MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Radiobiology and Nuclear Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 41841

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
Interests: imaging and diagnostics; oncology; prostate cancer; transplantation; value based health care; artificial intelligence; patient centered medicine; ethics

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Guest Editor
Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, 9712 CP Groningen, The Netherlands
Interests: systems radiology; oncology; musculoskeletal imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The subject of this Special Issue will be the role of MRI in cancer, with a special focus on ongoing developments and controversies. This Special Issue will be edited by Dr. Derya Yakar and Dr. Thomas Kwee and will cover several topics, such as the role of MRI in cancer diagnostics, guiding targeted therapies, follow-up after therapy, and the role of Artificial Intelligence (e.g., deep learning and radiomics) or other innovative techniques in oncological MRI. Furthermore, it will touch on topical controversies, such as optimal magnetic field strength, the necessity of intravenous contrast agents, and the role of abbreviated MRI protocols.

Dr. Derya Yakar
Dr. Thomas C. Kwee
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • MRI in diagnostics of cancer
  • MRI in real-time guiding of cancer therapies
  • MRI in follow-up after cancer therapies
  • AI in MRI of cancer diagnostics
  • Controversies in MRI protocols

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Intraobserver and Interobserver Agreement between Six Radiologists Describing mpMRI Features of Prostate Cancer Using a PI-RADS 2.1 Structured Reporting Scheme
by Rafał Jóźwiak, Piotr Sobecki and Tomasz Lorenc
Life 2023, 13(2), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020580 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Clinical practice has revealed ambiguities in PI-RADS v2.1 scoring, but a limited number of studies are available that validate the interreader and intrareader reproducibility of the mpMRI PI-RADS lexicon. We decomposed the PI-RADS rules into a set of common data elements to evaluate [...] Read more.
Clinical practice has revealed ambiguities in PI-RADS v2.1 scoring, but a limited number of studies are available that validate the interreader and intrareader reproducibility of the mpMRI PI-RADS lexicon. We decomposed the PI-RADS rules into a set of common data elements to evaluate the inter- and intraobserver agreement in assessing the individual features included in the PI-RADS lexicon. Six radiologists (three highly experienced, three less experienced) in two sessions independently read thirty-two lesions in the peripheral and transition zone using the structured reporting tool, blinded to clinical MRI indication. The highest agreement between radiologists was observed for the abnormality detection, the evaluation of the type of signal intensity, and the characteristic of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Moderate agreement was reported for dynamic contrast-enhanced images. This resulted in a decrease in abnormality detection (PA = 76.5%) and enhancement indication (PA = 77.3%). The lowest agreement was observed for highly subjective features: shape, signal intensity level, and type of lesion margins. The results indicate the limitations of the PI-RADS v2.1 lexicon in relation to interreader and intrareader reproducibility. We have demonstrated that it is possible to develop structured reporting systems standardized according to the PI-RADS lexicon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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14 pages, 2689 KiB  
Article
Improving the Effective Spatial Resolution in 1H-MRSI of the Prostate with Three-Dimensional Overdiscretized Reconstructions
by Carlijn J. A. Tenbergen, Loreen Ruhm, Sjoerd Ypma, Arend Heerschap, Anke Henning and Tom W. J. Scheenen
Life 2023, 13(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020282 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
In in vivo 1H-MRSI of the prostate, small matrix sizes can cause voxel bleeding extending to regions far from a voxel, dispersing a signal of interest outside that voxel and mixing extra-prostatic residual lipid signals into the prostate. To resolve this problem, [...] Read more.
In in vivo 1H-MRSI of the prostate, small matrix sizes can cause voxel bleeding extending to regions far from a voxel, dispersing a signal of interest outside that voxel and mixing extra-prostatic residual lipid signals into the prostate. To resolve this problem, we developed a three-dimensional overdiscretized reconstruction method. Without increasing the acquisition time from current 3D MRSI acquisition methods, this method is aimed to improve the localization of metabolite signals in the prostate without compromising on SNR. The proposed method consists of a 3D spatial overdiscretization of the MRSI grid, followed by noise decorrelation with small random spectral shifts and weighted spatial averaging to reach a final target spatial resolution. We successfully applied the three-dimensional overdiscretized reconstruction method to 3D prostate 1H-MRSI data at 3T. Both in phantom and in vivo, the method proved to be superior to conventional weighted sampling with Hamming filtering of k-space. Compared with the latter, the overdiscretized reconstructed data with smaller voxel size showed up to 10% less voxel bleed while maintaining higher SNR by a factor of 1.87 and 1.45 in phantom measurements. For in vivo measurements, within the same acquisition time and without loss of SNR compared with weighted k-space sampling and Hamming filtering, we achieved increased spatial resolution and improved localization in metabolite maps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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12 pages, 3932 KiB  
Article
Improved Detection of Cavernous Sinus Invasion of Pituitary Macroadenomas with Ultra-High-Field 7 T MRI
by Felix Eisenhut, Manuel Alexander Schmidt, Michael Buchfelder, Arnd Doerfler and Sven-Martin Schlaffer
Life 2023, 13(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010049 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
To compare 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary macroadenomas (PMA) with standard MRI and intraoperative findings regarding tumor detection, localization, size, and extension. Patients with suspected pituitary adenoma underwent pre-operative 1.5 T or 3 T and 7 T MRI; 14 patients [...] Read more.
To compare 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary macroadenomas (PMA) with standard MRI and intraoperative findings regarding tumor detection, localization, size, and extension. Patients with suspected pituitary adenoma underwent pre-operative 1.5 T or 3 T and 7 T MRI; 14 patients with a PMA were included. A qualitative (lesion detection, location, cavernous sinus infiltration) and quantitative (lesion size, depth of cavernous sinus infiltration) analysis of 1.5 T, 3 T and 7 T MRI was performed and compared with intraoperative findings. Both 1.5/3 T and 7 T MRI enabled the detection of all PMAs; lesion size determination was equal. 7 T MRI enables more precise assessments of cavernous sinus infiltration of PMA (ncorrect 7T = 78.6%, ncorrect 1.5/3T = 64.3%). Ultra-high-field MRI is a reliable imaging modality for evaluation of PMAs providing exact information on lesion location and size. 7 T MRI yielded more accurate information on cavernous sinus infiltration with better agreement with intraoperative findings than standard MRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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10 pages, 1602 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Values from Synthetic MRI Correlate with Breast Cancer Subtypes
by Toshiki Kazama, Taro Takahara, Thomas C. Kwee, Noriko Nakamura, Nobue Kumaki, Naoki Niikura, Tetsu Niwa and Jun Hashimoto
Life 2022, 12(9), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12091307 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to correlate quantitative T1, T2, and proton density (PD) values with breast cancer subtypes. Twenty-eight breast cancer patients underwent MRI of the breast including synthetic MRI. T1, T2, and PD values were correlated with Ki-67 and were [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to correlate quantitative T1, T2, and proton density (PD) values with breast cancer subtypes. Twenty-eight breast cancer patients underwent MRI of the breast including synthetic MRI. T1, T2, and PD values were correlated with Ki-67 and were compared between ER-positive and ER-negative cancers, and between Luminal A and Luminal B cancers. The effectiveness of T1, T2, and PD in differentiating the ER-negative from the ER-positive group and Luminal A from Luminal B cancers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Mean T2 relaxation of ER-negative cancers was significantly higher than that of ER-positive cancers (p < 0.05). The T1, T2, and PD values exhibited a strong positive correlation with Ki-67 (Pearson’s r = 0.75, 0.69, and 0.60 respectively; p < 0.001). Among ER-positive cancers, T1, T2, and PD values of Luminal A cancers were significantly lower than those of Luminal B cancers (p < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) of T2 for discriminating ER-negative from ER-positive cancers was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.69–0.97). The AUC of T1 for discriminating Luminal A from Luminal B cancers was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.61–0.95). In conclusion, quantitative values derived from synthetic MRI show potential for subtyping of invasive breast cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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16 pages, 1675 KiB  
Article
Whole Body MRI in the Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Patients with Testicular Germ Cell Cancer
by Vassiliki Pasoglou, Sandy Van Nieuwenhove, Julien Van Damme, Nicolas Michoux, Aline Van Maanen, Laurence Annet, Jean-Pascal Machiels, Bertrand Tombal and Frederic E. Lecouvet
Life 2022, 12(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020212 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3332
Abstract
Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WB-MRI) is increasingly used for metastatic screening in oncology. This prospective single center study assesses the diagnostic value of WB-MRI including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and identifies the sufficient protocol for metastatic lymph node detection in patients with testicular [...] Read more.
Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WB-MRI) is increasingly used for metastatic screening in oncology. This prospective single center study assesses the diagnostic value of WB-MRI including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and identifies the sufficient protocol for metastatic lymph node detection in patients with testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC). Forty-three patients underwent contrast enhanced thoraco-abdominopelvic CT (TAP-CT) and WB-MRI with DWI for metastatic lymph node screening. Two independent readers reviewed CTs and WB-MRIs. The diagnostic performance of different imaging protocols (CT, complete WB-MRI, T1W + DWI, T2W + DWI), the agreement between these protocols and the reference standard, the reproducibility of findings and the image quality (Signal and contrast to Noise Ratios, Likert scale) were studied. Reproducibility was very good regardless of both lesion locations (retroperitoneal vs distant lymph nodes, other lesions) and the reader. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI was ≥95% (regardless of the locations and imaging protocol); accuracy of CT was ≥93%. There was a strict overlap of 95% CIs associated with this accuracy between complete WB-MRI, T1W + DWI and T2W + DWI, regardless of the reader. Higher Likert score and SNR were observed for DWI, followed by T2W and T1W sequences. In conclusion, a fast WB-MRI protocol including T2W and DWI is a sufficient, accurate, non-irradiating alternative to TAP-CT for metastatic lymph node screening in TGCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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9 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Considering Predictive Factors in the Diagnosis of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer in Patients with PI-RADS 3 Lesions
by Caleb Natale, Christopher R. Koller, Jacob W. Greenberg, Joshua Pincus and Louis S. Krane
Life 2021, 11(12), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11121432 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
The use of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in conjunction with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) is standard practice in the diagnosis, surveillance, and staging of prostate cancer. The risk associated with lesions graded at a PI-RADS score of 3 [...] Read more.
The use of multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in conjunction with the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) is standard practice in the diagnosis, surveillance, and staging of prostate cancer. The risk associated with lesions graded at a PI-RADS score of 3 is ambiguous. Further characterization of the risk associated with PI-RADS 3 lesions would be useful in guiding further work-up and intervention. This study aims to better characterize the utility of PI-RADS 3 and associated risk factors in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer. From a prospectively maintained IRB-approved dataset of all veterans undergoing mpMRI fusion biopsy at the Southeastern Louisiana Veterans Healthcare System, we identified a cohort of 230 PI-RADS 3 lesions from a dataset of 283 consecutive UroNav-guided biopsies in 263 patients from October 2017 to July 2020. Clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason Grade ≥ 2) was detected in 18 of the biopsied PI-RADS 3 lesions, representing 7.8% of the overall sample. Based on binomial analysis, PSA densities of 0.15 or greater were predictive of clinically significant disease, as was PSA. The location of the lesion within the prostate was not shown to be a statistically significant predictor of prostate cancer overall (p = 0.87), or of clinically significant disease (p = 0.16). The majority of PI-RADS 3 lesions do not represent clinically significant disease; therefore, it is possible to reduce morbidity through biopsy. PSA density is a potential adjunctive factor in deciding which patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions require biopsy. Furthermore, while the risk of prostate cancer for African-American men has been debated in the literature, our findings indicate that race is not predictive of identifying prostate cancer, with comparable Gleason grade distributions on histology between races. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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Review

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14 pages, 1016 KiB  
Review
Prostate MRI for Improving Personalized Risk Prediction of Incontinence and Surgical Planning: The Role of Membranous Urethral Length Measurements and the Use of 3D Models
by Thierry N. Boellaard, Marinus J. Hagens, Hans Veerman, Derya Yakar, Laura S. Mertens, Stijn W. T. P. J. Heijmink, Henk G. van der Poel, Pim J. van Leeuwen, Ivo G. Schoots and Margriet C. van Dijk-de Haan
Life 2023, 13(3), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030830 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Prostate MRI has an important role in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, including detection, the targeting of prostate biopsies, staging and guiding radiotherapy and active surveillance. However, there are other ‘’less well-known’’ applications which are being studied and frequently used in our highly [...] Read more.
Prostate MRI has an important role in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, including detection, the targeting of prostate biopsies, staging and guiding radiotherapy and active surveillance. However, there are other ‘’less well-known’’ applications which are being studied and frequently used in our highly specialized medical center. In this review, we focus on two research topics that lie within the expertise of this study group: (1) anatomical parameters predicting the risk of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy, allowing more personalized shared decision-making, with special emphasis on the membranous urethral length (MUL); (2) the use of three-dimensional models to help the surgical planning. These models may be used for training, patient counselling, personalized estimation of nerve sparing and extracapsular extension and may help to achieve negative surgical margins and undetectable postoperative PSA values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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21 pages, 1440 KiB  
Review
Current Status of Biparametric MRI in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Literature Analysis
by Mason James Belue, Enis Cagatay Yilmaz, Asha Daryanani and Baris Turkbey
Life 2022, 12(6), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12060804 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3352
Abstract
The role of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in the detection of prostate cancer is well-established. Based on the limited role of dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) in PI-RADS v2.1, the risk of potential side effects, and the increased cost and time, there has been an [...] Read more.
The role of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in the detection of prostate cancer is well-established. Based on the limited role of dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) in PI-RADS v2.1, the risk of potential side effects, and the increased cost and time, there has been an increase in studies advocating for the omission of DCE from MRI assessments. Per PI-RADS v2.1, DCE is indicated in the assessment of PI-RADS 3 lesions in the peripheral zone, with its most pronounced effect when T2WI and DWI are of insufficient quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methodology and reporting in the literature from the past 5 years regarding the use of DCE in prostate MRI, especially with respect to the indications for DCE as stated in PI-RADS v2.1, and to describe the different approaches used across the studies. We searched for studies investigating the use of bpMRI and/or mpMRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer between January 2017 and April 2022 in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. Through the search process, a total of 269 studies were gathered and 41 remained after abstract and full-text screening. The following information was extracted from the eligible studies: general clinical and technical characteristics of the studies, the number of PI-RADS 3 lesions, different definitions of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa), biopsy thresholds, reference standard methods, and number and experience of readers. Forty-one studies were included in the study. Only 51% (21/41) of studies reported the prevalence of csPCa in their equivocal lesion (PI-RADS category 3 lesions) subgroups. Of the included studies, none (0/41) performed a stratified sub-analysis of the DCE benefit versus MRI quality and 46% (19/41) made explicit statements about removing MRI scans based on a range of factors including motion, noise, and image artifacts. Furthermore, the number of studies investigating the role of DCE using readers with varying experience was relatively low. This review demonstrates that a high proportion of the studies investigating whether bpMRI can replace mpMRI did not transparently report information inherent to their study design concerning the key indications of DCE, such as the number of clinically insignificant/significant PI-RADS 3 lesions, nor did they provide any sub-analyses to test image quality, with some removing bad quality MRI scans altogether, or reader-experience-dependency indications for DCE. For the studies that reported on most of the DCE indications, their conclusions about the utility of DCE were heavily definition-dependent (with varying definitions of csPCa and of the PI-RADS category biopsy significance threshold). Reporting the information inherent to the study design and related to the specific indications for DCE as stated in PI-RADS v2.1 is needed to determine whether DCE is helpful or not. With most of the recent literature being retrospective and not including the data related to DCE indications in particular, the ongoing dispute between bpMRI and mpMRI is likely to linger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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25 pages, 9398 KiB  
Review
Prostate MRI: Is Endorectal Coil Necessary?—A Review
by Grace Lee, Aytekin Oto and Mihai Giurcanu
Life 2022, 12(4), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040569 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4514
Abstract
To assess the necessity of endorectal coil use in 3 Tesla (T) prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a literature review comparing the image quality and diagnostic performance with an endorectal coil (ERC) and a without endorectal coil (NERC), with a phased array coil [...] Read more.
To assess the necessity of endorectal coil use in 3 Tesla (T) prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a literature review comparing the image quality and diagnostic performance with an endorectal coil (ERC) and a without endorectal coil (NERC), with a phased array coil or a wearable perineal coil (WPC), was performed. A PubMed search of 3T prostate MRI using an endorectal coil for studies published until 31 July 2021 was performed. A total of 14 studies comparing 3T prostate MRI with and without endorectal coil use were identified. The quality scores and diagnostic performances were recorded for each study. In total, five studies compared image quality; five studies compared quality and performance; and four studies compared performance of detection, size of detected lesions, accuracy of cancer localization, and aggressiveness/staging. The use of an endorectal coil improved image quality with a higher overall signal to noise ratio, posterior and peripheral zone signal to noise ratio, high b-value attenuation diffusion coefficient (ADC) signal to noise ratio, and contrast to noise ratio. Endorectal coil use improved subjective image quality for anatomic detail on T2 weighted images (T2WI) and diffusion weighted images (DWI). Endorectal coil use had less motion artifact on DWI than non-endorectal coil use, but produced a higher occurrence of other artifacts on DWI. Endorectal coils had higher sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) in the detection of overall and index lesions, as well as smaller and less aggressive lesions, missing fewer and smaller lesions than non-endorectal coils. Endorectal coils had higher sensitivity than non-endorectal coils in localizing and staging lesions. Endorectal coils improved quantitative and qualitative image quality and diagnostic performance in the detection of smaller and less aggressive cancers in 3T prostate MRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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10 pages, 739 KiB  
Review
Abbreviated MR Protocols in Prostate MRI
by Andreas M. Hötker, Hebert Alberto Vargas and Olivio F. Donati
Life 2022, 12(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040552 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2572
Abstract
Prostate MRI is an integral part of the clinical work-up in biopsy-naïve patients with suspected prostate cancer, and its use has been increasing steadily over the last years. To further its general availability and the number of men benefitting from it and to [...] Read more.
Prostate MRI is an integral part of the clinical work-up in biopsy-naïve patients with suspected prostate cancer, and its use has been increasing steadily over the last years. To further its general availability and the number of men benefitting from it and to reduce the costs associated with MR, several approaches have been developed to shorten examination times, e.g., by focusing on sequences that provide the most useful information, employing new technological achievements, or improving the workflow in the MR suite. This review highlights these approaches; discusses their implications, advantages, and disadvantages; and serves as a starting point whenever an abbreviated prostate MRI protocol is being considered for implementation in clinical routine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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19 pages, 3042 KiB  
Review
MR Imaging in Real Time Guiding of Therapies in Prostate Cancer
by Yvonne Wimper, Jurgen J. Fütterer and Joyce G. R. Bomers
Life 2022, 12(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020302 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) aims to reduce the treatment-associated comorbidity of existing radical treatment, including radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. Although active surveillance has been used as a conservative method to reduce overtreatment, there is a growing demand for [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) aims to reduce the treatment-associated comorbidity of existing radical treatment, including radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy. Although active surveillance has been used as a conservative method to reduce overtreatment, there is a growing demand for less morbidity and personalized (focal) treatment. The development of multiparametric MRI was of real importance in improving the detection, localization and staging of PCa. Moreover, MRI has been useful for lesion targeting within the prostate, as it is used in the guidance of prostate biopsies, by means of cognitive registration, MRI-ultrasound fusion guidance or direct in-bore MRI-guidance. With regard to PCa therapies, MRI is used for precise probe placement into the lesion and to accurately monitor the treatment in real-time. Moreover, advances in MR-compatible thermal ablation allow for noninvasive real-time temperature mapping during treatment. In this review, we present an overview of the current status of MRI-guided therapies in PCa, focusing on cryoablation, focal laser ablation, high intensity focused ultrasound and transurethral ultrasound ablation. We explain the important role of MRI in the evaluation of the completeness of the ablation and during follow-up. Finally, we will discuss the challenges and future development inherent to these new technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

15 pages, 748 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Utility of Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Uterine Cervical Cancer: A Systematic Review
by Giacomo Avesani, Alessio Perazzolo, Andrea Amerighi, Veronica Celli, Camilla Panico, Evis Sala and Benedetta Gui
Life 2023, 13(6), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13061368 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Correct staging of cervical cancer is essential to establish the best therapeutic procedure and prognosis for the patient. MRI is the best imaging modality for local staging and follow-up. According to the latest ESUR guidelines, T2WI and DWI-MR sequences are fundamental in these [...] Read more.
Correct staging of cervical cancer is essential to establish the best therapeutic procedure and prognosis for the patient. MRI is the best imaging modality for local staging and follow-up. According to the latest ESUR guidelines, T2WI and DWI-MR sequences are fundamental in these settings, and CE-MRI remains optional. This systematic review, according to the PRISMA 2020 checklist, aims to give an overview of the literature regarding the use of contrast in MRI in cervical cancer and provide more specific indications of when it may be helpful. Systematic searches on PubMed and Web Of Science (WOS) were performed, and 97 papers were included; 1 paper was added considering the references of included articles. From our literature review, it emerged that many papers about the use of contrast in cervical cancer are dated, especially about staging and detection of tumor recurrence. We did not find strong evidence suggesting that CE-MRI is helpful in any clinical setting for cervical cancer staging and detection of tumor recurrence. There is growing evidence that perfusion parameters and perfusion-derived radiomics models might have a role as prognostic and predictive biomarkers, but the lack of standardization and validation limits their use in a research setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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16 pages, 1157 KiB  
Systematic Review
Comparative Performance of Deep Learning and Radiologists for the Diagnosis and Localization of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer at MRI: A Systematic Review
by Christian Roest, Stefan J Fransen, Thomas C Kwee and Derya Yakar
Life 2022, 12(10), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101490 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
Background: Deep learning (DL)-based models have demonstrated an ability to automatically diagnose clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) on MRI scans and are regularly reported to approach expert performance. The aim of this work was to systematically review the literature comparing deep learning (DL) [...] Read more.
Background: Deep learning (DL)-based models have demonstrated an ability to automatically diagnose clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) on MRI scans and are regularly reported to approach expert performance. The aim of this work was to systematically review the literature comparing deep learning (DL) systems to radiologists in order to evaluate the comparative performance of current state-of-the-art deep learning models and radiologists. Methods: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Studies investigating DL models for diagnosing clinically significant (cs) PCa on MRI were included. The quality and risk of bias of each study were assessed using the checklist for AI in medical imaging (CLAIM) and QUADAS-2, respectively. Patient level and lesion-based diagnostic performance were separately evaluated by comparing the sensitivity achieved by DL and radiologists at an identical specificity and the false positives per patient, respectively. Results: The final selection consisted of eight studies with a combined 7337 patients. The median study quality with CLAIM was 74.1% (IQR: 70.6–77.6). DL achieved an identical patient-level performance to the radiologists for PI-RADS ≥ 3 (both 97.7%, SD = 2.1%). DL had a lower sensitivity for PI-RADS ≥ 4 (84.2% vs. 88.8%, p = 0.43). The sensitivity of DL for lesion localization was also between 2% and 12.5% lower than that of the radiologists. Conclusions: DL models for the diagnosis of csPCa on MRI appear to approach the performance of experts but currently have a lower sensitivity compared to experienced radiologists. There is a need for studies with larger datasets and for validation on external data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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13 pages, 398 KiB  
Systematic Review
Quality of Multicenter Studies Using MRI Radiomics for Diagnosing Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review
by Jeroen Bleker, Thomas C. Kwee and Derya Yakar
Life 2022, 12(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12070946 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2625
Abstract
Background: Reproducibility and generalization are major challenges for clinically significant prostate cancer modeling using MRI radiomics. Multicenter data seem indispensable to deal with these challenges, but the quality of such studies is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review [...] Read more.
Background: Reproducibility and generalization are major challenges for clinically significant prostate cancer modeling using MRI radiomics. Multicenter data seem indispensable to deal with these challenges, but the quality of such studies is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the quality of multicenter studies on MRI radiomics for diagnosing clinically significant PCa. Methods: This systematic review followed the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Multicenter studies investigating the value of MRI radiomics for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer were included. Quality was assessed using the checklist for artificial intelligence in medical imaging (CLAIM) and the radiomics quality score (RQS). CLAIM consisted of 42 equally important items referencing different elements of good practice AI in medical imaging. RQS consisted of 36 points awarded over 16 items related to good practice radiomics. Final CLAIM and RQS scores were percentage-based, allowing for a total quality score consisting of the average of CLAIM and RQS. Results: Four studies were included. The average total CLAIM score was 74.6% and the average RQS was 52.8%. The corresponding average total quality score (CLAIM + RQS) was 63.7%. Conclusions: A very small number of multicenter radiomics PCa classification studies have been performed with the existing studies being of bad or average quality. Good multicenter studies might increase by encouraging preferably prospective data sharing and paying extra care to documentation in regards to reproducibility and clinical utility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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Systematic Review
Breast Cancer Subtypes and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systemic Review
by Toshiki Kazama, Taro Takahara and Jun Hashimoto
Life 2022, 12(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040490 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5611
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for breast cancer detection. This systematic review investigated the role of quantitative MRI features in classifying molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We performed a literature search of articles published on the application of [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for breast cancer detection. This systematic review investigated the role of quantitative MRI features in classifying molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We performed a literature search of articles published on the application of quantitative MRI features in invasive breast cancer molecular subtype classification in PubMed from 1 January 2002 to 30 September 2021. Of the 1275 studies identified, 106 studies with a total of 12,989 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Bias was assessed based using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies. All studies were case-controlled and research-based. Most studies assessed quantitative MRI features using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) kinetic features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. We present a summary of the quantitative MRI features and their correlations with breast cancer subtypes. In DCE studies, conflicting results have been reported; therefore, we performed a meta-analysis. Significant differences in the time intensity curve patterns were observed between receptor statuses. In 10 studies, including a total of 1276 lesions, the pooled difference in proportions of type Ⅲ curves (wash-out) between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative cancers was not significant (95% confidence interval (CI): [−0.10, 0.03]). In nine studies, including a total of 1070 lesions, the pooled difference in proportions of type 3 curves between human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and -negative cancers was significant (95% CI: [0.01, 0.14]). In six studies including a total of 622 lesions, the pooled difference in proportions of type 3 curves between the high and low Ki-67 groups was significant (95% CI: [0.17, 0.44]). However, the type 3 curve itself is a nonspecific finding in breast cancer. Many studies have examined the relationship between mean ADC and breast cancer subtypes; however, the ADC values overlapped significantly between subtypes. The heterogeneity of ADC using kurtosis or difference, diffusion tensor imaging parameters, and relaxation time was reported recently with promising results; however, current evidence is limited, and further studies are required to explore these potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MRI in Cancer: Ongoing Developments and Controversies)
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