Primitive and Metastatic Tumors of the Skin

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 5776

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Guest Editor
Department of Pathology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Policlinico, 41124 Modena, Italy
Interests: colorectal cancer; prostate cancer; and skin cancer; histopathology and molecular pathology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Skin tumors are an intriguing topic in daily pathological practice.  Despite their high incidence, their morphological and biological profiles are not yet been well elucidated because of their heterogeneity and multiplicity in clinical and histological findings. Moreover, cutaneous metastasis from solid tumors is an unusual event, often leading to diagnostic troubles and mistakes in differential diagnosis with primitive skin tumors.

In this Special Issue of Life, we would like to propose an opportunity for pathologists and clinicians to treat the unresolved and most recent topics in primitive and metastatic skin tumors with special focus on histological, immunohistochemical, and biological profiles. Reviews and studies about immunohistochemical and biological characteristics of both primitive and metastatic skin tumors affecting the clinical and therapeutic approach as well as the application of new promising diagnostic tools, are, moreover, encouraged.

Dr. Luca Reggiani Bonetti
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • primitive skin tumors
  • metastasis
  • immunohistochemistry
  • cutaneous lymphoma
  • cutaneous surgery

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Cryosurgery for Basal Cell Skin Cancer of the Head: 15 Years of Experience
by Ilya Pustinsky, Anton Dvornikov, Ekaterina Kiva, Svetlana Chulkova, Angelina Egorova, Irina Gladilina, Sergey Peterson, Nataly Lepkova, Natalya Grishchenko, Zamira Galaeva, Aigul Baisova and Sergey Kalinin
Life 2023, 13(11), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13112231 - 20 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The clinical relevance of head and neck (H&N) tumors is related to the potential disfiguration of anatomical structures (by the tumor or surgical intervention), defining patients’ individual features and emotional expression, loss or restraint of vital structures functions, and untoward socio-economic sequelae. This [...] Read more.
The clinical relevance of head and neck (H&N) tumors is related to the potential disfiguration of anatomical structures (by the tumor or surgical intervention), defining patients’ individual features and emotional expression, loss or restraint of vital structures functions, and untoward socio-economic sequelae. This study is aimed to improve clinical outcomes of cryosurgery in patients with H&N basal cell skin cancer by refining the indications for cryosurgical treatment. In this study, cryosurgery was used in 234 patients with different stages of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the head, including 101 patients with T1 tumors, 86—with T2, 5—T3, and 42 patients with tumors relapsing after failure of preceding various treatment modalities. Post-cryosurgery recurrence rate in patients with stage I BCC was 2.7%, with stage II tumors—5.6% and 34.9%—in patients with recurred tumors. Re-recurrence after cryoablation of recurrent tumors correlated with the tumor baseline size. The best aesthetic and long-term clinical results were documented in patients with lesions <1 cm in size with clear boundaries. Thus, cryosurgery is the method of choice for the majority of stage I basal cell carcinomas of the head. For patients with advanced and recurrent skin cancer, cryosurgery is relevant in rare cases selected according to refined indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Primitive and Metastatic Tumors of the Skin)
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12 pages, 768 KiB  
Article
Altitude Effect on Cutaneous Melanoma Epidemiology in the Veneto Region (Northern Italy): A Pilot Study
by Paolo Del Fiore, Irene Russo, Alessandro Dal Monico, Jacopo Tartaglia, Beatrice Ferrazzi, Marcodomenico Mazza, Francesco Cavallin, Saveria Tropea, Alessandra Buja, Rocco Cappellesso, Lorenzo Nicolè, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, Chiara Menin, Antonella Vecchiato, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Mauro Alaibac and Simone Mocellin
Life 2022, 12(5), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12050745 - 17 May 2022
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Abstract
The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been increasing in the last decades among the fair-skinned population. Despite its complex and multifactorial etiology, the exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the most consistent modifiable risk factor for melanoma. Several factors influence the amount of [...] Read more.
The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been increasing in the last decades among the fair-skinned population. Despite its complex and multifactorial etiology, the exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the most consistent modifiable risk factor for melanoma. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the Earth’s surface. Our study aimed to explore the relationship between melanoma and altitude in an area with mixed geographic morphology, such as the Veneto region (Italy). We included 2752 melanoma patients who were referred to our centers between 1998 and 2014. Demographics, histological and clinical data, and survival information were extracted from a prospectively maintained local database. Head/neck and acral melanoma were more common in patients from the hills and the mountains, while limb and trunk melanoma were more common in patients living in plain and coastal areas. Breslow thickness, ulceration and mitotic rate impaired with increased altitude. However, the geographical area of origin was not associated with overall or disease-free survival. The geographical area of origin of melanoma patients and the “coast-plain-hill gradient” could help to estimate the influence of different sun exposure and to explain the importance of vitamin D levels in skin-cancer control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Primitive and Metastatic Tumors of the Skin)
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11 pages, 3147 KiB  
Article
Immune Disregulation in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: A Single Pilot Study
by Angela Filoni, Gerolamo Cicco, Gerardo Cazzato, Anna Bosco, Lucia Lospalluti, Marco Tucci, Antonietta Cimmino, Caterina Foti, Andrea Marzullo and Domenico Bonamonte
Life 2022, 12(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020213 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Background: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most devastating complications of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). We recently demonstrated a reduction in immune cell peritumoral infiltration in RDEB patients with cSCC, together with a reduction in CD3+, CD4+, CD68+ and [...] Read more.
Background: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most devastating complications of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). We recently demonstrated a reduction in immune cell peritumoral infiltration in RDEB patients with cSCC, together with a reduction in CD3+, CD4+, CD68+ and CD20 lymphocytes as compared to primary and secondary cSCC in patients without RDEB. Recently, new molecules, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), T cell immunoglobulin, mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) and Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), have been shown to play a role in antitumoral immunity. Objective: Patients with RDEB are known to be at increased risk of developing skin cancers, including the dreaded squamous cell carcinoma of the. Tendentially, cSCCs that arise in the context of EBDR are more aggressive and lead to statistically significant bad outcomes compared to cSCCs developed on the skin of patients without EBDR. In an attempt to study the microenvironment of these lesions, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis study of proteins that could be actively involved in the genesis of this type of malignant neoplasms. Methods: In this retrospective study, the OH1-HMGB1-TIM3 activation axis, as correlated to the T lymphocytes cell count, was assessed in biopsy samples from 31 consecutive cases consisting of 12 RDEB patients with cSCC, 12 patients with primary cSCC and 7 RDEB patients with pseudoepitheliomatous cutaneous hyperplasia. Parametric Student’s t-test was applied for normally distributed values, such as CD4+ and CD8+, and non-parametric Mann–Whitney test for non-normally distributed values, such as HMGB-1, TIM-3 and HO-1. Results: In RDEB patients with cSCC and with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, the expression of CD4 T helper lymphocytes was lower than in the peritumoral infiltrate found in primary cSCC. CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes were increased in primary cSCC compared to the other two groups. An increased HMGB1 expression was evident in both primary and RDEB cSCC. TIM3 expression was higher in RDEB patients with cSCC compared to the other two groups. A significantly reduced immunohistochemical expression of HO-1 was evident in the tumoral microenvironment of cSCC-RDEB as compared to primary cSCC. Conclusions: These data suggest that a reduced immune cell peritumoral infiltration in RDEB patients could be responsible, in the complexity of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and host response, of the particular aggressiveness of the cSCC of RDEB patients, creating a substrate for greater local immunosuppression, which, potentially, can “open the doors” to development and eventual metastasis by this malignant neoplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Primitive and Metastatic Tumors of the Skin)
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