. With intake pressure lower than the separation line, the oil accumulation of the three-piece oil control ring groove (TPOCR) begins to increase, followed by the drastic increase of the oil accumulation in the third land, second land, and finally visible oil leaking through the top ring gap, given enough time. The time required for the oil to leak through different rings was investigated using both measurements and modeling. The effects of drain holes and rail gaps, as well as their relative rotation on oil accumulation and leakage from the TPOCR groove, were analyzed. These findings contribute to improving ring pack designs and engine calibration in spark ignition (SI), gas, and hydrogen engines equipped with TPOCR to minimize the negative impacts of LOC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fuel-Lubricant Interactions)
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19 pages, 8985 KiB  
Article
Rapid Fleet Condition Analysis through Correlating Basic Vehicle Tracking Data with Engine Oil FT-IR Spectra
Lubricants 2021, 9(12), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9120114 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Engine oil condition and tribological performance are strongly interrelated. Accordingly, oil condition monitoring is common in various applications. This is especially important, as oil condition depends on the fueling and utilization profile of an internal combustion engine. Common practice involves the measurement of [...] Read more.
Engine oil condition and tribological performance are strongly interrelated. Accordingly, oil condition monitoring is common in various applications. This is especially important, as oil condition depends on the fueling and utilization profile of an internal combustion engine. Common practice involves the measurement of various parameters, such as the total acid number and total base number, oxidation, nitration, viscosity, and elemental composition; thus, it can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. This study provides a methodology for rapid analysis for large vehicle fleets or sample sizes, using only Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and the subsequent multivariate data analysis offers a rapid alternative to commonly available methods. The described method provides a rapid, cost-efficient, and intuitive approach to uncovering differences in the oil condition. Furthermore, understanding the underlying reasons in engine construction and the resulting chemical degradation is also possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fuel-Lubricant Interactions)
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Review

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16 pages, 4142 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of the Role of Lubricant Additives in Emission Control
Lubricants 2022, 10(12), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants10120362 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
In the last several decades, emission regulations have become a significant driving force for vehicle technologies, from powertrain design to emission control. These technologies will experience continuous improvement and may require a paradigm shift to address more stringent emission regulations. As essential components [...] Read more.
In the last several decades, emission regulations have become a significant driving force for vehicle technologies, from powertrain design to emission control. These technologies will experience continuous improvement and may require a paradigm shift to address more stringent emission regulations. As essential components of powertrain systems, fuel and lubricant additives have uniquely enabled powertrain performance and durability. This review focuses on the complex interactions between the fluids and the emissions control system. Investigations into the impact of fuel aromatic content on both primary and secondary emissions are discussed. This work provides the methodologies and context to evaluate the studies into the interactions between fluids and the emission system components. Research on lubricants interactions with particulate filters shows that the lubricant, when formulated appropriately, does not substantively degrade particulate filter performance. In fact, it was found that the lubricant additives can have positive impact on carbonaceous accumulation in the filter and improve particulate emissions. This work provides an overview and context for assessing the role of lubricant additives in the performance of the complete emission system. Understanding the full impact of the fluids, lubricant and fuel, and the powertrain hardware provides the foundation to design additives to deliver optimized performance for the vehicle with advanced emission control systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fuel-Lubricant Interactions)
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16 pages, 628 KiB  
Review
Fuel-Lubricant Interactions: Critical Review of Recent Work
Lubricants 2021, 9(9), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants9090092 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4281
Abstract
A critical review of recent work on fuel lubricant interactions is undertaken. The work focusses on liquid fuels used in diesel and gasoline vehicles. The amount of fuel that contaminates the lubricant depends on driving conditions, engine design, fuel type, and lubricant type. [...] Read more.
A critical review of recent work on fuel lubricant interactions is undertaken. The work focusses on liquid fuels used in diesel and gasoline vehicles. The amount of fuel that contaminates the lubricant depends on driving conditions, engine design, fuel type, and lubricant type. When fuel contaminates a lubricant, the viscosity of the lubricant will change (it will usually decrease), the sump oil level may increase, there may be a tendency for more sludge formation, there may be an impact on friction and wear, and low speed pre-ignition could occur. The increased use of biofuels (particularly biodiesel) may require a reduction in oil drain intervals, and fuel borne additives could contaminate the lubricant. The move towards the active regeneration of particulate filters by delayed fuel post-injection and the move towards hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles equipped with stop-start systems will lead to increased fuel dilution. This will be of more concern in diesel engines, since significant fuel dilution could persist at sump oil temperatures in the range of 100–150 °C (whereas in gasoline engines the more volatile gasoline fuel will have substantially evaporated at these temperatures). It is anticipated that more research into fuel lubricant interactions, particularly for diesel engines, will be needed in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fuel-Lubricant Interactions)
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