Research Progress of Cultivation of Edible Fungi

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 4716

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: cultivation and resource utilization of edible fungi; cultivation physiology of edible fungi; growth development of edible fungi

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The cultivation of edible fungi has garnered significant attention in recent years, driven by the growing global demand for safe and sustainable food sources. Edible fungi, being nature's main decomposers, have the ability to transform agricultural and forestry waste into valuable resources. Recently, notable breakthroughs have been made regarding the utilization of germplasm and mushroom residue resources, domestication cultivation, variety characteristics, cultivation physiology, production management, and production facilities and equipment.

This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current progress of research in this field, with a particular focus on the cultivation techniques, innovations, challenges, and potential applications related to edible fungi. The primary objective of this Special Issue is to explore and showcase the advancements in the cultivation of various types of edible fungi, including, but not limited to, mushrooms, truffles, and other commercially valuable species. We aim to provide a platform for researchers, scientists, and practitioners to share their findings, exchange knowledge, and promote collaboration in this rapidly evolving domain.

Dr. Yajie Zou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • edible fungi
  • cultivation
  • domesticate
  • substrate
  • biological efficiency
  • nutritional properties
  • functional compounds
  • sustainability
  • commercialization
  • emerging species

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Powder as a Substrate in King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Cultivation
by Haikang Li, Peng Liu, Zihao Li, Congtao Xu, Jinlong Pan, Yi Zhou, Qingxiu Hu, Suyue Zheng and Yajie Zou
Life 2024, 14(5), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14050639 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Ginkgo biloba is widely planted as a colorful foliage tree, and its leaf can be used as a biomass energy source, but it has been underutilized for a long time. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of garden waste [...] Read more.
Ginkgo biloba is widely planted as a colorful foliage tree, and its leaf can be used as a biomass energy source, but it has been underutilized for a long time. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of garden waste as a substrate component in the cultivation process of the king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii), with the goal of enhancing both the yield of P. eryngii and the efficiency of energy use. The percentages of G. biloba leaf powder in the substrate were 10.5% and 21% to replace sawdust or sugarcane bagasse in a typical substrate. A substrate formulation that could completely replace sawdust and sugarcane bagasse was selected by analyzing mycelial growth rate, days of production, fruiting body length, biological efficiency, yield, stipe thickness, pileus diameter and laccase activity. The results showed that Y1 (treatment with 21% G. biloba leaf powder and sugarcane bagasse) had the highest yield (303.1 ± 31.9 g), which was higher than that of CK (control) (259.3 ± 37.4 g). The crude fiber content of the samples grown on substrate Y1 (as 7.43%) was higher than CK (7.37%). In addition, P. eryngii grown on substrate Y1 had the highest laccase activity for the complete colonization of the mycelium. Thus, these findings suggest that G. biloba leaf powder represents a viable and economical supplement for enhancing both the yield and quality of P. eryngii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress of Cultivation of Edible Fungi)
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13 pages, 2389 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Carbon and Nitrogen Ratios on Yield, Nutritional Value, and Amino Acid Contents of Flammulina velutipes
by Jiandong Han, Ruixiang Sun, Chunyan Huang, Hongyan Xie, Xia Gao, Qiang Yao, Peng Yang, Jin Li and Zhiyuan Gong
Life 2024, 14(5), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14050598 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
The carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio in the cultivation medium significantly influences the growth rate, vigor of mycelium, yield of fruiting bodies, and their nutritional composition. Recently, agricultural and forestry wastes have been increasingly used in cultivating Flammulina velutipes. However, systematic research on how [...] Read more.
The carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio in the cultivation medium significantly influences the growth rate, vigor of mycelium, yield of fruiting bodies, and their nutritional composition. Recently, agricultural and forestry wastes have been increasingly used in cultivating Flammulina velutipes. However, systematic research on how these materials affect the nutritional and functional properties of the fruiting bodies is lacking. This study investigated the effects of different C/N ratios on F. velutipes cultivation. We evaluated the agronomic traits, nutritional composition, and flavor compounds of the fruiting bodies. Our findings reveal that an optimal C/N ratio of 27:1 in the composted substrates enhances the total yield of fruiting bodies, with 25.1% soybean straw as the primary raw material. This ratio also significantly increases the levels of crude protein, total amino acids, and essential amino acids in the fruiting bodies (p < 0.05). Fruiting bodies from the high-nitrogen (HN) treatment showed the highest content of umami amino acids and equivalent umami concentration value. Additionally, we employed an untargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics approach to analyze the metabolite profiles of fruiting bodies cultivated in high-nitrogen (HN), medium-nitrogen (MN), and low-nitrogen (LN) substrates. We found that the carbon–nitrogen ratio can affect the flavor and quality of fruiting bodies by regulating amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism and other related pathways. Our results suggest that a C/N ratio of 27:1 offers numerous benefits for the cultivation of F. velutipes with comprehensive analyses and has promising application prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress of Cultivation of Edible Fungi)
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11 pages, 2292 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits of Different Pleurotus giganteus Germplasm Resources
by Miaomiao Yan, Dandan Zhai, Qiaozhen Li, Meiyan Zhang, Ning Jiang, Jianyu Liu, Chunyan Song, Xiaodong Shang, Hongyu Chen and Hailong Yu
Life 2024, 14(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020238 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Agronomic traits are key components in variety protection, cultivar development, and the formulation of DUS (distinct, uniform, and stable) test guidelines. P. giganteus is an increasingly popular and commercially promising edible macrofungi. In this study, both mycelial performance and fruiting body characters of [...] Read more.
Agronomic traits are key components in variety protection, cultivar development, and the formulation of DUS (distinct, uniform, and stable) test guidelines. P. giganteus is an increasingly popular and commercially promising edible macrofungi. In this study, both mycelial performance and fruiting body characters of 15 Pleurotus giganteus strains were investigated. The temperature gradient culture test indicated that, although most of the strains achieved optimal mycelial growth between 24 and 28 °C, a statistical difference in mycelial growth rates and temperature adaptability among strains were found, supporting that this trait has the potential to be adopted as an indicator in distinguishing strains. In the fruiting performance tests, the coefficient of variation (CV) of tested traits ranged from 5.30% (pileus diameter) to 18.70% (individual mushroom weight). The mushroom yields ranged from 103.37 g/bag (strain No. 15) to 275.76 g/bag (strain No. 9). The large divergence observed in individual mushroom weight tested strains, ranging from 40.88 g to 78.39 g (with median between 37.69 and 79.395 g), make it highly selective and a potential indicator in variety development. Strain No. 9 had the advantages of forming larger, heavier fruiting bodies and a more obvious funnel shape, which also exhibited the highest biological efficiency (15.61%). The results suggested some morphological traits showed high variety difference, such as pileus diameter (55.75 mm to 66.48 mm), stipe length (92.59 mm to 177.51 mm), stipe diameter (16.14 mm to 23.52 mm), and pileus thickness (13.38 mm to 19.75 mm). In the cluster analysis, the tested strains were grouped into four clusters based on agronomic traits: cluster Ⅰ comprised six strains (No. 6, No. 11, No. 8, No. 1, No. 14, and No. 9) with high mushroom yield; cluster Ⅱ included four strains (No. 3, No. 10, No. 7, and No. 4) with large pileus diameter and short stipe; cluster ⅡI consisted of four strains (No. 5, No. 12, No. 13, and No. 15) with relatively lower yields; and cluster Ⅳ included only strain No. 2 which was low in yield, individual mushroom weight, and biological efficiency, accompanied by smaller pileus size and shorter stipe. The results of the correlation analysis indicated three traits, including individual mushroom weight, stipe length, and pileus weight, were positively associated with high yield. This study suggested P. giganteus germplasm resources are of high abundance and their agronomic diversity is useful in distinguishing and developing different varieties. The findings of this work provide knowledge on the agronomic traits and cultivation performance of various P. giganteus strains, laying a foundation for the development of its DUS test guidelines and variety protection, as well as providing reference for the breeding and phenotype selection of high-quality cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress of Cultivation of Edible Fungi)
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13 pages, 3754 KiB  
Article
Microbial Inoculation during the Short-Term Composting Process Enhances the Nutritional and Functional Properties of Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)
by Qiuying Wang, Minrui Zhao, Yiyang Wang, Zhenfei Xie, Shunyin Zhao, Shuning You, Qingjun Chen, Weiwei Zhang, Yong Qin and Guoqing Zhang
Life 2024, 14(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14020201 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
In recent years, short-term composting techniques have been widely applied in oyster mushroom cultivation, but there is still a lack of systematic research on their impact on the nutritional and functional properties of fruiting bodies. In this study, the microbial inoculant Streptomyces thermoviolaceus [...] Read more.
In recent years, short-term composting techniques have been widely applied in oyster mushroom cultivation, but there is still a lack of systematic research on their impact on the nutritional and functional properties of fruiting bodies. In this study, the microbial inoculant Streptomyces thermoviolaceus BUA-FM01 (ST) was applied in the short-term composting process for oyster mushroom cultivation. The agronomic traits, nutritional composition, flavor compounds, and antioxidant activity of fruiting bodies from the first three flushes were evaluated. The results show that microbial inoculation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total carbon content and C/N ratio of the composted substrates and, furthermore, increased the total yield of the fruiting bodies. Moreover, microbial inoculation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crude protein, crude polysaccharide, total amino acid, and essential amino acid contents of the fruiting bodies. The fruiting bodies of the first flush of ST treatment possessed the highest umami amino acid content and equivalent umami concentration value. Furthermore, microbial inoculation significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the scavenging ability of crude polysaccharides toward free radicals. The results indicate that microbial inoculation has many benefits for the composting cultivating process of oyster mushrooms and good application prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress of Cultivation of Edible Fungi)
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14 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Rice Straw, Corncob, and Soybean Straw as Substrates for the Cultivation of Lepista sordida
by Chunge Sheng, Yanfeng Wang, Chunlei Pan, Lei Shi, Yuanhang Wang, Yinpeng Ma, Jinhe Wang, Jing Zhao, Peng Zhang, Zitong Liu, Haiyang Yu, Fei Wang, Xuemei Dong and Shuihua Yan
Life 2024, 14(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14010101 - 8 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Lepista sordida is a type of high-quality rare edible and medicinal mushroom, and its research boom is just beginning. More than 80 million tons of grain crop residues are produced each year in Heilongjiang Province. To realize the exploration and utilization of wild [...] Read more.
Lepista sordida is a type of high-quality rare edible and medicinal mushroom, and its research boom is just beginning. More than 80 million tons of grain crop residues are produced each year in Heilongjiang Province. To realize the exploration and utilization of wild L. sordida mushrooms and also provide a theoretical support for the high-value utilization of these resources in Heilongjiang Province, we evaluated the cultivation of L. sordida mushrooms using rice straw, corncob, and soybean straw as substrates. L. sordida grew on all three substrates, and the biological efficiency and yield of the mushrooms grown on soybean straw and corncob were 32.33 ± 1.78% and 4.20 ± 0.23 kg m−2, and 30.15 ± 0.93% and 3.92 ± 0.12 kg m−2, respectively, which increased by 9.38% and 2.08% compared with that on the rice straw substrate with 3.84 ± 0.12 kg m−2 and 29.56 ± 0.89%. The time it took for the mycelia to colonize and initiate primordia on the soybean straw substrate was 22.33 ± 0.58 d and 19.67 ± 0.58 d, respectively, which was delayed by 2 d and 3 d compared with that on the rice straw substrate with 20.67 ± 2.08 d and 16.33 ± 0.58 d, respectively. The fruiting bodies grown on corncob and soybean straw substrates were relatively larger than those on the rice straw substrate. The highest amount of crude protein was 57.38 ± 0.08 g 100 g−1, and the lowest amount of crude polysaccharide was 6.03 ± 0.01 g 100 g−1. They were observed on mushrooms collected from the corncob substrate. The contents of the heavy metal mercury, lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the fruiting bodies grown on each substrate were within the national safety range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress of Cultivation of Edible Fungi)
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