Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2022) | Viewed by 20287

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Poultry Department, Agriculture College, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
Interests: poultry nutrition; environmental science; nutritional biochemistry; nutrients; poultry science

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Guest Editor
Department of Precision and Regenerative Medicine and Ionian Area (DiMePRe-J), Section of Veterinary Science and Animal Production, University of Bari Aldo Moro, s.p. Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy
Interests: animal nutrition; poultry nutrition; feed science; feed technology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For more than 50 years, animal nutritionists have focused their studies on the relationships between diet and the immune system. The types of problems examined by animal husbandry researchers are shaped by economics and concerns about food safety and animal welfare. A key goal, similar to in human nutrition, is to discover how diet affects the immune system and, as a result, the occurrence of diseases controlled or induced by the immune system. In modern agriculture, animals are usually fed carefully tailored diets that supply the needed levels of nutrients at a low cost. The National Research Council and other organizations define nutrient requirements based on levels that maximize growth rates and reproductive performance. These are basic requirements that rarely take into account immunity or optimal health. Because improving animal health enhances the wholesomeness of the food supply and raises the earnings of animal producers, a great deal of study has emphasized finding nutrients that help the immune system when it is supplemented at levels over the minimum requirements. The impact of certain nutrients on the immune system and the vulnerability of animals to infectious diseases is the topic of this Special Issue.

Dr. Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Dr. Vincenzo Tufarelli
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • immunity
  • veterinary immunology
  • inter-species diversity
  • vaccines
  • poultry
  • animals
  • herbal additives
  • medicinal plant extracts
  • antibiotic alternatives
  • antioxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • dietary vitamins
  • trace elements
  • probiotics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 5317 KiB  
Article
Dietary 1,3-β-Glucans Affect Growth, Breast Muscle Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Inflammatory Response, and Economic Efficiency in Broiler Chickens
by Shimaa A. Amer, Amany Behairy, Ahmed Gouda, Abdel-Wahab A. Abdel-Warith, Elsayed M. Younis, Elshimaa M. Roushdy, Amr A. Moustafa, Noura A. Abd-Allah, Rehab Reda, Simon J. Davies and Seham M. Ibrahim
Life 2023, 13(3), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030751 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Recently, researchers have been intensively looking for novel, safe antibiotic alternatives because of the prevalence of many clinical and subclinical diseases affecting bird flocks and the risks of using antibiotics in subtherapeutic doses as feed additives. The present study intended to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Recently, researchers have been intensively looking for novel, safe antibiotic alternatives because of the prevalence of many clinical and subclinical diseases affecting bird flocks and the risks of using antibiotics in subtherapeutic doses as feed additives. The present study intended to evaluate the potential use of 1,3-β-glucans (GLC) as antibiotic alternative growth promotors and assessed the effect of their dietary inclusion on the growth performance, carcass traits, chemical composition of breast muscles, economic efficiency, blood biochemical parameters, liver histopathology, antioxidant activity, and the proinflammatory response of broiler chickens. This study used 200 three-day-old ROSS broiler chickens (50 chicks/group, 10 chicks/replicate, with an average body weight of 98.71 ± 0.17 g/chick). They were assigned to four experimental groups with four dietary levels of GLC, namely 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg kg−1, for a 35-day feeding period. Birds fed diets containing GLC showed an identical different growth rate to the control group. However, the total feed intake (TFI) increased quadratically in the GLC50 and GLC100 groups as compared to that in the control group. GLC addition had no significant effect on the weights of internal and immune organs, except for a decrease in bursal weight in the GLC150 group (p = 0.01). Dietary GLC addition increased the feed cost and total cost at 50 and 100 mg kg−1 doses. The percentages of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in the breast muscle of broiler chickens fed GLC-supplemented diets increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and the uric acid level were quadratically increased in the GLC150 group. The serum levels of total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, interleukin-1β, and interferon-gamma linearly increased, while the MDA level decreased in the GLC-fed groups in a dose-dependent manner. Normal histological characterization of different liver structures in the different groups with moderate round cells was noted as a natural immune response around the hepatic portal area. The different experimental groups showed an average percentage of positive immunostaining to the proinflammatory marker transforming growth factor-beta with an increase in the dose of GLC addition. The results suggest that GLC up to 100 mg kg−1 concentration can be used as a feed additive in the diets of broiler chickens and shows no adverse effects on their growth, dressing percentage, and internal organs. GLC addition in diets improves the antioxidant activity and immune response in birds. GLC help enrich the breast muscle with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
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12 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Amino Acids Supplementation Affects Sustainability of Productive and Meat Quality, Survivability and Nitrogen Pollution of Broiler Chickens during the Early Life
by Youssef A. Attia, Mohammed A. Al-Harthi, Manal E. Shafi, Nisreen M. Abdulsalam, Sameer A. Nagadi, Jinquan Wang and Woo K. Kim
Life 2022, 12(12), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122100 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
The response to amino acid (AAs) supplementation on broiler production, carcass and meat traits and nitrogen in the excreta during the early growth period was evaluated. Two experiments were performed during 1–28 d (245 birds, experiment 1) and 1–21 d of age (455 [...] Read more.
The response to amino acid (AAs) supplementation on broiler production, carcass and meat traits and nitrogen in the excreta during the early growth period was evaluated. Two experiments were performed during 1–28 d (245 birds, experiment 1) and 1–21 d of age (455 birds, experiment 2). In both experiments, the positive control (PC) diet had 22.5% crude protein (CP) and the negative control group (NC) diet had around 18% CP with the same methionine (Met) plus lysine (Lys) concentration as the PC diet. In experiment 1, the NC diet was fed to the other five groups supplemented with synthetic amino acids, such as L-arginine (Arg), L-threonine (Thr), L-valine (Val), L-isoleucine (Ile) or all these AAs, respectively. In experiment 2, the NC diet was formulated to contain 18% CP with either corn–soybean meal and animal protein or with only vegetable protein. Both NC diets were offered to the other ten groups with synthetic amino acids such as L-Arg, L-Thr, L-Val, L-tryptophan (Trp) or a combination of all these AAs plus L-isoleucine (Ile), respectively. In conclusion, broilers fed 18% CP supplemented with DL-Met plus L-Lys showed lower performance and a European production efficiency value (EPEV); Arg, Thr and Val addition improved growth, the feed conversion ratio and EPEV of the diets containing animal protein only, but broiler performance and EPEV was lower than with PC, indicating that DL-Met, L-Lys, L-Arg, L-Thr and L-Val supplementation may be limited in low-protein diets. Furthermore, a low-protein diet supplemented with amino acids did not affect the survivability of broilers up to 28 days of age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
10 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Effects of Supplementing Quails’ (Coturnix japonica) Diets with a Blend of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Oils on Growth Performance and Health Aspects
by Kamlah Ali Majrashi
Life 2022, 12(11), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111915 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
In an attempt to discover a safe growth promoter and partial alternative for antibiotics, this existing study explores the efficacy of using assorted levels of cold-pressed oil mixtures consisting of 1:1 clove and black cumin (Nigella sativa) oils (CLNS) against the [...] Read more.
In an attempt to discover a safe growth promoter and partial alternative for antibiotics, this existing study explores the efficacy of using assorted levels of cold-pressed oil mixtures consisting of 1:1 clove and black cumin (Nigella sativa) oils (CLNS) against the indices of growth and carcass traits, as well as blood components of growing Japanese quails. In a complete randomized design, three hundred growing unsexed Japanese quails (one week of age) were included in this experiment. The treated groups were as follows: (1) control basal diet (CLNS0), (2) basal diet + 1.50 mL CLNS/kg diet (CLNS1.5), and (3) basal diet + 3.00 mL CLNS/kg diet (CLNS3). The results showed that supplementing the diet with a 3.00 mL CLNS/kg diet insignificantly improved body weight (BW) compared with the CLNS0 and CLNS1.5 groups. A significantly (p < 0.05) higher feed intake and feed conversion ratio—FCR— (deterioration of feed conversion) were reported after the addition of CLNS. Feeding the quails on a 3.00 mL CLNS/kg enriched-diet yielded superior values of dressing percentage, carcass yield, and breast and thigh relative weights compared to other groups. A significant decline was noticed in creatinine and BUN levels in birds fed a 1.50 and 3.00 mL CLNS/kg diet compared with the CLNS0 group The liver enzymes and total bilirubin activities showed insignificant effects in quails fed CLNS-enriched diets. The total protein and globulins concentrations presented a significant augment in quails that received CLNS. The antiradical activity of CLNS supplementation showed increases in hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) activity and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, glutathione S transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) in birds. The concentration of MDA in hepatic homogenates that received CLNS-diets was significantly decreased compared with the control quails. These findings clarified that the dietary inclusion of CLNS can enhance the growth performance and antioxidative status of growing Japanese quails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
13 pages, 1377 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of ZnO Nanoparticles against Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus
by Reham M. El-Masry, Dalia Talat, Shahira A. Hassoubah, Nidal M. Zabermawi, Nesreen Z. Eleiwa, Rasha M. Sherif, Mohammed A. S. Abourehab, Randa M. Abdel-Sattar, Mohammed Gamal, Madiha S. Ibrahim and Ahmed Elbestawy
Life 2022, 12(10), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101662 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive bacteria considered one of the leading causes of community and hospital-acquired illnesses or public health concerns. Antibiotic resistance in this microorganism is one of the greatest issues in global health care. The use of [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive bacteria considered one of the leading causes of community and hospital-acquired illnesses or public health concerns. Antibiotic resistance in this microorganism is one of the greatest issues in global health care. The use of metal nanoparticles and their oxides is one of the potential approaches to combating bacteria resistance to antibiotics. The antibacterial properties of ZnO NPs against enterotoxigenic S. aureus were studied. ZnO NPs were tested in vitro by agar diffusion test. They resulted in 26 and 22 mm zones of inhibition for a size of 20 nm and a concentration of 20 mM against 105 and 107 CFU/mL S. aureus, respectively. The MIC of ZnO NPs of various sizes, 20 and 50 nm, with 105 CFU/mL was 2.5 and 5 mM, respectively. MIC with 107 CFU/mL was five mM for 20 and 50 nm ZnO NPs. Further, the highest growth reduction percentage, 98.99% in the counts of S. aureus was achieved by ZnO NPs of size 20 nm and concentration of 10 mM. Moreover, the obtained ELISA results indicated a significantly decreased concentration of enterotoxin A with all concentrations and sizes of ZnO NPs. PCR analysis showed a significant effect on sea gene in response to ZnO NPs treatments leading to loss of the gene, unlike the unaffected nuc gene. Moreover, morphological changes and cell shape distortion were detected by scanning electron microscope for bacterial cells treated with ZnO NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
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24 pages, 4178 KiB  
Article
The Antioxidant and Antitumor Efficiency of Litophyton sp. Extract in DMH-Induced Colon Cancer in Male Rats
by Mahmoud Ashry, Hussam Askar, Abdallah Alian, Sabry A. H. Zidan, Doaa G. El-Sahra, Khaled G. Abdel-Wahhab, Sobhi F. Lamlom, Nader R. Abdelsalam, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack and Heba F. Gomaa
Life 2022, 12(10), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101470 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
One of the most common tumors to cause death worldwide is colon cancer. This study aims to investigate the antitumor potency of Litophyton sp. methanolic extract (LME) against DMH-induced colon cancer in adult male rats. Group (1) normal rats served as the control, [...] Read more.
One of the most common tumors to cause death worldwide is colon cancer. This study aims to investigate the antitumor potency of Litophyton sp. methanolic extract (LME) against DMH-induced colon cancer in adult male rats. Group (1) normal rats served as the control, group (2) normal rats were ip-injected with LME at a dose of 100 μg/kg/day, group (3) DMH-induced colon cancer animals, and group (4) colon cancer-modeled animals were treated with LME (100 μg/kg/day) for six weeks. The results revealed that injection of LME markedly regenerated the colon cancer pathophysiological disorders; this was monitored from the significant reduction in the values of serum biomarkers (CEA, CA19.9, AFP), cytokines (TNF-α and IL1β), and biochemical measurements (ALAT, ASAT, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, and triglycerides) matched significant increase of apoptotic biomarkers (CD4+); similarly, colon DNA fragmentation, MDA, and NO levels were down-regulated. In contrast, a remarkable upregulation in colon SOD, GPx, GSH, and CAT levels was noted. Moreover, the colon histopathological architecture showed obvious regenerations. Chromatography of LME resulted in the purification of two polyhydroxylated steroids (1 and 2) with potential cytotoxic activities. LME performed therapeutic potential colon tumorigenesis; therefore, LME may have a promising chemo-preventive feature against colon cancer, probably via enhancement of the apoptosis pathway, improvement of the immune response, reduction of inflammation, or/and restoration of the impaired oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
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16 pages, 2772 KiB  
Article
Renoprotective and Oxidative Stress-Modulating Effects of Taxifolin against Cadmium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice
by Abdulmohsen I. Algefare
Life 2022, 12(8), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081150 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is an inessential trace metal that accumulates in the kidney and may lead to renal toxicity by mediating oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory reactions, and apoptosis. The main objective of this experiment was to inspect the protecting potential of taxifolin (TA) on [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is an inessential trace metal that accumulates in the kidney and may lead to renal toxicity by mediating oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory reactions, and apoptosis. The main objective of this experiment was to inspect the protecting potential of taxifolin (TA) on Cd-induced renal toxicity. Adult male mice were allocated into equal five groups as follows: control, TA-treated (50 mg/kg, oral), CdCl2-treated (4 mg/kg body weight (BW), p.o.), pretreated with TA (25 mg/kg) 1 h before CdCl2 injection (4 mg/kg BW, p.o.), and pretreated with TA (50 mg/kg) 1 h before CdCl2 injection (4 mg/kg BW, p.o.) for 14 days. Cd-intoxicated mice revealed higher serum urea and creatinine levels and notable histopathological alterations in the renal tissues. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β were increased. In contrast, glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and IL-10 levels were decreased under Cd-administered effects. Conversely, the TA pre-treatment highly protected tissues from Cd-toxicity, improved renal function, decreased MDA and NO levels, attenuated inflammation, and improved redox status in the renal tissues of Cd-intoxicated mice. The TA pre-treatment of Cd-intoxicated mice showed down-regulation of both Bax and caspase-3 protein and up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression in the kidney. Furthermore, TA pre-treatment induced higher upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in kidney cells of Cd-intoxicated mice. Therefore, TA can protect renal tissues against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity via improving redox status, modulating inflammation, diminishing cell apoptosis, and activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
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17 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Growth Performance, Oxidative Status, and Immune Response of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)
by Ahmed F. Fath El-Bab, Sultan A. M. Saghir, Ibrahim Atta Abu El-Naser, Salwa M. M. Abo El-Kheir, Marwa F. Abdel-Kader, Reem S. Alruhaimi, Haifa A. Alqhtani, Ayman M. Mahmoud, Mohammed A. E. Naiel and Ali Ali El-Raghi
Life 2022, 12(7), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071013 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2534
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on growth, intestinal morphometric characteristics, blood indices, redox balance, expression of immune-related genes, and their involvement in disease resistance in sea bream (Sparus aurata). Three hundred [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on growth, intestinal morphometric characteristics, blood indices, redox balance, expression of immune-related genes, and their involvement in disease resistance in sea bream (Sparus aurata). Three hundred healthy sea bream fingerlings were allocated into equal four groups (15 fish per hapa). The first group was served as a control and received a basal diet, while the other three groups were fed diets containing 1, 2, and 4 g/kg diet SC, respectively. At the end of week 16, the daily weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed utilization were significantly higher in the SC2 and SC4 groups than the control (p < 0.05). SC dose-dependently improved intestinal morphology, and the 4 g/kg diet significantly increased dry matter, crude fat, and crude protein percentage of body composition when compared with the control group. The 4 g/kg SC boosted innate immune response and phagocytic activity, and all SC-supplemented diets improved total protein, glucose, triglycerides, and urea concentrations, as well as intestinal digestive enzymatic activities. All estimated oxidative markers were significantly enhanced in the group that received 4 g/kg SC when compared with the control and other SC groups (p < 0.05). Feeding the fish a diet supplemented with 4 g/kg SC markedly regulated the expression of HSP70, IGF1, and IL-1β genes. In addition, the 4 g/kg SC-supplemented diet was the most effective in protecting the fish against Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge. In conclusion, SC-enriched diet improved growth performance, intestinal morphology, redox homeostasis, and immune response of S. aurata with the 4 g/kg concentration as the most effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
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21 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Licorice Extract Supplementation Affects Antioxidant Activity, Growth-Related Genes, Lipid Metabolism, and Immune Markers in Broiler Chickens
by Magda I. Abo-Samaha, Youssef S. Alghamdi, Set A. El-Shobokshy, Sarah Albogami, Eman M. Abd El-Maksoud, Foad Farrag, Mohamed M. Soliman, Mustafa Shukry and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Life 2022, 12(6), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12060914 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the Glycyrrhiza glabra effect on growth performance, blood parameters, antioxidant and lysosomal activity, histology and immunohistochemistry of liver and intestine, and the gene expression profile of broiler chickens. A total of 180 Cobb500 broiler chicks [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the Glycyrrhiza glabra effect on growth performance, blood parameters, antioxidant and lysosomal activity, histology and immunohistochemistry of liver and intestine, and the gene expression profile of broiler chickens. A total of 180 Cobb500 broiler chicks (one-week-old) were used in this study. Chicks were distributed randomly into three treatment groups; the first group received drinking water without any supplementation (control group). In contrast, birds in groups 2 and 3 received licorice supplementation in drinking water with 0.4 and 0.8 g licorice/liter, respectively. Results revealed that licorice at a 0.4 g/L of water level improved body weight, weight gain, feed intake, and FCR. Licorice also exhibits a broad range of biological activities such as hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant, and antioxidant effects. The morphometric analysis of different parameters of the intestine revealed a significant increase in the intestinal villi length, width, and villi length/crypt depth in the group supplemented with licorice 0.4 gm/L compared to other groups. The number of CD3 positive in both duodenum and ileum was increased in the licorice 0.4 gm/L group compared to other groups. The expression of growth-related genes was significantly increased with licorice supplementation and modulation of the lipid metabolism genes in the liver and upregulated to the mRNA expression of both superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and Catalase (CAT). Our results revealed that licorice supplementation increased the growth performance of broiler chickens and impacted the birds’ antioxidant activity through modulation of the growth-related genes, lipid metabolic markers, and antioxidant-related pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
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Review

Jump to: Research

16 pages, 2330 KiB  
Review
Effects of Microencapsulated Essential Oils on Equine Health: Nutrition, Metabolism and Methane Emission
by Mona M. M. Y. Elghandour, Aristide Maggiolino, Erendira Itzel Ceja García, Pedro Sánchez-Aparicio, Pasquale De Palo, José Luis Ponce-Covarrubias, Alberto Barbabosa Pliego and Abdelfattah Z. M. Salem
Life 2023, 13(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020455 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
This review examines the available data regarding the positive effects of microencapsulated essential oils (EOs) on the nutrition, metabolism, and possibly the methane emission of horses. A literature review was conducted on the effect of microencapsulated (EOs) on the health of horses. The [...] Read more.
This review examines the available data regarding the positive effects of microencapsulated essential oils (EOs) on the nutrition, metabolism, and possibly the methane emission of horses. A literature review was conducted on the effect of microencapsulated (EOs) on the health of horses. The information comprises articles published in recent years in indexed journals. The results indicate that mixtures of microencapsulated EOs may be beneficial to equine health due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, as well as their effects on enteric methane production, nutrient absorption, and immune system enhancement. Moreover, encapsulation stabilizes substances such as EOs in small doses, primarily by combining them with other ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology and Animal Nutrition: Benefits and Challenges)
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