Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 20279

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design & Rotor-Bearing System, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: rolling bearing; lubrication technology; simulation modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Design Science and Basic Components, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710054, China
Interests: rolling bearing and rotor dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Construction Machinery, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China
Interests: bearing-spindle thermal analysis

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design & Rotor-Bearing System, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Interests: bearing self-lubrication

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bearings are currently the most widely used mechanical components. In the process of high-speed and heavy load operation, friction and heat generation between rolling elements, cages, and rings increase. At this time, lubrication technology is integral to reducing bearing friction and wear, strengthening bearing heat dissipation, and extending bearing life.

In the last century, important research on various aspects of bearing thermal analysis and corresponding lubrication technology has been extensive. However, as bearing speeds continue to increase, complex operation conditions pose more challenges to bearing thermal analysis. At the same time, the continuous cross-fusion of materials, sensors, big data, and emerging technologies has enabled the continuous expansion of bearing lubrication technology.

The current Special Issue is aimed at the latest developments centred around bearing thermal mechanisms and lubrication technology, as well as the effect of bearing working parameters on lubrication performance and thermal behavior.

Prof. Dr. Ke Yan
Dr. Bin Fang
Dr. Bei Yan
Dr. Fei Chen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bearing lubrication
  • bearing thermal analysis
  • dynamic modelling
  • lubricant flow simulation

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 4198 KiB  
Article
Study on Thermal Characteristics of Angular Contact Ball Bearings Considering Roundness Error
by Yongjian Yu, Ruixiang Ma, Yujun Xue and Yonggang Liu
Lubricants 2024, 12(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12020043 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
To develop an angular contact ball bearing with low power consumption, a heat generation calculation model for angular contact ball bearings has been established based on bearing quasi dynamics, elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory, heat transfer theory, and Kirchhoff’s law of energy conservation, considering the [...] Read more.
To develop an angular contact ball bearing with low power consumption, a heat generation calculation model for angular contact ball bearings has been established based on bearing quasi dynamics, elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory, heat transfer theory, and Kirchhoff’s law of energy conservation, considering the effects of roundness error, bearing preload, centrifugal effect, and thermal expansion. The correctness of the model is verified through experiments. The influence of different operating conditions and roundness errors on the thermal characteristics of angular contact ball bearings is analyzed. The results of the calculation indicate that when the roundness error order is equal to the number of balls n/2 ± 2 (where n = 1, 2, 3, …), the overall heat generation of the bearing is lower than that without considering the roundness error. When the roundness error order is equal to (2n − 1)/4 ± 2 (where n = 1, 2, 3, …), the overall heat generation of the bearing is higher than that without considering the roundness error. At the same rotating speed, the overall heat generation fluctuates as the roundness error order changes, and the trend becomes more pronounced as the rotating speed increases. The maximum overall heat generation is achieved when the roundness error order equals (2n − 1)/4 times (where n = 1, 2, 3, …) the number of balls. When the roundness error order is equal to n/2 times the number of balls (where n = 1, 2, 3, …), the bearing’s overall heat generation is minimal. The variation in the total heat generated by the bearing is directly proportional to the amplitude of the roundness error. With the increase in roundness error harmonic order, the bearing integral heat generation shows a periodic change, and the change period has a mapping relationship with the number of balls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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22 pages, 7486 KiB  
Article
Lubrication Performance of Misaligned Journal Bearings with Flexible Structure under Shock Load Conditions
by Sung-Ho Hong and Woo-Ju Jeon
Lubricants 2023, 11(12), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11120500 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Bearings might be damaged due to shock loads caused by disturbances, in addition to static loads. In this study, a flexible structure was applied to enhance the lubrication characteristics of misaligned journal bearings subjected to impact loads. When an impact load is added [...] Read more.
Bearings might be damaged due to shock loads caused by disturbances, in addition to static loads. In this study, a flexible structure was applied to enhance the lubrication characteristics of misaligned journal bearings subjected to impact loads. When an impact load is added to the bearing, a misaligned journal bearing has a high possibility of metal-to-metal contact. It might also lead to failure. Misalignment can occur at any time during bearing operation. A flexible structure is applied to the end of the bearing as a way to improve lubrication performance in a system where impact loads might be applied. The bearing’s lubrication performance was numerically assessed under unsteady-state conditions. An elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis was conducted, taking into account elastic deformation. The lubrication characteristics of misaligned journal bearings were compared with the dimensionless minimum film thickness. The flexible structure and elastic modulus of the bearing were investigated so that it could support the load without contact according to the change in the maximum magnitude of the impact load. When subjected to oil film pressure, this flexible structure underwent elastic deformation, resulting in enlargement of the oil film. A misaligned journal bearing with a suitable flexible structure provided stable lubrication without metal-to-metal contact, even under shock load conditions. The flexible structure was incorporated into the high-load-bearing region of the journal bearing as a groove. Therefore, the application of a flexible structure in misaligned journal bearings can effectively enhance lubrication performance in misaligned conditions and under shock loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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21 pages, 10249 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Dynamic Responses of Rigid Rotor Supported by Thick Top Foil Bearings
by Bin Hu, Xiaodong Yang, Anping Hou, Rui Wang, Zhiyong Wu, Qifeng Ni and Zhong Li
Lubricants 2023, 11(10), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11100453 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 940
Abstract
This study focuses on thick top foil bearings (TTFBs), which can prevent top foil from sagging and significantly reduce the load capacity of gas foil bearings (GFBs). However, the limited research on the dynamic responses of TTFB-rotor systems has hindered their wide application [...] Read more.
This study focuses on thick top foil bearings (TTFBs), which can prevent top foil from sagging and significantly reduce the load capacity of gas foil bearings (GFBs). However, the limited research on the dynamic responses of TTFB-rotor systems has hindered their wide application of TTFBs with high load capacity. To address this, an integrated nonlinear dynamic model is developed to analyze the linear dynamic responses of a rigid rotor supported on TTFBs. The model incorporates time domain orbit simulation, considering unsteady Reynolds equations, foil deformation equations, thick top foil motion equations, and rotor motion equations. A symmetrical test rig is used to validate the model, and three types of TTFBs with different bump foil stiffness are tested, with experimental results aligning with the model predictions. This study also investigates the effects of nominal clearance, static load, and unbalance on TTFB-rotor systems. The results indicate that unbalance has minimal impact on subsynchronous vibrations. However, larger bump foil stiffness, increased normal clearance, and higher static load contribute to improved stability and higher maximum stable speed of the TTFB-rotor system. Moreover, other relevant parameters reducing the bearing attitude angle can further enhance the system’s stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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27 pages, 18120 KiB  
Article
Research on the Service Condition Monitoring Method of Rolling Bearings Based on Isomorphic Data Fusion
by Yanfei Zhang, Yang Liu, Mingqi Yang, Xiaoyang Feng, Qianxiang Zhu and Lingfei Kong
Lubricants 2023, 11(10), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11100429 - 04 Oct 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
In order to solve the problem that it is difficult for a single sensor to accurately characterize the running state of rotating bearings under complex working conditions, this paper proposes a data-level fusion method based on multi-source isomorphic sensors to monitor spindle bearings. [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem that it is difficult for a single sensor to accurately characterize the running state of rotating bearings under complex working conditions, this paper proposes a data-level fusion method based on multi-source isomorphic sensors to monitor spindle bearings. First, new vibration signals in the X,Y,Z direction were obtained through the process of decomposing, de-noise, and reconstructing. Second, the PCA algorithm was used to select the time-domain and frequency-domain features of the vibration signals, construct the feature matrix, and perform dimensionality reduction in the feature matrix. Finally, the entropy weight method was introduced to obtain the initial weights of the three directions as the inputs of the adaptive function. The chaotic particle swarm optimization algorithm proposed in this paper helps particles jump out of the local optimum. Chaotic mapping is used to initialize the velocity and position of the particles, which calculates globally optimal weights in three directions. In order to extract bearing signal features more accurately and efficiently, a DenseNet and Transformer (DAT) feature extraction model is proposed to deal with the complex changes and noise interference of bearing signals. Through the open data set of Jiangnan University and the data collected by our own experimental platform, the maximum accuracy of the DAT model was verified to be 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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17 pages, 28081 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Bump Foil Configurations Effect on Gas Foil Thrust Bearing Performance Based on a Thermos-Elastic-Hydrodynamic Model
by Bin Hu, Anping Hou, Rui Deng, Rui Wang, Zhiyong Wu, Qifeng Ni and Zhong Li
Lubricants 2023, 11(10), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11100417 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
The performance of gas foil thrust bearings is critical to the successful design and operation of the high axial load rotatory machines that employ gas foil bearings. However, our understanding of gas foil thrust bearings remains incomplete. To enhance our understanding and predict [...] Read more.
The performance of gas foil thrust bearings is critical to the successful design and operation of the high axial load rotatory machines that employ gas foil bearings. However, our understanding of gas foil thrust bearings remains incomplete. To enhance our understanding and predict the performance of gas foil thrust bearings, we have established a detailed three-dimensional thermo-elastic-hydrodynamic model of a gas foil thrust bearing based on a fluid-thermal-structure interaction approach in this study. To validate the accuracy of our model, a gas foil thrust bearing test rig was developed. Moreover, we present a numerical investigation of the influence of bump foil configurations on gas foil thrust bearing performance. The results show that the gas foil thrust bearing that fixes the bump foil at the trailing edge and splits the bump foil into several strips exhibits a 36.4% increase in load capacity compared to the gas foil thrust bearing that fixes a whole piece of bump foil at the leading edge. Fixing the bump foil at the trailing edge and splitting it into several strips effectively decreases power loss and reduces the risk of bearing thermal failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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15 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Temperature Prediction on High-Speed Angular Contact Ball Bearings of Machine Tool Spindles Based on CNN and Informer
by Hongyu Li, Chunyang Liu, Fang Yang, Xiqiang Ma, Nan Guo, Xin Sui and Xiao Wang
Lubricants 2023, 11(8), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11080343 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
This study addressed the issues related to the difficulty of determining the operating status of machine tool spindle bearings due to the high rotational speeds and rapid temperature fluctuations. This paper presents an optimized model that combines Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Informer [...] Read more.
This study addressed the issues related to the difficulty of determining the operating status of machine tool spindle bearings due to the high rotational speeds and rapid temperature fluctuations. This paper presents an optimized model that combines Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Informer to dynamically predict the temperature rise process of bearings. Taking the H7006C angular contact ball bearing as the research object, a combination of experimental data and simulations was used to obtain the training dataset. Next, a model for predicting the temperature rise of the bearing was constructed using CNN + Informer and the structural parameters were optimized. Finally, the model’s generalization ability was then verified by predicting the bearing temperature rise process under various working conditions. The results show that the error of the simulation data source model was less than 1 °C at steady state; the temperature error of the bearing temperature rise prediction model was less than 0.5 °C at both the temperature rise and steady-state stages under variable rotational speeds and variable load conditions compared to Informer and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) models; the maximum prediction error of the operating conditions outside the dataset was less than 0.5 °C, and the temperature rise prediction model has a high accuracy, robustness, and generalization capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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19 pages, 3306 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of the Rheology of Grease by the Example of CIATIM-221 and Identification of Its Behavior Model
by Yuriy O. Nosov and Anna A. Kamenskikh
Lubricants 2023, 11(7), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11070295 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
The study of the rheological properties of a lubricant allows for the assessment of the structure’s durability in which they are used. Computer engineering enables the prediction of the structure performance using refined mathematical models of its materials. This paper presents an experimental [...] Read more.
The study of the rheological properties of a lubricant allows for the assessment of the structure’s durability in which they are used. Computer engineering enables the prediction of the structure performance using refined mathematical models of its materials. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the rheological behavior of a lubricant that is actively used in bridge structures. The paper proposed a methodology for determining the rheological characteristics of the lubricant using a rotational viscometer. Additionally, the article performed the task of identifying the mathematical model of the lubricant behavior based on the Maxwell body, using two approaches: the Anand model and the Prony series. The proposed models allow for numerical modeling of the structure’s performance throughout their lifecycle within the scope of computer engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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23 pages, 7408 KiB  
Article
Bearing Non-Uniform Loading Condition Monitoring Based on Dual-Channel Fusion Improved DenseNet Network
by Yanfei Zhang, Yang Liu, Lijie Wang, Dongya Li, Wenxue Zhang and Lingfei Kong
Lubricants 2023, 11(6), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11060251 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Misalignment or unbalanced loading of machine tool spindle bearings often results in skewed bearing operation, which makes the spindle more susceptible to failure. In addition, due to the weak impact signal of the bearing in skewed operation, a single feature information cannot accurately [...] Read more.
Misalignment or unbalanced loading of machine tool spindle bearings often results in skewed bearing operation, which makes the spindle more susceptible to failure. In addition, due to the weak impact signal of the bearing in skewed operation, a single feature information cannot accurately characterize the operation status of the bearing. To address the above problems, this paper proposes a method to monitor the uneven running state of bearing load based on a dual-channel fusion improved dense connection (DenseNet) network. First, the original signal is pre-processed by overlapping sampling method, and the dual-channel experimental data are obtained by frequency-domain and time-frequency-domain algorithms; then the processed data are input into the improved 1D-DenseNet and 2D-DenseNet models respectively for feature extraction; then the frequency-domain and time-frequency-domain features are fused by concat splicing operation, and the output belongs to each category The probability distribution is used to characterize the operating state of the bearings. Finally, the validity of the algorithm model is verified by using the Case Western Reserve University public rolling bearing data set, and an experimental bench is designed and built for experimental verification of the uneven bearing load operation. The comparative analysis of the experimental results in this paper shows that the algorithm can extract the features of the input signal more comprehensively and finally achieve 100% recognition accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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25 pages, 11051 KiB  
Article
Eccentric Rotor Drop Dynamics Study of Vertical Maglev Bearing System
by Xiaoxu Pang, Dingkang Zhu, Ming Qiu, Dongfeng Wang and Xinlong Wang
Lubricants 2023, 11(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11060246 - 03 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
When considering the problem of a vertical magnetic levitation bearing system, the rotor eccentric fall is more likely to cause the failure of the protective bearing. In this paper, a rotor drop collision model and a protective bearing dynamics model are constructed. It [...] Read more.
When considering the problem of a vertical magnetic levitation bearing system, the rotor eccentric fall is more likely to cause the failure of the protective bearing. In this paper, a rotor drop collision model and a protective bearing dynamics model are constructed. It compares and analyzes the evolution of collision force values of the rotor eccentric drop as well as the non-eccentric drop. Further, this paper discusses the law of influence of three factors, rotor quality, rotational speed, and axial protection clearance, on the collision characteristics of the protected bearing in eccentric and non-eccentric cases. It has also experimentally verified this characteristic of rotor speed. The results show that compared with the non-eccentric condition, the axial impact force and radial impact forces of the rotor in the eccentric condition increase by 14% and 114%, respectively. Compared with the non-eccentric condition, with the increase in rotor quality, the axial and radial impact force increase by 68% on average, and the axial depth amplitude of the rotor increases by 350%. With the increase of rotor speed, the axial impact force without an eccentric drop is basically unchanged; the axial impact force of an eccentric drop increases slightly, and the radial impact force increases by 110%. With the increase of axial protection clearance, the radial displacement vibration of the rotor axis increases; the average increase of the maximum axial force is 120 N, and the average increase of the maximum radial force is 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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21 pages, 8856 KiB  
Article
Digital Twin-Driven Thermal Error Prediction for CNC Machine Tool Spindle
by Quanbo Lu, Dong Zhu, Meng Wang and Mei Li
Lubricants 2023, 11(5), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11050219 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Traditional methods for predicting thermal error ignore the correlation between physical world data and virtual world data, leading to the low prediction accuracy of thermal errors and affecting the normal processing of the CNC machine tool (CNCMT) spindle. To solve the above problem, [...] Read more.
Traditional methods for predicting thermal error ignore the correlation between physical world data and virtual world data, leading to the low prediction accuracy of thermal errors and affecting the normal processing of the CNC machine tool (CNCMT) spindle. To solve the above problem, we propose a thermal error prediction approach based on digital twins and long short-term memory (DT-LSTM). DT-LSTM combines the high simulation capabilities of DT and the strong data processing capabilities of LSTM. Firstly, we develop a DT system for the thermal characteristics analysis of a spindle. When the DT system is implemented, we can obtain the theoretical value of thermal error. Then, the experimental data is used to train LSTM. The output of LSTM is the actual value of thermal error. Finally, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm fuses the theoretical values of DT with the actual values of LSTM. The case study demonstrates that DT-LSTM has a higher accuracy than the single method by nearly 11%, which improves the prediction performance and robustness of thermal error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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22 pages, 17888 KiB  
Article
Study on the Effect of Oil Supply on the Sound Field Characteristics of Full Ceramic Ball Bearings under Oil Lubrication
by Jian Sun, Xin Fang, Jinmei Yao, Renyun Guan, Zhe Zhang and Guangxiang Zhang
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030146 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
To study the full sound field distribution characteristics of full ceramic ball bearings, reduce the radiation noise of the bearings, and improve their service performance. In this paper, the sound field distribution characteristics of 6206 silicon nitride ceramic deep groove ball bearings are [...] Read more.
To study the full sound field distribution characteristics of full ceramic ball bearings, reduce the radiation noise of the bearings, and improve their service performance. In this paper, the sound field distribution characteristics of 6206 silicon nitride ceramic deep groove ball bearings are studied under different oil supplies. A mathematical model of the sound field distribution of full ceramic ball bearings under oil lubrication is established, and the validity of the model is verified by experimental data. The bearing cavity simulation model of the full ceramic ball bearing is established, and the influence of oil supply on the operation characteristics of the full ceramic ball bearing is studied. Through theoretical and experimental research, the circular distribution law of the noise signal of ceramic ball bearings under different oil supplies is revealed. It is found that there is an optimal fuel supply when the speed and load are constant. Under optimal oil supply lubrication conditions, the full ceramic ball bearing has the minimum radiation noise, and the bearing exhibits optimal lubrication state, vibration and temperature rise characteristics. The new contribution of this paper: with the increase in oil supply, the sound pressure level of radiation noise of full ceramic ball bearings decreases and then increases. The research results reveal the radiation noise mechanism of full ceramic ball bearings, which is of great significance for enriching its theory and method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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14 pages, 3391 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Circulation Characteristics and Heat Balance of High-Speed Rolling Bearing under Oil-Air Lubrication
by Xiqiang Ma, Mian Zhang, Fang Yang, Yujun Xue, Ruijie Gu and Nan Guo
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030136 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Aiming to solve the problem of oil-air lubrication failure caused by the high working temperature of high-speed rolling bearings, this study proposes a method, based on the theory of gas-solid two-phase flow and bearing tribology, of predicting the dynamic temperature rise of nonlinear [...] Read more.
Aiming to solve the problem of oil-air lubrication failure caused by the high working temperature of high-speed rolling bearings, this study proposes a method, based on the theory of gas-solid two-phase flow and bearing tribology, of predicting the dynamic temperature rise of nonlinear high-speed rolling bearings under oil-air lubrication conditions. The accuracy of the fluid–structure coupling model is verified by comparing the temperature rise test results of angular contact ball bearing at different speeds. The characteristics of oil-air lubrication circulation and the relationship between the lubrication parameters and the heat balance of the high-speed rolling bearings have been studied. The results show that the gas supply pressure of the system has a significant influence on the continuity and fluctuation of the oil film in the oil pipe nozzle. The initial rise in temperature of the inner and outer rings of the bearing and the fluid domain has a speed threshold value, and the temperature increases linearly with the bearing speed. With the increase in the oil supply and lube oil viscosity of the system, the temperature rise of the outer ring of the bearing increases first, then decreases, and finally increases again. There is an optimal oil supply 5.5 mL and optimize viscosity 68 cSt for the bearing in the work condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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20 pages, 7152 KiB  
Article
Mixed Lubrication Analysis of Tapered Roller Bearings and Crowning Profile Optimization Based on Numerical Running-In Method
by Renshui Cao, Hang Bai, Hui Cao, Yazhao Zhang and Yonggang Meng
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030097 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Tapered roller bearings (TRBs) are widely used in heavy-load rotating machinery. One of the technical problems in TRBs is the existence of sharp spikes of the contact pressure in the vicinity of the two ends of the tapered rollers. To suppress the pressure [...] Read more.
Tapered roller bearings (TRBs) are widely used in heavy-load rotating machinery. One of the technical problems in TRBs is the existence of sharp spikes of the contact pressure in the vicinity of the two ends of the tapered rollers. To suppress the pressure spikes at the roller ends, a straight roller profile is crowned in cylindrical and tapered roller bearings. However, compared to cylindrical roller bearings, there are few studies on the profile modification of TRBs in the literature, and most of the publications on the EHD analysis of tapered rollers focused on a single roller, using traditional profiles such as logarithmic profiles, dub-off profiles and chamfer profiles. By using the numerical running-in method proposed and used in crowning profiles of cylindrical rollers by the authors, this paper provides the first ever asymmetric optimized profile solution for all TRBs rather than for just a single roller. The results show that the optimized profile has the best performance in smoothing contact pressure distribution in the axial direction compared with the conventional logarithmic profile and is a useful profile form with respect to the elimination of sharp pressure spikes. In addition, considering the effect of temperature and mixed lubrication, this paper analyzes the influences of different axial profiles under radial load (Fr), rotation speed (N) and standard deviation of roughness (Rq) conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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19 pages, 5438 KiB  
Article
A Generalized Bearing Dynamic with Adaptive Variation of Equation Numbers and Sliding Behavior Investigation
by Shuaijun Ma, Yanjing Yin, Fei Chen, Bin Fang, Ke Yan and Jun Hong
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030096 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
The complex sliding behavior inside ball bearings seriously affects the mechanical system’s performance. Current dynamic models for predicting this behavior suffer from poor generality and convergence. To address this issue, different interactions between the ball and raceway are proposed in this paper to [...] Read more.
The complex sliding behavior inside ball bearings seriously affects the mechanical system’s performance. Current dynamic models for predicting this behavior suffer from poor generality and convergence. To address this issue, different interactions between the ball and raceway are proposed in this paper to simulate the dynamic behavior by analyzing the bearing assemblies’ motion features under typical operating conditions. The number of variables and equations to be solved is determined adaptively according to the bearing load characteristics, thus improving the efficiency and convergence of the model solution. The good agreement between simulation results and experimental test results validates the reliability of the model. The sliding behavior at the ball/raceway interface under different conditions is further investigated. The results show that the heavy external loads can avoid severe sliding at the interface but shorten the bearing’s fatigue. When the bearing is subjected to combined load conditions, the increased radial force inhibits bearing sliding while increasing the non-uniformity of the sliding velocity distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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19 pages, 8595 KiB  
Article
Research on the Nonlinear Stiffness Characteristics of Double-Row Angular Contact Ball Bearings under Different Working Conditions
by Bin Fang, Jinhua Zhang, Jun Hong and Ke Yan
Lubricants 2023, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11020044 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
To study the variation rules of nonlinear stiffness of double-row angular contact ball bearings (DR-ACBB), this paper proposed a general mathematic model for DR-ACBB under three different configurations based on the improved quasi-static model of ball bearings, an explicit expression stiffness matrix of [...] Read more.
To study the variation rules of nonlinear stiffness of double-row angular contact ball bearings (DR-ACBB), this paper proposed a general mathematic model for DR-ACBB under three different configurations based on the improved quasi-static model of ball bearings, an explicit expression stiffness matrix of DR-ACBB is analytically derived, and a double-layer nested iterative algorithm based on the Newton–Raphson method is designed to realize the efficient solution of the proposed model. Then, the effects of the preload, speeds, and loads on the nonlinear stiffness variations of DR-ACBB under different arrangements are comparatively analyzed. The results show that DR-ACBB under the DB and DF configurations have the same variation rule in axial and radial stiffness; that is, a nonlinear soft-spring stiffness characteristic (i.e., the stiffness decreases with the external load) within the low-speed range and light load condition, and a nonlinear hard spring stiffness characteristic (i.e., the stiffness increases with the external load) within the high-speed range or heavy load condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bearing Lubrication and Thermodynamics 2023)
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