Gas Lubrication and Dry Gas Seal

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 6247

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: gas lubrication; magnetic bearing; flexible electronics
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Guest Editor
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
Interests: gas foil bearing; ultrasonic measurement; wind turbine plain bearing

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Guest Editor
Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: foil bearing; gas lubrication

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: gas foil bearing; rotor dynamics; finite element contact mechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gas has distinct advantages as a clean lubricant in the applications of load bearing and sealing in high-speed and high-precision machinery. Due to its low viscosity, aerodynamic and aerostatic lubrication can overcome the DN value limit compared with rolling and liquid bearings without producing much frictional heat and power consumption. However, low viscosity also leads to insufficient load capacity and viscous damping, and some significant scientific and technic problems also have emerged following the demand of more extreme and special applications. Hybrid lubrication and interdisciplinary problems can also bring interesting topics to this research field.

This Special Issue aims to promote original research articles and review papers with topics related to state-to-art theoretical and experimental work on gas lubrication and dry gas seal.

Prof. Dr. Jianjun Du
Dr. Kai Zhang
Dr. Tianwei Lai
Dr. Changlin Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gas lubrication
  • dry gas seal
  • aerodynamic lubrication
  • aerostatic lubrication
  • gas bearings
  • hybrid bearing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 6758 KiB  
Article
Experimental Research on Dynamic Characteristics of a Multi-Disc Rotor System Supported by Aerostatic Bearings
by Zhimin Su, Jianbo Zhang, Yimou Cai and Dongjiang Han
Lubricants 2024, 12(5), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12050151 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Gas bearings have the advantages of small friction loss, wide applicable speed range, no pollution, etc., and have important application prospects in micro and small high-speed rotating machinery. However, due to its compressibility and low viscosity, its dynamic stability in high-speed rotating machinery [...] Read more.
Gas bearings have the advantages of small friction loss, wide applicable speed range, no pollution, etc., and have important application prospects in micro and small high-speed rotating machinery. However, due to its compressibility and low viscosity, its dynamic stability in high-speed rotating machinery is the key to constraining its development. The experimental study of shaft system dynamics is the main means to explore the mechanism of rotor behavior. On the test platform of dynamic characteristics of multi-disc rotor system supported by aerostatic bearings, experimental research on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a rotor system was carried out, and nonlinear vibration test and analysis methods, such as axial orbits, bifurcation diagrams, and spectral characteristics, were adopted, and vibration phenomena, including the critical rotational speed accumulating energy and low-frequency accumulating energy, were presented and the vibration characteristics of bearing fracture faults were presented. The bearing supply pressure and rubber damping pad were introduced as a method to suppress the low-frequency vibration of the aerostatic bearing rotor system, and its vibration-reduction effect was verified by experiments. The above results can provide technical support for vibration control and fault diagnosis of rotor systems supported by aerostatic bearings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Lubrication and Dry Gas Seal)
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17 pages, 9683 KiB  
Article
Fault Diagnosis of Dry Gas Seal Operation Status Based on Acoustic Emission Monitoring
by Junhua Ding, Shurong Yu, Zhu Liu, Shipeng Wang and Junjie Lu
Lubricants 2024, 12(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12020035 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
A dedicated test bench is employed to record acoustic emission signals from dry gas seals under various operating conditions. Time-domain and frequency-domain analysis methods are utilized to process and analyze the acoustic emission signals during start/stop, stable operation, and two common fault states [...] Read more.
A dedicated test bench is employed to record acoustic emission signals from dry gas seals under various operating conditions. Time-domain and frequency-domain analysis methods are utilized to process and analyze the acoustic emission signals during start/stop, stable operation, and two common fault states (end-face defects and compensation spring failure). Furthermore, feature recognition research is conducted. A method for identifying the operational states of seals (low-speed friction, gradual detachment, stable operation) based on the root mean square (RMS) was established, with transition points at speeds of 100 and 1000 RPM, respectively. Additionally, spectral analysis is conducted using Fourier transform to determine the frequency band of acoustic emission signals (240–320 kHz) generated during contact wear of dry gas seals. Investigation into two typical faults of dry gas seals reveals that the RMS value of the acoustic emission signal gradually increases with the rotational speed during the operation of dry gas seal end-face defects. This is attributed to the insufficient dynamic pressure effect on the end face, resulting in long-term wear and tear. When the dry gas seal compensates for spring failure, the RMS value of the acoustic emission signal initially increases, then decreases, and finally increases again as the speed increases. It reaches the stable operating inflection point when the end-face speed is 800 r/min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Lubrication and Dry Gas Seal)
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17 pages, 9932 KiB  
Article
Thermal Characteristics of Dry Gas Seal in Startup Process Considering Microscale Effects
by Qiangguo Deng, Xuejian Sun, Hengjie Xu and Wenyuan Mao
Lubricants 2023, 11(12), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11120503 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The heat generated during the startup process of dry gas seals, such as the friction heat of the asperities, viscous shear heat, and the expansion heat of the gas film, easily leads to seal failure and endangers the stable operation of turbomachinery. This [...] Read more.
The heat generated during the startup process of dry gas seals, such as the friction heat of the asperities, viscous shear heat, and the expansion heat of the gas film, easily leads to seal failure and endangers the stable operation of turbomachinery. This study combines the statistically modified contact model and the average Reynolds equation by considering the adiabatic index and the microscale effects of dry gas seals to explore the heat generation characteristics of dry gas seals formed in series at multiple times. In particular, the change laws and influencing factors among the components, including the friction heat of asperities and the shear heat and expansion heat of the gas film and total heat, are investigated. A comparative analysis indicates that the slip flow effect increases the total heat during the startup process. The friction heat is much greater than expansion heat and shear heat. Despite constant acceleration, exponential acceleration, or Harrison acceleration, the heat changes are uneven during the startup process. In particular, the heat changes sharply in the early stage and slowly in the later stage. The Harrison acceleration mode is the most conducive to sealing stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Lubrication and Dry Gas Seal)
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21 pages, 10275 KiB  
Article
Influence of Cavitation on the Heat Transfer of High-Speed Mechanical Seal with Textured Side Wall
by Minfeng Yu, Xudong Peng, Xiangkai Meng, Jinbo Jiang and Yi Ma
Lubricants 2023, 11(9), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11090378 - 6 Sep 2023
Viewed by 843
Abstract
By setting textures on the side walls of a rotor, based on SST k-ω turbulence and the mixture model, the effects of depth-to-diameter ratio, shape, and rotational speed on interface temperature are analyzed. Local Nu number, flow field in textures, and [...] Read more.
By setting textures on the side walls of a rotor, based on SST k-ω turbulence and the mixture model, the effects of depth-to-diameter ratio, shape, and rotational speed on interface temperature are analyzed. Local Nu number, flow field in textures, and gas distribution are used to verify the conclusion. When rotational speed increases, there are three different stages on the surface: liquid-dominated, mixed two-phase, and gas-dominated. This leads to a big difference in heat transfer on the side wall and causes the temperature on the seal face to increase when cavitation is considered. The distribution of the gas phase is explained through drag reduction, which has a high correlation with the velocity gradient near the surface. For several common shapes, heat transfer enhancement of textures is compared under high speed. The key influencing factor is the depth-to-diameter ratio, which causes flow stratification and reduces heat transfer. Flow stratification leads to different results of maximum temperature on the seal face when cavitation is considered. Results show that at high speed, a deep, circular texture is better when cavitation does not occur, and a shallow triangular texture is recommended when cavitation occurs; a textured side wall can reduce the maximum temperature of the seal face by about 10 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Lubrication and Dry Gas Seal)
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19 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Load-Bearing Characteristics of Gas-Extruded Membrane Bearings Based on the Alternating Direction Implicit Method
by Dongming Li, Feng Wang, Ruize Ma, Weidong Guo, Ziyi Shan and Kuipeng Zhao
Lubricants 2023, 11(8), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11080320 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 893
Abstract
In this study, a novel gas-extruded membrane bearing was developed, and an optimization algorithm was applied to solve a Reynolds equation that describes the load-bearing characteristics of this bearing. This was effective in improving the solution rate of the Reynolds equation, significantly reducing [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel gas-extruded membrane bearing was developed, and an optimization algorithm was applied to solve a Reynolds equation that describes the load-bearing characteristics of this bearing. This was effective in improving the solution rate of the Reynolds equation, significantly reducing the difficulty of obtaining a solution, avoiding high programming difficulty, and achieving a high solution accuracy. Through a comparative analysis, the error in the accuracy of the alternating implicit difference method was addressed, and the traditional finite element method for solving the same model was verified, with an average error of 2% reached to verify its applicability. The algorithm was also used to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the gas-extruded membrane bearing. This revealed not only a positive correlation of the average load-bearing capacity of the gas-extruded membrane bearing with the frequency and amplitude of vibration but also a negative correlation with radial clearance, with the cut-off frequency reaching 19 Khz. The load-bearing capacity of the gas-extruded membrane bearing proposed in this paper reached 1.28 N, which indicated an error of 3.28% with the theoretical approach. To sum up, this research provides an important reference for the design and manufacture of novel gas-extruded membrane bearings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Lubrication and Dry Gas Seal)
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12 pages, 3601 KiB  
Article
Key Technologies and Design Methods of Ultra-Precision Aerostatic Bearings
by Zhongpu Wen, Hui Gu and Zhaoyao Shi
Lubricants 2023, 11(8), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11080315 - 25 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
Precision measurement technology and instruments are the basis for high-quality development in modern industry. With the specialization of supporting facilities, ultra-precision motion guidance has become a core technology to achieve ultra-precision measurement. Aerostatic bearings have the advantages of low friction and high precision, [...] Read more.
Precision measurement technology and instruments are the basis for high-quality development in modern industry. With the specialization of supporting facilities, ultra-precision motion guidance has become a core technology to achieve ultra-precision measurement. Aerostatic bearings have the advantages of low friction and high precision, and are gradually playing an irreplaceable role in precision measurement and instruments. This paper summarizes and puts forward two contradictions for improving the loading capacity of aerostatic bearings, and investigates how to solve them via structural design. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the engineering calculation method, the gauge pressure ratio method, the gas resistance calculation method, and the AFVM (adaptive finite volume method) proposed. Finally, this paper summarizes the application scope of each method, gives solutions to the core problems, and outlines the developing trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Lubrication and Dry Gas Seal)
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